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Editorials

科学における誇大報道はメディアと研究機関の両方に起因しており、その制作過程では両者が慎重であるべきだ。

Spin cycle p.287

Pressures in all stages of the news-making process can lead to hype in science reporting.

doi: 10.1038/516287b

米国は国勢調査の質問項目を一部減らそうとしているが、それらは科学者の就業状況に関する貴重な情報源であり、なくすべきではない。

Keep asking the question p.287

Scientists must push to preserve a small part of a large US survey that provides essential information on the ever-changing scientific workforce.

doi: 10.1038/516287a

気候変動リマ会議は透明性問題でつまずいたが、修正する時間はある。

Honest brokers p.288

Climate negotiations in Lima stumbled on transparency, but there is time to adjust.

doi: 10.1038/516288a

News

地域社会の風習や文化が、エボラ出血熱対策の難しい課題に。

Ebola threatens a way of life p.295

A front-line report from Sierra Leone examines efforts to change hearts and minds in West Africa’s villages.

doi: 10.1038/516295a

最も包括的な鳥類系統樹が発表されたが、この陰には幅広い研究者の協力が。

Bird family tree is in fine feather p.297

Birds get fresh perches in revamped tree of life built by vast collaboration.

doi: 10.1038/516297a

プーチン政権の対外政策を契機として、ロシアの科学界に大きな亀裂が。

Putin’s Russia divides scientists p.298

Are geopolitical tensions destroying important links with the West, or can Russian research go it alone?

doi: 10.1038/516298a

幹細胞研究や商業宇宙飛行など、期待が失望に変わるニュースも目立ったが、彗星への着陸、人類起源の解明、脳研究など、称賛すべき成果も多かった。

365 days: 2014 in review p.300

Comets, stem cells and cosmic dust are among the year's top stories.

doi: 10.1038/516300a

写真で見る2014年

365 days: Images of the year p.304

Eruptions, comets and a see-through mouse all captured the imagination in 2014.

doi: 10.1038/516304a

News Features

Natureが選ぶ今年の10人

365 days: Nature’s 10 p.311

今年の科学に大きな足跡を残したのは、どんな人たちだろうか。

doi: 10.1038/516311a

News & Views

有機合成:ラジカルを使った化学反応の簡略化

Organic synthesis: Better chemistry through radicals p.332

さまざまなアルケン化合物同士の反応で結合形成を促進する鉄触媒が開発された。これは、難しい反応経路でしか合成できなかった化合物を合成する簡単な経路への道を開くものだ。

doi: 10.1038/516332a

合成生物学:toehold gene switchが作り出す大きな成果

Synthetic biology: Toehold gene switches make big footprints p.333

RNAを使うtoehold switchと呼ばれる翻訳調節装置の開発によって、ほとんどどんなRNAからもタンパク質を産生でき、正確で低コストの診断が可能になる新たな時代への道が開かれるかもしれない。

doi: 10.1038/516333a

マラリア:マラリアを媒介する蚊はどうやって暑さをしのぐのか

Malaria: How vector mosquitoes beat the heat p.334

アフリカの半砂漠地帯で行われた、マラリアを伝播する蚊の長期的サンプリングによって、形態学的に区別不可能な3種類が、乾季をしのいで生き残るのにそれぞれ異なる戦略を用いていることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature14073

保全:足元にご注意

Conservation: Mind the gaps p.336

新たに行われた解析によって、保全対策には、保護地域の全球的ネットワークの拡大が有効となる可能性が示されたが、これが土地利用の変化や国際的な協力の欠如によってどのように損なわれるのかも明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/516336a

材料科学:2段階で行う磁気電気スイッチ

Materials science: Two steps for a magnetoelectric switch p.337

磁気電気材料ならば、磁気を電場によって制御することができる。こうした材料の1つで、電気分極のスイッチングを実現する間接的経路が見つかり、この制御の実用化が近づいた。

doi: 10.1038/516337a

インフルエンザ:RNA合成機械

Influenza: An RNA-synthesizing machine p.338

A型およびB型のインフルエンザウイルスに由来するRNAポリメラーゼの完全な結晶構造が解かれ、RNAポリメラーゼがRNA合成を開始する仕組みについての手掛かりが得られ、抗ウイルス薬設計の際の標的候補も明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/516338a

エディターが選んだ2014年N&Vの「逸品」

2014 Editors' choice p.340

本年度に掲載されたNews & Viewsの中から編集部が精選した8編。

doi: 10.1038/516340a

Articles

有機合成:官能基化オレフィンのクロスカップリングによる炭素–炭素結合の作製

Functionalized olefin cross-coupling to construct carbon–carbon bonds p.343

Highly substituted carbon–carbon bonds are constructed using a simple iron catalyst and an inexpensive silane: more than 60 examples of this reaction — in which heteroatom-substituted olefins are reacted with electron-deficient olefins — are presented.

doi: 10.1038/nature14006

生化学:AUTS2–ポリコーム複合体はCNSにおいて遺伝子発現を活性化する

An AUTS2–Polycomb complex activates gene expression in the CNS p.349

Polycomb group proteins are known to maintain gene repression during development; however, when autism susceptibility candidate 2 (AUTS2) associates with some Polycomb group complexes, these complexes have an unexpected gene activation role, offering new insight into the role of AUTS2 in neurological disorders.

doi: 10.1038/nature13921

構造生物学:ウイルスRNAプロモーターに結合したA型インフルエンザウイルスポリメラーゼの結晶構造

Structure of influenza A polymerase bound to the viral RNA promoter p.355

The crystal structure of the bat-specific influenza A polymerase in complex with the viral RNA promoter is presented, revealing how binding of the 5′ end of the viral RNA is required to activate or enhance the polymerase allosterically.

doi: 10.1038/nature14008

構造生物学:インフルエンザウイルスポリメラーゼによるキャップスナッチングとRNA合成に関する構造的知見

Structural insight into cap-snatching and RNA synthesis by influenza polymerase p.361

Atomic resolution crystal structures of influenza A and B polymerases are presented; comparison of these structures provides mechanistic insight into influenza polymerase functions, explaining the processes of cap-snatching and cap-dependent priming, which are unique to segmented negative-strand RNA viruses.

doi: 10.1038/nature14009

Letters

宇宙物理学:大質量の星団における年齢の有意な範囲の除外

The exclusion of a significant range of ages in a massive star cluster p.367

Hubble Space Telescope observations of the stellar cluster NGC 1651, which is approximately two billion years old, show that the colour–brightness distribution of stars old enough to have left the main sequence can be explained only by a single-age population, despite having a feature usually interpreted to indicate an age spread of more than 300 million years.

doi: 10.1038/nature13969

材料科学:電場を使った室温における強磁性の決定論的なスイッチング

Deterministic switching of ferromagnetism at room temperature using an electric field p.370

Multiferroic devices that can switch magnetization with electric field at room temperature are desirable, but in BiFeO3 the required direct 180-degree switch is thermodynamically forbidden; here it is shown that such switching is possible because the kinetics of the switching process favours a two-step sequence of partial switching.

doi: 10.1038/nature14004

分子物理学:時間に依存する2電子波束の再構成と制御

Reconstruction and control of a time-dependent two-electron wave packet p.374

The dynamics of two correlated electrons can be reconstructed from the quantum interference of low-lying doubly excited states in helium, as observed in attosecond transient-absorption spectra, and can be controlled by tuning the interaction with a visible laser field of variable intensity.

doi: 10.1038/nature14026

地球:全球H2生成への先カンブリア代大陸リソスフェアの寄与

The contribution of the Precambrian continental lithosphere to global H2 production p.379

The production of hydrogen gas from the Precambrian continental lithosphere has been underestimated; taking into account hydrogen from serpentinization and radiolysis may double estimates previously based on marine systems alone.

doi: 10.1038/nature14017

生態:全球の保護地域の拡大は、予測される土地利用や偏狭的な対策によって効果が損なわれる

Global protected area expansion is compromised by projected land-use and parochialism p.383

Internationally coordinated expansion of the global protected area network to 17% could triple the average protection of species ranges and ecoregions; if projected land-use changes and consequent habitat loss until 2040 occur, currently feasible protection levels will not be achievable, and more than 1,000 threatened species face reductions in the range of over 50%.

doi: 10.1038/nature14032

感染症:サヘル地域のマラリア媒介蚊個体群に見られる夏眠と移動のシグネチャー

Signatures of aestivation and migration in Sahelian malaria mosquito populations p.387

Malaria-carrying mosquitoes nearly disappear in the dry season, yet they reappear suddenly following the first rains; using surveys of mosquito densities, the authors characterize the population dynamics of the three main vector species and use these to infer persistence by long-distance migration in two species and aestivation in the third.

doi: 10.1038/nature13987

発生生物学:羊膜類の進化では総排出腔の相対的な位置変化が外性器の再配置につながった

A relative shift in cloacal location repositions external genitalia in amniote evolution p.391

It has been known for some time that limbs share at least some of their molecular patterning mechanism with external genitalia; here, this connection is examined in a variety of species, revealing that once-shared developmental trajectories could help to explain the observed patterning similarities.

doi: 10.1038/nature13819

細胞生物学:アデノシンはA2A受容体を介して褐色脂肪組織を活性化し、ベージュ脂肪細胞を誘導する

Adenosine activates brown adipose tissue and recruits beige adipocytes via A2A receptors p.395

Cold exposure activates brown adipose tissue (BAT) through the sympathetic nervous system, and previous studies have reported inhibitory effects of the purinergic transmitter adenosine in BAT from hamster or rat; here adenosine/A2A signalling is shown to be involved in sympathetic activation of human and murine brown adipocytes to allow protection of mice from diet-induced obesity.

doi: 10.1038/nature13816

幹細胞:多能性幹細胞由来の胃オルガノイドにおけるヒトの発生および疾患のモデル

Modelling human development and disease in pluripotent stem-cell-derived gastric organoids p.400

The in vitro generation, from pluripotent stem cells, of three-dimensional human gastric organoids (hGOs) that contain a physiological gastric epithelium comprising both progenitor and differentiated cell types, and have expected functional characteristics is described, as is modelling the pathophysiological response of the human stomach to Helicobacter pylori using these hGOs.

doi: 10.1038/nature13863

幹細胞:霊長類特異的な内在性レトロウイルスが駆動する転写がナイーブ様幹細胞の特徴を定める

Primate-specific endogenous retrovirus-driven transcription defines naive-like stem cells p.405

An extensive analysis of HERVH (a primate-specific endogenous retrovirus) expression in human pluripotent stem cells is presented, identifying a sub-population of cells within cultured human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells that has characteristics of naive-state cells — the study provides evidence for a new primate-specific transcriptional circuitry regulating pluripotency.

doi: 10.1038/nature13804

細胞生物学:核の内膜でのタンパク質の品質管理

Protein quality control at the inner nuclear membrane p.410

A protein degradation pathway is found at the inner nuclear membrane that is distinct from, but complementary to, endoplasmic-reticulum-associated protein degradation, and which is mediated by the Asi protein complex; a genome-wide library screening of yeast identifies more than 20 substrates of this pathway, which is shown to target mislocalized integral membrane proteins for degradation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14096

免疫学:ミトコンドリアのUPRにより調節される自然免疫は病原体感染に対する抵抗性をもたらす

Mitochondrial UPR-regulated innate immunity provides resistance to pathogen infection p.414

A link between an intracellular stress response, bacterial infection and triggering of the innate immune response is shown in Caenorhabditis elegant; exposure to the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa caused activation of the transcription factor ATFS-1 and innate immunity that is regulated by the mitochondrial unfolded protein response.

doi: 10.1038/nature13818

免疫学:広範囲インフルエンザ中和抗体の重複変異を介する迅速な発生

Rapid development of broadly influenza neutralizing antibodies through redundant mutations p.418

The main pathway of somatic mutations leading to the generation of high affinity broadly neutralizing antibodies against the influenza haemagglutinin stem is defined.

doi: 10.1038/nature13764

がん:in vivoでのCRISPR/Cas9系を使った遺伝子操作による発がん性染色体再編成

In vivo engineering of oncogenic chromosomal rearrangements with the CRISPR/Cas9 system p.423

Chromosomal rearrangements have a central role in the pathogenesis of human cancers and often result in the expression of therapeutically actionable gene fusions. A recently discovered example is a fusion between the genes echinoderm microtubule-associated protein like 4 (EML4) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), generated by an inversion on the short arm of chromosome 2: inv(2)(p21p23). The EML4–ALK oncogene is detected in a subset of human non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) and is clinically relevant because it confers sensitivity to ALK inhibitors. Despite their importance, modelling such genetic events in mice has proven challenging and requires complex manipulation of the germ line. Here we describe an efficient method to induce specific chromosomal rearrangements in vivo using viral-mediated delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to somatic cells of adult animals. We apply it to generate a mouse model of Eml4–Alk-driven lung cancer. The resulting tumours invariably harbour the Eml4–Alk inversion, express the Eml4–Alk fusion gene, display histopathological and molecular features typical of ALK+ human NSCLCs, and respond to treatment with ALK inhibitors. The general strategy described here substantially expands our ability to model human cancers in mice and potentially in other organisms.

doi: 10.1038/nature13902

がん:体細胞ゲノム編集によりがんでの協調的遺伝的事象を迅速にモデル化

Rapid modelling of cooperating genetic events in cancer through somatic genome editing p.428

The CRISPR/Cas system has been used in mice for genome editing to introduce genetic alterations found in human lung tumours, and these genome modifications resulted in mouse lung tumours showing different histopathologies depending on the genes altered; the CRISPR/Cas system offers improved and faster ways to create animal models of human diseases such as cancer.

doi: 10.1038/nature13906

細胞:コヒーシンに依存した小球構造とヘテロクロマチンが、分裂酵母のゲノムの三次元構造を形作る

Cohesin-dependent globules and heterochromatin shape 3D genome architecture in S. pombe p.432

Genome-wide chromatin conformation capture (Hi-C) is used to investigate three-dimensional genome organization in Schizosaccharomyces bombe; small domains of chromatin interact locally on chromosome arms to form globules, which depend on cohesin but not heterochromatin for formation, and heterochromatin at centromeres and telomeres provides crucial structural constraints to shape genome architecture.

doi: 10.1038/nature13833

細胞:Rループは哺乳類遺伝子のターミネーター領域に抑制性のクロマチン標識を誘導する

R-loops induce repressive chromatin marks over mammalian gene terminators p.436

R-loops, which have been considered to be rare and potentially harmful transcriptional by-products, are now shown to be needed for antisense transcription and to induce repressive chromatin marks that reinforce pausing of transcription and thereby enhance its termination.

doi: 10.1038/nature13787

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