今週号

Editorials

がんの遺伝的変化を追跡するリキッドバイオプシーの臨床研究は、がん治療法の改善につながるとともに、基礎研究にも役立つだろう。

Liquid-biopsies success highlights power of combining basic and clinical research p.393

Using free-floating DNA to detect lung cancer brings benefits to researchers and patients alike.

doi: 10.1038/544393a

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研究を行う外科医は減少し続けており、時間と助成の問題を改善し、この流れを止める必要がある。

More surgeons must start doing basic science p.393

They say they don't have the time or incentives to do research — and that’s dangerous for translational medicine.

doi: 10.1038/544393b

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ネイチャー・リサーチは、「研究評価に関するサンフランシスコ宣言(DORA)」に署名する。

Announcement: Nature journals support the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment p.394

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21882

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News

米国のカリフォルニア再生医療機構(CIRM)による幹細胞研究計画が最終局面に。

California’s $3-billion bet on stem cells faces final test p.401

Major investment in regenerative medicine enters its last stage — and the money might run out before treatments are ready.

Amy Maxmen

doi: 10.1038/544401a

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昨年11月のニュージーランド地震が引き金となり、地殻深部で長期に及ぶゆっくりすべりが。

Ripple effects of New Zealand earthquake continue to this day p.402

November tremor sparked slow, deep movements in Earth’s crust that increase the chances of a similar severe quake within a year.

Alexandra Witze

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21876

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地球最古の動物化石が含まれる中国の化石産出層が、リン鉱石の採掘で危機に。

Mining threatens Chinese fossil site that revealed planet's earliest animals p.403

Protests sparked by the destruction of three key fossil-hunting areas result in a temporary halt of phosphate mining.

David Cyranoski

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21869

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「科学のための行進」が世界各国の600以上の都市で行われ、多くの参加者が。

What happened at March for Science events around the world p.404

Nature reported from marches in cities including Sydney, Washington DC and Paris, as people took to the streets in support of science.

Sara Reardon, Nicky Phillips, Alison Abbott, Barbara Casassus, Ewen Callaway, Alexandra Witze, Corie Lok & Emiliano Rodriguez Mega

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21853

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まれな「沿岸」エルニーニョによって洪水が多発し、甚大な被害を被ったペルーで、科学者たちが調査を。

Surprise El Niño causes devastation but offers lessons for ecologists p.405

How Peruvian coastal deserts respond to rains will aid future disaster response.

Barbara Fraser

doi: 10.1038/544405a

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News Features

化学: 次に大ヒットする分子撮像法は?

The next big hit in molecule Hollywood p.408

Superfast imaging techniques are giving researchers their best views yet of what happens in the atomic world.

doi: 10.1038/544408a

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News & Views

動物行動学: より良い父親を作る方法

Animal behaviour: How to build a better dad p.418

Oldfield mice and deer mice differ in their parental care, most dramatically in the behaviour of fathers. A study reveals the genetic and neuronal contributions to variation in parental care. See Article p.4340

Steven M. Phelps

doi: 10.1038/nature22486

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素粒子物理学: 陽子のストレンジネス

Particle physics: Strangeness in the proton p.419

The proton can contain pairs of elementary particles known as strange quarks. The contribution of these particles to the proton's electric-charge distribution and magnetic moment has been determined.

Ross D. Young

doi: 10.1038/nature21909

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考古学: 予想外に早くからアメリカにヒトがいたことを示す痕跡

Archaeology: Unexpectedly early signs of Americans p.420

Humans are thought to have reached the Americas less than 15,000 years ago. But evidence of stone tool use on an animal carcass excavated in California points to a much earlier arrival of human relatives from the genus Homo. See Letter p.479

Erella Hovers

doi: 10.1038/544420a

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大気科学: 気候温暖化で増える悪天候

Atmospheric science: Severe weather in a warming climate p.422

During the past few decades, the Sahara Desert has become even hotter. Satellite observations suggest that this warming has led to a rise in the frequency of extreme storms in the Sahel region of West Africa. See Letter p.475

Chuntao Liu

doi: 10.1038/544422a

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顕微鏡法: 生体撮像のためのより大きなパレット

Microscopy: A larger palette for biological imaging p.423

Biological molecules are often imaged by attaching fluorescent labels — but only a few label types can be used at a time. A method that could smash the record for the number of labels that can be used together is now reported. See Letter p.465

Charles H. Camp & Marcus T. Cicerone

doi: 10.1038/544423a

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植物科学: オオムギのゲノム区画

Plant science: Genomic compartments in barley p.424

A high-quality barley genome reveals a surprising compartmentalization of genes and repetitive sequences in chromosomes. This advance paves the way for improved genetic optimization of cereals. See Article p.427

Beat Keller & Simon G. Krattinger

doi: 10.1038/544424a

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Articles

植物科学: 3C法によって整列されたオオムギのゲノム塩基配列

A chromosome conformation capture ordered sequence of the barley genome OPEN p.427

The International Barley Genome Sequencing Consortium reports sequencing and assembly of a reference genome for barley, Hordeum vulgare.

Martin Mascher, Heidrun Gundlach, Axel Himmelbach, Sebastian Beier, Sven O. Twardziok, Thomas Wicker, Volodymyr Radchuk, Christoph Dockter, Pete E. Hedley, Joanne Russell + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22043

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動物行動学: 一夫一妻マウスにおける子育ての進化の遺伝学的基盤

The genetic basis of parental care evolution in monogamous mice p.434

Parental care in mice evolves through multiple genetic changes; one candidate is vasopressin, the reduced expression of which promotes parental nest-building behaviour in monogamous mice.

Andres Bendesky, Young-Mi Kwon, Jean-Marc Lassance, Caitlin L. Lewarch, Shenqin Yao, Brant K. Peterson, Meng Xiao He, Catherine Dulac & Hopi E. Hoekstra

doi: 10.1038/nature22074

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分子生物学: Snf2–ヌクレオソーム構造から明らかになったクロマチンリモデリング機構

Mechanism of chromatin remodelling revealed by the Snf2-nucleosome structure p.440

The cryo-electron microscopy structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Snf2 chromatin remodeller bound to a nucleosome and a proposed mechanism for DNA translocation by Snf2 are presented.

Xiaoyu Liu, Meijing Li, Xian Xia, Xueming Li & Zhucheng Chen

doi: 10.1038/nature22036

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構造生物学: 興奮性アミノ酸輸送体1の構造とアロステリック阻害

Structure and allosteric inhibition of excitatory amino acid transporter 1 p.446

High-resolution structures of the thermostabilized human excitatory amino acid transporter EAAT1, alone or in association with its substrate or small molecule inhibitors, reveal architectural features of human SLC1 transporters and an allosteric mechanism of inhibition.

Juan C. Canul-Tec, Reda Assal, Erica Cirri, Pierre Legrand, Sébastien Brier, Julia Chamot-Rooke & Nicolas Reyes

doi: 10.1038/nature22064

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Letters

天文学: 太陽面爆発の普遍的なモデル

A universal model for solar eruptions p.452

Simulations of a solar coronal jet driven by filament ejection demonstrate that magnetic reconnection underlies the energy release, implying that a universal ‘breakout’ model explains both tiny jets and huge mass ejections from the Sun.

Peter F. Wyper, Spiro K. Antiochos & C. Richard DeVore

doi: 10.1038/nature22050

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化学: 統一的な動力学的三次元分割モデルによる結晶成長の予測

Predicting crystal growth via a unified kinetic three-dimensional partition model p.456

A general simulation approach that can replicate, and in theory predict, the growth of a wide range of crystal types, including porous, molecular and ionic crystals, is demonstrated.

Michael W. Anderson, James T. Gebbie-Rayet, Adam R. Hill, Nani Farida, Martin P. Attfield, Pablo Cubillas, Vladislav A. Blatov, Davide M. Proserpio, Duncan Akporiaye, Bjørnar Arstad + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21684

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材料科学: 最小の格子ミスフィットと高密度ナノ析出による超高強度鋼の実現

Ultrastrong steel via minimal lattice misfit and high-density nanoprecipitation p.460

A method of producing superstrong yet ductile steels using cheaper and lighter alloying elements is described, based on minimization of the lattice misfit to achieve a maximal dispersion of nanoprecipitates, leading to ultimate precipitation strengthening.

Suihe Jiang, Hui Wang, Yuan Wu, Xiongjun Liu, Honghong Chen, Mengji Yao, Baptiste Gault, Dirk Ponge, Dierk Raabe, Akihiko Hirata + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22032

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顕微鏡学: 超多重振動撮像

Super-multiplex vibrational imaging p.465

Stimulated Raman scattering under electronic pre-resonance conditions, combined with a new palette of probes, enables super-multiplex imaging of molecular targets in living cells with very high vibrational selectivity and sensitivity.

Lu Wei, Zhixing Chen, Lixue Shi, Rong Long, Andrew V. Anzalone, Luyuan Zhang, Fanghao Hu, Rafael Yuste, Virginia W. Cornish & Wei Min

doi: 10.1038/nature22051

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地球科学: ヒマラヤ山脈の礫流量を限定する摩滅

Abrasion-set limits on Himalayan gravel flux p.471

The amount of coarse gravel transported out of the Himalayan mountains by rivers is insensitive to catchment size, because the majority of gravel sourced more than 100 kilometres upstream of the mountain front is abraded into sand before it reaches the Ganga Plain.

Elizabeth H. Dingle, Mikaël Attal & Hugh D. Sinclair

doi: 10.1038/nature22039

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大気科学: 1982年以降に3倍になった衛星観測におけるサヘル地域の極端な嵐の頻度

Frequency of extreme Sahelian storms tripled since 1982 in satellite observations p.475

Since 1982, extreme daily rainfall in the western Sahel has increased persistently, owing to a warmer Sahara which has led to increased wind shear and an increase in intense storms.

doi: 10.1038/nature22069

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考古学: 米国カリフォルニア州南部の13万年前の遺跡

A 130,000-year-old archaeological site in southern California, USA p.479

Evidence of mastodon bone modifications for marrow extraction and/or tool production, found in the presence of hammerstones and anvils that showed use-wear and impact marks, suggest the presence of Homo in North America around 130 thousand years ago.

Steven R. Holen, Thomas A. Deméré, Daniel C. Fisher, Richard Fullagar, James B. Paces, George T. Jefferson, Jared M. Beeton, Richard A. Cerutti, Adam N. Rountrey, Lawrence Vescera + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22065

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進化学: 最初期の鳥類系統主竜類と恐竜のボディープランの構築

The earliest bird-line archosaurs and the assembly of the dinosaur body plan p.484

The archosaur species Teleocrater rhadinus, part of the new clade Aphanosauria, is an example of the earliest divergence of the avian stem lineage (Avemetatarsalia), the lineage that contains dinosaurs (including birds).

Sterling J. Nesbitt, Richard J. Butler, Martín D. Ezcurra, Paul M. Barrett, Michelle R. Stocker, Kenneth D. Angielczyk, Roger M. H. Smith, Christian A. Sidor, Grzegorz Niedźwiedzki, Andrey G. Sennikov + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22037

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神経科学: ヒト臍帯血漿タンパク質が加齢マウスの海馬機能を活性化する

Human umbilical cord plasma proteins revitalize hippocampal function in aged mice p.488

Treatment with plasma of an early developmental stage, human umbilical cord, revitalizes the hippocampus and improves cognitive function in aged mice.

Joseph M. Castellano, Kira I. Mosher, Rachelle J. Abbey, Alisha A. McBride, Michelle L. James, Daniela Berdnik, Jadon C. Shen, Bende Zou, Xinmin S. Xie, Martha Tingle + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22067

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免疫学: 造血系腫瘍細胞のMac-1インテグリンを介したファゴサイトーシスにはSLAMF7が重要である

SLAMF7 is critical for phagocytosis of haematopoietic tumour cells via Mac-1 integrin p.493

The identification of homotypic SLAMF7 interactions responsible for haematopoietic tumour cell phagocytosis by macrophages when the inhibitory receptor/ligand interaction of SIRPα/CD47 is blocked therapeutically.

Jun Chen, Ming-Chao Zhong, Huaijian Guo, Dominique Davidson, Sabrin Mishel, Yan Lu, Inmoo Rhee, Luis-Alberto Pérez-Quintero, Shaohua Zhang, Mario-Ernesto Cruz-Munoz + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22076

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免疫学: 高アビディティーIgAは増殖中の細菌をつないで腸を守る

High-avidity IgA protects the intestine by enchaining growing bacteria p.498

Kathrin Moor, Médéric Diard, Mikael E. Sellin, Boas Felmy, Sandra Y. Wotzka, Albulena Toska, Erik Bakkeren, Markus Arnoldini, Florence Bansept, Alma Dal Co + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22058

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分子生物学: コヒーシンの哺乳類ゲノム内での位置は転写、CTCFおよびWaplによって決まる

Cohesin is positioned in mammalian genomes by transcription, CTCF and Wapl p.503

The distribution of cohesin in the mouse genome depends on CTCF, transcription and the cohesin release factor Wapl.

Georg A. Busslinger, Roman R. Stocsits, Petra van der Lelij, Elin Axelsson, Antonio Tedeschi, Niels Galjart & Jan-Michael Peters

doi: 10.1038/nature22063

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