今週号

Editorials

NIH予算の削減は、米国の科学研究に幅広く、計り知れないダメージをもたらすだろう。

Trump faces backlash on health-agency cuts p.463

Crippling the US National Institutes of Health might increase resistance to other attacks on science.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21664

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米国トランプ大統領が指名したFDA長官は、経験豊富で、審査の効率化も期待できるが、製薬業界との深いつながりには目を光らせる必要がある。

The FDA chief must not be a proxy for industry p.463

Trump’s pick for the US regulatory agency will bring experience and a clear vision — as well as ties to industry.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21661

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ポジティブな感情が伝染することが、ニュージーランドのオウムでも証明された。

Birds of play demonstrate the infectious power of emotion p.464

New Zealand parrots provide the latest support for a popular theory of crowd behaviour.

doi: 10.1038/543464a

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News

米国トランプ政権が、エネルギー、環境、健康科学分野で研究予算の大幅な削減を。

US science agencies face deep cuts in Trump budget p.471

The Environmental Protection Agency and the National Institutes of Health are big losers — but planetary science at NASA stands to gain.

Sara Reardon, Jeff Tollefson, Alexandra Witze & Erin Ross

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21652

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トポロジー学者が、通常の幾何学が通用しない「ゆがんだ」世界をVRで体験できるソフトを公開へ。

Mathematicians create warped worlds in virtual reality p.473

Immersive experience set to become accessible to all.

Davide Castelvecchi

doi: 10.1038/543473a

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韓国では、大統領弾劾が基礎研究の助成のあり方を変える好機に。

South Korea’s scientists seek change amid political chaos p.474

President’s impeachment creates opportunity to shift how nation supports basic research.

Mark Zastrow

doi: 10.1038/543474a

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さまざまな研究の対象になっているアフリカの狩猟採集民サン人が、独自の研究倫理規定を制定。

South Africa’s San people issue ethics code to scientists p.475

The indigenous people — known for their click languages — are the first in Africa to draft guidelines for researchers.

Ewen Callaway

doi: 10.1038/543475a

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今年のアーベル賞は、データ解析に広く応用されるウェーブレット理論への貢献で、フランスのYves Meyer氏に。

‘Wavelet revolution’ pioneer scoops top maths award p.476

Yves Meyer wins the Abel Prize for role in theory with data applications from digital cinema to pinpointing gravitational waves.

Davide Castelvecchi

doi: 10.1038/543476a

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News Features

天文学: ブラックホールを捉える

How to hunt for a black hole with a telescope the size of Earth p.478

Astronomers hope to grab the first images of an event horizon — the point of no return.

doi: 10.1038/543478a

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News & Views

古生物学: 恐竜の分類

Palaeontology: Dividing the dinosaurs p.494

The standard dinosaur evolutionary tree has two key branches: the 'bird-hipped' Ornithischia and the 'reptile-hipped' Saurischia. A revised tree challenges many ideas about the relationships between dinosaur groups. See Article p.501

Kevin Padian

doi: 10.1038/543494a

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微生物学: 細菌の伝染戦術

Microbiology: Bacterial transmission tactics p.495

Genome sequencing of Mycobacterium abscessus strains that infect the lungs suggests a possible shift in the bacterium's mode of infection from environmental acquisition to human transmission. This finding has clinical implications.

Michael Strong & Rebecca M. Davidson

doi: 10.1038/543495a

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物性物理学: 電子ビームによってマッピングされた振動

Condensed-matter physics: Vibrations mapped by an electron beam p.497

The vibrational excitations of nanostructures have been mapped using state-of-the-art electron microscopy. The results improve our understanding of these excitations, which will aid the design of nanostructures. See Letter p.529

Christian Colliex

doi: 10.1038/543497a

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生態学: マルハナバチが住み良い環境

Ecology: A helping habitat for bumblebees p.498

A study showing the effects of land-use quality on the productivity of bumblebee colonies highlights the importance of resource availability across space and time in promoting survival over generations. See Letter p.547

Jeffrey D. Lozier

doi: 10.1038/nature21897

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HIV: 干し草の山に潜む針を見つける

Finding latent needles in a haystack p.499

doi: 10.1038/nature21899

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Articles

古生物学: 恐竜の類縁関係と初期進化に関する新仮説

A new hypothesis of dinosaur relationships and early dinosaur evolution p.501

Analysis of a wide range of dinosaurs and dinosauromorphs recovers a sister-taxon relationship between Ornithischia and Theropoda, calling for the redefinition of all the major clades within Dinosauria and the revival of the clade Ornithoscelida.

Matthew G. Baron, David B. Norman & Paul M. Barrett

doi: 10.1038/nature21700

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神経科学: 自閉症関連遺伝子Ube3aとてんかん発作はVTAでCbln1を抑制することにより社会性を低下させる

Autism gene Ube3a and seizures impair sociability by repressing VTA Cbln1 p.507

Increasing expression of the autism-associated gene Ube3a, either alone or in combination with seizures, not only impairs sociability in mice but also reduces expression of the synaptic organizer Cbln1 in the ventral tegmental area, thus weakening glutamatergic transmission.

Vaishnav Krishnan, David C. Stoppel, Yi Nong, Mark A. Johnson, Monica J. S. Nadler, Ekim Ozkaynak, Brian L. Teng, Ikue Nagakura, Fahim Mohammad, Michael A. Silva + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21678

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植物科学: 根の微生物相はリン酸ストレスと免疫を直接結び付ける

Root microbiota drive direct integration of phosphate stress and immunity p.513

In Arabidopsis thaliana, a genetic network that controls the phosphate stress response also influences the structure of the root microbiome community, even under non-stress phosphate conditions.

Gabriel Castrillo, Paulo José Pereira Lima Teixeira, Sur Herrera Paredes, Theresa F. Law, Laura de Lorenzo, Meghan E. Feltcher, Omri M. Finkel, Natalie W. Breakfield, Piotr Mieczkowski, Corbin D. Jones + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21417

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分子生物学: ゲノム構造マッピングで捉えられた多数のエンハンサーの複雑な接触

Complex multi-enhancer contacts captured by genome architecture mapping p.519

A technique called genome architecture mapping (GAM) involves sequencing DNA from a large number of thin nuclear cryosections to develop a map of genome organization without the limitations of existing 3C-based methods.

Robert A. Beagrie, Antonio Scialdone, Markus Schueler, Dorothee C. A. Kraemer, Mita Chotalia, Sheila Q. Xie, Mariano Barbieri, Inês de Santiago, Liron-Mark Lavitas, Miguel R. Branco + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21411

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Letters

量子物理学: 古典限界を超えるスピン角度とスピン振幅の同時追跡

Simultaneous tracking of spin angle and amplitude beyond classical limits p.525

Simultaneous precise measurement of the non-commuting observables spin angle and spin amplitude is achieved by directing the error due to quantum measurement back-action into an unmeasured spin component.

Giorgio Colangelo, Ferran Martin Ciurana, Lorena C. Bianchet, Robert J. Sewell & Morgan W. Mitchell

doi: 10.1038/nature21434

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物性物理学: 単一ナノキューブにおける振動の表面モードとバルクモードのマッピング

Mapping vibrational surface and bulk modes in a single nanocube p.529

Spatial mapping of optical and acoustic, bulk and surface vibrational modes in magnesium oxide nanocubes is demonstrated using a single electron probe.

Maureen J. Lagos, Andreas Trügler, Ulrich Hohenester & Philip E. Batson

doi: 10.1038/nature21699

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材料科学: 等方的な弾性スティフネスの理論限界にあるメカニカル・メタマテリアル

Mechanical metamaterials at the theoretical limit of isotropic elastic stiffness p.533

Finite-element models are used to identify a material geometry that achieves the theoretical bounds on isotropic elastic stiffness—a combination closed-cell cubic and octet foam.

J. B. Berger, H. N. G. Wadley & R. M. McMeeking

doi: 10.1038/nature21075

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有機化学: 触媒的二官能性テンプレートによって誘導される部位選択的遠隔C–H活性化

Remote site-selective C–H activation directed by a catalytic bifunctional template p.538

A method is described for selectively activating remote C–H bonds in heterocycles by using a catalytic template that binds by reversible coordination instead of a covalent linkage, removing the need for specific functional groups on which to attach the template.

Zhipeng Zhang, Keita Tanaka & Jin-Quan Yu

doi: 10.1038/nature21418

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地球科学: (Al,Fe)を含むブリッジマナイトの弾性データから得られたFe3+に富むパイロライト的下部マントルの証拠

Evidence for a Fe3+-rich pyrolitic lower mantle from (Al,Fe)-bearing bridgmanite elasticity data p.543

The authors report single-crystal elasticity data on (Al,Fe)-bearing bridgmanite and show that its elastic behaviour is markedly different from that of the MgSiO3 endmember.

A. Kurnosov, H. Marquardt, D. J. Frost, T. Boffa Ballaran & L. Ziberna

doi: 10.1038/nature21390

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生態学: マルハナバチの家系の生存は質の高い景観によって促進される

Bumblebee family lineage survival is enhanced in high-quality landscapes p.547

Analysis of three wild-caught bumblebee species shows that family lineage survival and persistence is significantly increased between successive colony cycle stages with the proportion of high-value foraging habitat near the natal colony.

Claire Carvell, Andrew F. G. Bourke, Stephanie Dreier, Stephen N. Freeman, Sarah Hulmes, William C. Jordan, John W. Redhead, Seirian Sumner, Jinliang Wang & Matthew S. Heard

doi: 10.1038/nature21709

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遺伝学: KRABジンクフィンガータンパク質は遺伝子調節ネットワークの進化に寄与する

KRAB zinc-finger proteins contribute to the evolution of gene regulatory networks p.550

Genomic analyses of KRAB-containing zinc-finger proteins and the transposable elements to which they bind show that a co-evolutionary arms race was not the only driver of their evolution.

Michaël Imbeault, Pierre-Yves Helleboid & Didier Trono

doi: 10.1038/nature21683

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生態生理学: 植物プランクトンは乱流の刺激に応答して移動戦略を能動的に多様化させることができる

Phytoplankton can actively diversify their migration strategy in response to turbulent cues p.555

Here, marine phytoplankton are shown to diversify their migratory strategy in response to turbulent cues through a rapid change in shape, thus challenging a fundamental paradigm in oceanography that phytoplankton are passively at the mercy of ocean turbulence.

Anupam Sengupta, Francesco Carrara & Roman Stocker

doi: 10.1038/nature21415

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ウイルス学: 早期の抗体療法によりSHIVに対して長期間持続する免疫を誘導できる

Early antibody therapy can induce long-lasting immunity to SHIV p.559

Early administration of broadly neutralizing antibodies in a macaque SHIV infection model is associated with very low levels of persistent viraemia, which leads to the establishment of T-cell immunity and resultant long-term infection control.

Yoshiaki Nishimura, Rajeev Gautam, Tae-Wook Chun, Reza Sadjadpour, Kathryn E. Foulds, Masashi Shingai, Florian Klein, Anna Gazumyan, Jovana Golijanin, Mitzi Donaldson + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21435

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ウイルス学: CD32aは複製可能プロウイルスを含んだCD4 T細胞HIVリザーバーのマーカーである

CD32a is a marker of a CD4 T-cell HIV reservoir harbouring replication-competent proviruses p.564

CD32a expression is induced on the surface of HIV-1-infected quiescent CD4 T cells, and could thus be used as a biomarker to facilitate future study of how the virus persists in cellular reservoirs in infected hosts.

Benjamin Descours, Gaël Petitjean, José-Luis López-Zaragoza, Timothée Bruel, Raoul Raffel, Christina Psomas, Jacques Reynes, Christine Lacabaratz, Yves Levy, Olivier Schwartz + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21710

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発生生物学: DND1はCCR4–NOT複合体を標的mRNAへ誘導することで生殖幹細胞を維持する

DND1 maintains germline stem cells via recruitment of the CCR4–NOT complex to target mRNAs p.568

The vertebrate-conserved and germline-specific RNA-binding protein DND1 recruits the CCR4–NOT deadenylase complex to destabilize its mRNA targets and is required for the maintenance of germline stem cells.

Masashi Yamaji, Miki Jishage, Cindy Meyer, Hemant Suryawanshi, Evan Der, Misaki Yamaji, Aitor Garzia, Pavel Morozov, Sudhir Manickavel, Hannah L. McFarland + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21690

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分子生物学: RNA m6Aメチル化は紫外線によるDNA損傷応答を調節する

RNA m6A methylation regulates the ultraviolet-induced DNA damage response p.573

Methylation at the 6 position of adenosine (m6A) in RNA is rapidly and transiently induced at DNA damage sites in response to ultraviolet irradiation.

Yang Xiang, Benoit Laurent, Chih-Hung Hsu, Sigrid Nachtergaele, Zhike Lu, Wanqiang Sheng, Chuanyun Xu, Hao Chen, Jian Ouyang, Siqing Wang + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature21671

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