今週号

Editorials

科学を偏見の正当化に利用することはできないし、すべきではない。

Against discrimination p.259

Science cannot and should not be used to justify prejudice.

doi: 10.1038/548259b

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理化学研究所の予算削減をめぐる混乱は、今、日本が取り組まねばならない科学技術の深刻な問題の現れである。

Budget cuts fuel frustration among Japan’s academics p.259

Funding trouble at flagship research centre reflects a broader malaise in the country’s scientific priorities that must be addressed.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22444

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News

米国トランプ政権の気候変動研究軽視の穴埋めに、カリフォルニア州が独自の大規模な気候科学研究プロジェクトを。

California’s scientists push to create massive climate-research programme p.267

Effort backed by the state’s flagship universities comes as US President Donald Trump shrugs off global warming.

Jeff Tollefson

doi: 10.1038/548267a

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中国で、高精度な脳地図の作製を大きく前進させる大規模研究施設が。

China launches brain-imaging factory p.268

Hub aims to make industrial-scale high-resolution brain mapping a standard tool for neuroscience

David Cyranoski

doi: 10.1038/548268a

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エルニーニョ現象が、熱帯雨林からの二酸化炭素排出の大幅増加の原因に。

Massive El Niño sent greenhouse-gas emissions soaring p.269

Disruptive weather pattern in 2014–2016 spurred tropical forests to pump out 3 billion tonnes of carbon.

Gabriel Popkin

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22440

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研究施設の災害対策が不十分なことが、全米科学アカデミーの調査で明らかに。

Thousands across India march in support of science p.270

Protesters demand respect for research — but some scientists were told to stay away.

T. V. Padma

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22439

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科学への支援を訴える「科学のための行進」に、インド各地で多数の参加者が。

US biomedical-research facilities unprepared for attacks and natural disasters p.270

Science panel says institutions need to do more to prevent and mitigate damage to research equipment and animals.

Sara Reardon

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22446

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野外研究の信頼性を高めようと、ヨーロッパ各地の14の研究室が並行して再現実験を進める試みを。

Why 14 ecology labs teamed up to watch grass grow p.271

Multi-lab efforts point the way to shoring up the reliability of field studies.

Ewen Callaway

doi: 10.1038/548271a

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News Features

健康: より健康な赤ちゃんを

China’s embrace of embryo selection raises thorny questions p.272

Fertility centres are making a massive push to increase preimplantation genetic diagnosis in a bid to eradicate certain diseases.

doi: 10.1038/548272a

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News & Views

フォーラム:気候科学: 大西洋十年規模変動の起源

Climate science: Origins of Atlantic decadal swings p.284

Temperature variability in the North Atlantic Ocean is the result of many competing physical processes, but the relative roles of these processes is a source of contention. Here, scientists present two perspectives on the debate.

Gabriel A. Vecchi, Thomas L. Delworth & Ben Booth

doi: 10.1038/nature23538

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神経生物学: 苦みと甘みの調和

Neurobiology: A bitter–sweet symphony p.285

Information about taste sensations, such as bitter or sweet, is relayed from the mouse tongue to the brain through taste-specific pathways. It emerges that semaphorin proteins guide the wiring of these pathways. See Letter p.330

Jiefu Li & Liqun Luo

doi: 10.1038/nature23537

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がんゲノミクス: ヒトの転移がんを徹底的に調べる

Cancer genomics: Human metastases under scrutiny p.287

Sequences of the DNA and RNA of 500 human cancers that have spread from their primary site in the body take us a step closer to the convergence of basic science and patient benefit. See Article p.297

G. Steven Bova

doi: 10.1038/nature23535

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天文学: 恒星の擾乱大気の全体像

Astronomy: A turbulent stellar atmosphere in full view p.288

The dynamic motion of gas in the outer atmosphere of a red supergiant star has been mapped, providing clues to the mysterious mechanism that causes massive stars to lose mass through stellar winds. See Letter p.310

Gail H. Schaefer

doi: 10.1038/548288a

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細胞生物学: 健康な皮膚はがんを排除する

Cell biology: Healthy skin rejects cancer p.289

Live imaging shows that healthy skin cells surround and expel neighbours that have cancer-promoting mutations, revealing that tissues can recognize and eliminate mutant cells to prevent tumour initiation. See Letter p.334

Joseph Burclaff & Jason C. Mills

doi: 10.1038/nature23534

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Articles

進化学: ジュラ紀の新たな滑空性哺乳形類

New gliding mammaliaforms from the Jurassic p.291

Maiopatagium, a haramiyid from the Jurassic Tiaojishan Formation (around 160 million years ago) of China was specialised for gliding with a patagium (wing membrane) and a fused wishbone, reminiscent of that of birds.

Qing-Jin Meng, David M. Grossnickle, Di Liu, Yu-Guang Zhang, April I. Neander, Qiang Ji & Zhe-Xi Luo

doi: 10.1038/nature23476

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がん: 転移がんの統合的臨床ゲノミクス

Integrative clinical genomics of metastatic cancer p.297

Clinical exome and transcriptome sequencing of 500 adult patients with metastatic solid tumours of diverse lineage and biopsy site, as part of the Michigan Oncology Sequencing (MI-ONCOSEQ) Program.

Dan R. Robinson, Yi-Mi Wu, Robert J. Lonigro, Pankaj Vats, Erin Cobain, Jessica Everett, Xuhong Cao, Erica Rabban, Chandan Kumar-Sinha, Victoria Raymond + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23306

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Letters

天文学: 超大質量ブラックホールへのラム圧によるガス供給

Ram-pressure feeding of supermassive black holes p.304

The majority of ‘jellyfish’ galaxies, characterized by long ‘tentacles’ of gas, also have active nuclei, indicating that gas is being fed to the central supermassive black hole by ram pressure.

Bianca M. Poggianti, Yara L. Jaffé, Alessia Moretti, Marco Gullieuszik, Mario Radovich, Stephanie Tonnesen, Jacopo Fritz, Daniela Bettoni, Benedetta Vulcani, Giovanni Fasano + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23462

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天文学: 赤色超巨星アンタレスにおける活発な大気運動

Vigorous atmospheric motion in the red supergiant star Antares p.310

Mapping the velocity of the gas at the surface and in the atmosphere of the nearby red supergiant star Antares reveals vigorous motion of several huge gas clumps in an extended atmosphere, which cannot be fully explained by convection.

K. Ohnaka, G. Weigelt & K.-H. Hofmann

doi: 10.1038/nature23445

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材料科学: CeRhIn5の磁場誘起量子臨界点での面内の電子対称性の破れ

Electronic in-plane symmetry breaking at field-tuned quantum criticality in CeRhIn5 p.313

Electronic nematicity is observed in a heavy-fermion superconductor, CeRhIn5, suggesting a close link between unconventional superconductivity and the appearance of nematicity.

F. Ronning, T. Helm, K. R. Shirer, M. D. Bachmann, L. Balicas, M. K. Chan, B. J. Ramshaw, R. D. McDonald, F. F. Balakirev, M. Jaime + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23315

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ナノ科学: アナログ演算のためのNbO2モットメモリスターのカオスダイナミクス

Chaotic dynamics in nanoscale NbO2 Mott memristors for analogue computing p.318

A relaxation oscillator incorporating nanoscale niobium dioxide memristors that exhibit both a current- and a temperature-controlled negative differential resistance produces chaotic dynamics that aid biomimetic computing.

Suhas Kumar, John Paul Strachan & R. Stanley Williams

doi: 10.1038/nature23307

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人類学: 7万3000~6万3000年前のスマトラ島に初期の現生人類が存在していた

An early modern human presence in Sumatra 73,000–63,000 years ago p.322

Morphological analysis of teeth found at Lida Ajer shows that these belong to Homo sapiens, indicating that modern humans were in Sumatra between 73,000 and 63,000 years ago.

K. E. Westaway, J. Louys, R. Due Awe, M. J. Morwood, G. J. Price, J.-x. Zhao, M. Aubert, R. Joannes-Boyau, T. M. Smith, M. M. Skinner + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23452

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進化学: ジュラ紀生態系における哺乳形類の耳の進化および摂餌適応に関する新証拠

New evidence for mammaliaform ear evolution and feeding adaptation in a Jurassic ecosystem p.326

The fossil of a gliding mammal from the Tiaojishan Formation of China displays many unique features of its ears, teeth and tooth-replacement pattern, illustrating the great diversity of stem mammals living in the Jurassic period.

Zhe-Xi Luo, Qing-Jin Meng, David M. Grossnickle, Di Liu, April I. Neander, Yu-Guang Zhang & Qiang Ji

doi: 10.1038/nature23483

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神経科学: 味覚系の再配線

Rewiring the taste system p.330

Taste-receptor cells use distinct semaphorins to guide wiring of the peripheral taste system; targeted ectopic expression of SEMA3A or SEMA7A leads to bitter neurons responding to sweet tastes or sweet neurons responding to bitter tastes.

Hojoon Lee, Lindsey J. Macpherson, Camilo A. Parada, Charles S. Zuker & Nicholas J. P. Ryba

doi: 10.1038/nature23299

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幹細胞: 異常増殖の修正により組織の恒常性が維持される

Correction of aberrant growth preserves tissue homeostasis p.334

Intravital imaging reveals unanticipated plasticity of adult skin epithelium in mice when faced with mutational or non-mutational insults, and elucidates the dynamic cellular behaviours used for its return to a homeostatic state.

Samara Brown, Cristiana M. Pineda, Tianchi Xin, Jonathan Boucher, Kathleen C. Suozzi, Sangbum Park, Catherine Matte-Martone, David G. Gonzalez, Julie Rytlewski, Slobodan Beronja + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23304

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免疫学: m6A mRNAメチル化はIL-7/STAT5/SOCS経路を標的としてT細胞恒常性を制御する

m6A mRNA methylation controls T cell homeostasis by targeting the IL-7/STAT5/SOCS pathways p.338

The authors assess the role of N 6-methyladenosine in T cell development and function, and show that RNA methylation controls T cell homeostasis by regulating IL-7-mediated STAT5 activation.

Hua-Bing Li, Jiyu Tong, Shu Zhu, Pedro J. Batista, Erin E. Duffy, Jun Zhao, Will Bailis, Guangchao Cao, Lina Kroehling, Yuanyuan Chen + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23450

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遺伝学: ゲノム規模の活性化スクリーニングから明らかになった近傍の遺伝子を調節するlncRNA座位

Genome-scale activation screen identifies a lncRNA locus regulating a gene neighbourhood p.343

Long noncoding RNAs are investigated using a CRISPR–Cas9 activation screen and shown to confer BRAF inhibitor resistance on melanoma cells through various local mechanisms.

Julia Joung, Jesse M. Engreitz, Silvana Konermann, Omar O. Abudayyeh, Vanessa K. Verdine, Francois Aguet, Jonathan S. Gootenberg, Neville E. Sanjana, Jason B. Wright, Charles P. Fulco + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23451

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分子生物学: mRNA 3′ウリジル化とポリ(A)尾部の長さが哺乳類の母系トランスクリプトームを形作る

mRNA 3′ uridylation and poly(A) tail length sculpt the mammalian maternal transcriptome p.347

TUT4 and TUT7 mediate 3′ uridylation of mRNA transcripts, preferentially those with short poly(A) tails; in the absence of TUT4 and TUT7, oocytes cannot mature and female mice are infertile.

Marcos Morgan, Christian Much, Monica DiGiacomo, Chiara Azzi, Ivayla Ivanova, Dimitrios M. Vitsios, Jelena Pistolic, Paul Collier, Pedro N. Moreira, Vladimir Benes + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23318

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細胞生物学: タンパク質輸送ERADチャネルHrd1の、Hrd3と複合体を形成した状態の低温電子顕微鏡構造

Cryo-EM structure of the protein-conducting ERAD channel Hrd1 in complex with Hrd3 p.352

The structure of yeast Hrd1 in complex with Hrd3 shows that Hrd1 forms an aqueous cavity with a lateral seal within the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, shedding light on how misfolded proteins are transported out of the endoplasmic reticulum.

Stefan Schoebel, Wei Mi, Alexander Stein, Sergey Ovchinnikov, Ryan Pavlovicz, Frank DiMaio, David Baker, Melissa G. Chambers, Huayou Su, Dongsheng Li + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23314

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細胞生物学: リゾホスファチジン酸受容体LPA6によるリガンド認識に関する構造学的考察

Structural insights into ligand recognition by the lysophosphatidic acid receptor LPA6 p.356

Determination of the crystal structure of the zebrafish LPA6 receptor shows that the lipid ligand binds to an unusual ligand-binding pocket in the receptor that is laterally accessible through the membrane.

Reiya Taniguchi, Asuka Inoue, Misa Sayama, Akiharu Uwamizu, Keitaro Yamashita, Kunio Hirata, Masahito Yoshida, Yoshiki Tanaka, Hideaki E. Kato, Yoshiko Nakada-Nakura + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature23448

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