今週号

Editorials

欧州委員会が推し進める「欧州オープンサイエンスクラウド」は素晴らしい計画であり、停滞させることなく進めなければならない。

Don’t let Europe’s open-science dream drift p.451

Now that the major players have agreed to the giant European Open Science Cloud, it’s time to get the project moving.

doi: 10.1038/546451a

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米国政府は、北西部太平洋沿岸の大規模地震に対し、安全対策を整えるべきだ。

Protect funding for US earthquake early-warning system p.451

Donald Trump’s proposed cuts to ShakeAlert puts the west coast at risk.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22162

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温暖化に伴う環境変化は現実に起きており、このまま策を講じなければ、将来の環境は脅威でしかなくなるだろう。

Heatwaves to soar above the hot air of climate politics p.452

Future generations will fear, rather than fend for, the global environment.

doi: 10.1038/546452a

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News

フランスの総選挙でマクロン新党が圧勝したことに対し、フランス国内外の科学者から歓迎の声が。

Macron consolidates electoral victory p.459

The party of France’s recently elected president won an absolute majority in its first general elections, with an agenda that included strong support for research.

Declan Butler

doi: 10.1038/549459a

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樹齢234年の有名な古木「ナポレオン・オーク」のゲノム塩基配列解読により、この木では変異が驚くほど少ないことが明らかに。

Ancient oak's youthful genome surprises biologists p.460

DNA of 234-year-old tree has few mutations, giving weight to idea that plants protect their stem cells.

Heidi Ledford

doi: 10.1038/546460a

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ゲノム塩基配列解析で有名な中国企業のBGIが上場し、プレシジョン・メディシン領域に参入を。

China’s genomics giant to make stock-market debut p.461

Once the world's biggest DNA sequencer for research, BGI is now looking to medical applications to boost profits.

David Cyranoski

doi: 10.1038/546461

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古代のカバの歯の化石から、カバがアフリカ全土に急激に広がった理由の手掛かりが。

Teeth tell tale of hippo’s quick spread across Africa p.462

Fossils from ancient hippo ancestor suggest that grass helped the animals to conquer a continent.

Traci Watson

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22168

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ゲノム規模関連研究が、病気に関わる重要遺伝子の解明に本当に役立つか、疑問の声も。

New concerns raised over value of genome-wide disease studies p.463

Large analyses dredge up 'peripheral' genetic associations that offer little biological insight, researchers say.

Ewen Callaway

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22152

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中国が、論文査読の不正に厳罰を定める方針を。

China cracks down on fake peer reviews p.464

Funding agencies announce harsh penalties and stronger policing efforts.

David Cyranoski

doi: 10.1038/546464a

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News Features

地球科学: 地震探査

The fight to save thousands of lives with sea-floor sensors p.466

Geophysicists are racing to monitor underwater faults in Earth’s crust so they can provide warning of the next big earthquake and tsunami.

doi: 10.1038/546466a

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News & Views

視覚: 運動のために働く網膜細胞

Vision: These retinas are made for walkin' p.476

Measurements of the activity of neurons called direction-selective ganglion cells in the mouse retina explain how visual motion encoded by the eye maps onto body movements such as walking. See Article p.492

Jonathan B. Demb & Damon A. Clark

doi: 10.1038/nature22505

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素粒子物理学: 強い力の非対称性を示す証拠はない

Particle physics: No sign of asymmetry in the strong force p.477

The strong force binds the constituents of nuclei together. Differences between the force's fundamental interactions and their mirror images were thought to have been observed in heavy-ion collisions, but new data challenge this picture.

Alexandru Florin Dobrin

doi: 10.1038/nature23086

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病原性細菌: スプーン1杯の糖が治療薬になる可能性

Bacterial pathogens: A spoonful of sugar could be the medicine p.479

Pili are filamentous bacterial structures that promote adhesion to host cells. It emerges that a small molecule that inhibits this adhesion can prevent colonization of the mouse gut by a pathogenic bacterium. See Letter p.528

Hea-Jin Jung & Eric G. Pamer

doi: 10.1038/nature23084

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量子物理学: 相互作用が磁気のダンスを生む

Quantum physics: Interactions propel a magnetic dance p.481

A combination of leading-edge techniques has enabled interaction-induced magnetic motion to be observed for pairs of ultracold atoms — a breakthrough in the development of models of complex quantum behaviour. See Letter p.519

Lindsay J. LeBlanc

doi: 10.1038/546481a

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神経炎症: ループスにおけるシナプスの剪定

Neuroinflammation: Synapses pruned in lupus p.482

Lupus is an autoimmune disease that can cause brain dysfunction. Studies in mouse models of lupus find that interferon proteins can cause the brain's immune cells to trim the synaptic connections between neurons. See Letter p.539

Sarah McGlasson & David Hunt

doi: 10.1038/nature23087

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気候科学: 雲はエアロゾルに屈しない

Climate science: Clouds unfazed by haze p.483

The extent to which aerosols affect climate is highly uncertain. Observations of clouds interacting with aerosols from a volcanic eruption suggest that the effect is much smaller than was once feared. See Article p.485

Bjorn Stevens

doi: 10.1038/546483a

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Articles

気候科学: 火山噴火に起因するエアロゾルと雲の相互作用に関する強い制約条件

Strong constraints on aerosol–cloud interactions from volcanic eruptions p.485

Investigations of an Icelandic volcanic eruption confirm that sulfate aerosols caused a discernible yet transient brightening effect, as predicted, but their effect on the liquid water path was unexpectedly negligible.

Florent F. Malavelle, Jim M. Haywood, Andy Jones, Andrew Gettelman, Lieven Clarisse, Sophie Bauduin, Richard P. Allan, Inger Helene H. Karset, Jón Egill Kristjánsson, Lazaros Oreopoulos + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22974

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視覚: 重力軸と体軸に沿った運動の網膜での符号化

A retinal code for motion along the gravitational and body axes p.492

Global mapping shows that mouse retinal neurons prefer visual motion produced when the animal moves along two behaviourally relevant axes, allowing the encoding of the animal’s every translation and rotation.

Shai Sabbah, John A. Gemmer, Ananya Bhatia-Lin, Gabrielle Manoff, Gabriel Castro, Jesse K. Siegel, Nathan Jeffery & David M. Berson

doi: 10.1038/nature22818

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がん: エキソソームは膵臓がんで発がん性KRASの治療標的化を促進する

Exosomes facilitate therapeutic targeting of oncogenic KRAS in pancreatic cancer p.498

Exosomes improve the delivery of siRNA to mutant KRAS in the pancreatic tumours and bypass immune clearance better than artificial liposomes, probably owing to enhanced macropinocytocis and presence of CD47 on exosomes, respectively.

Sushrut Kamerkar, Valerie S. LeBleu, Hikaru Sugimoto, Sujuan Yang, Carolina F. Ruivo, Sonia A. Melo, J. Jack Lee & Raghu Kalluri

doi: 10.1038/nature22341

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構造生物学: ヒト多剤輸送体ABCG2の構造

Structure of the human multidrug transporter ABCG2 p.504

The structure of human ABCG2 bound to an inhibitory antibody using cryo-electron microscopy, representing the first high-resolution structural data of a human multidrug transporter.

Nicholas M. I. Taylor, Ioannis Manolaridis, Scott M. Jackson, Julia Kowal, Henning Stahlberg & Kaspar P. Locher

doi: 10.1038/nature22345

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Letters

天文学: 初期宇宙において活動をやめた大質量の円盤銀河

A massive, dead disk galaxy in the early Universe p.510

When the Universe was just 3 billion years old, half of the most massive galaxies had already ceased star formation, and such a galaxy has now been observed using gravitational lensing, unexpectedly turning out to be a compact, fast-spinning disk galaxy rather than a proto-bulge galaxy.

Sune Toft, Johannes Zabl, Johan Richard, Anna Gallazzi, Stefano Zibetti, Moire Prescott, Claudio Grillo, Allison W. S. Man, Nicholas Y. Lee, Carlos Gómez-Guijarro + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22388

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天文学: 大質量高温中心星からの極端紫外線照射を受けている巨大惑星

A giant planet undergoing extreme-ultraviolet irradiation by its hot massive-star host p.514

The giant planet KELT-9b has a dayside temperature of about 4,600 K, which is sufficiently high to dissociate molecules and to evaporate its atmosphere, owing to its hot stellar host.

B. Scott Gaudi, Keivan G. Stassun, Karen A. Collins, Thomas G. Beatty, George Zhou, David W. Latham, Allyson Bieryla, Jason D. Eastman, Robert J. Siverd, Justin R. Crepp + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22392

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量子物理学: 二体極限におけるハーパー・ホフスタッター相互作用モデルの顕微鏡観察

Microscopy of the interacting Harper–Hofstadter model in the two-body limit p.519

The combination of interparticle interactions and a synthetic gauge field leads to chirality in the propagation dynamics of particles in a ladder-like lattice.

M. Eric Tai, Alexander Lukin, Matthew Rispoli, Robert Schittko & Tim Menke

doi: 10.1038/nature22811

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植物科学: 単一分子技術によって改良されたトウモロコシの参照ゲノム

Improved maize reference genome with single-molecule technologies OPEN p.524

An improved reference genome for maize, using single-molecule sequencing and high-resolution optical mapping, enables characterization of structural variation and repetitive regions, and identifies lineage expansions of transposable elements that are unique to maize.

Yinping Jiao, Paul Peluso, Jinghua Shi, Tiffany Liang, Michelle C. Stitzer, Bo Wang, Michael S. Campbell, Joshua C. Stein, Xuehong Wei, Chen-Shan Chin + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22971

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病原性細菌: FimHアンタゴニストによる腸内の尿路病原性大腸菌の選択的除去

Selective depletion of uropathogenic E. coli from the gut by a FimH antagonist p.528

Both F17-like and type 1 pili promote intestinal colonization in mouse colonic crypts, and the high-affinity mannoside M4284 reduces intestinal colonization of uropathogenic Escherichia coli while simultaneously treating urinary tract infections without disrupting the composition of the gut microbiota.

Caitlin N. Spaulding, Roger D. Klein, Ségolène Ruer, Andrew L. Kau, Henry L. Schreiber, Zachary T. Cusumano, Karen W. Dodson, Jerome S. Pinkner, Daved H. Fremont, James W. Janetka + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22972

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発生生物学: 多細胞系譜間の相互作用が多能性状態からのヒト肝芽発生を調節する

Multilineage communication regulates human liver bud development from pluripotency p.533

Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis of two- and three-dimensional hepatic differentiation reveals that both systems recapitulate certain transcriptomic features of human hepatogenesis.

J. Gray Camp, Keisuke Sekine, Tobias Gerber, Henry Loeffler-Wirth, Hans Binder, Malgorzata Gac, Sabina Kanton, Jorge Kageyama, Georg Damm, Daniel Seehofer + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22796

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神経炎症: I型インターフェロンが介在するループスにおけるミクログリア依存的なシナプス消失

Microglia-dependent synapse loss in type I interferon-mediated lupus p.539

Abnormal behavioural phenotypes and synapse loss in the brain of lupus-prone mice are prevented by blocking type I interferon signalling, which is further shown to stimulate microglial phagocytosis of neuronal material in the brains of these mice.

Allison R. Bialas, Jessy Presumey, Abhishek Das, Cees E. van der Poel, Peter H. Lapchak, Luka Mesin, Gabriel Victora, George C. Tsokos, Christian Mawrin, Ronald Herbst + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22821

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分子生物学: ヒストンデアセチラーゼ3は急な熱産生誘発に対して褐色脂肪組織に準備をさせる

Histone deacetylase 3 prepares brown adipose tissue for acute thermogenic challenge p.544

Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) is required to activate brown adipose tissue enhancers to ensure thermogenic aptitude.

Matthew J. Emmett, Hee-Woong Lim, Jennifer Jager, Hannah J. Richter, Marine Adlanmerini, Lindsey C. Peed, Erika R. Briggs, David J. Steger, Tao Ma, Carrie A. Sims + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22819

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がん: BAP1は、ミトコンドリアへのIP3R3を介したCa2+流入量を調節して細胞の形質転換を抑制する

BAP1 regulates IP3R3-mediated Ca2+ flux to mitochondria suppressing cell transformation p.549

BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) regulates calcium flux in the endoplasmic reticulum to facilitate the execution of apoptosis, unveiling a new facet of the role of BAP1 as an environmental tumour suppressor.

Angela Bononi, Carlotta Giorgi, Simone Patergnani, David Larson, Kaitlyn Verbruggen, Mika Tanji, Laura Pellegrini, Valentina Signorato, Federica Olivetto, Sandra Pastorino + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22798

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がん: PTENはFBXL2に対抗してIP3R3とCa2+が仲介するアポトーシスを促進し、腫瘍増殖を制限する

PTEN counteracts FBXL2 to promote IP3R3- and Ca2+-mediated apoptosis limiting tumour growth p.554

PTEN, a known tumour suppressor, inhibits the FXBL2-dependent degradation of IP3R3, an IP3 receptor, thus augmenting IP3R3-mediated calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum to mitochondria and inducing apoptosis; inhibiting FXBL2 sensitizes PTEN-deficient tumours to photodynamic therapy.

Shafi Kuchay, Carlotta Giorgi, Daniele Simoneschi, Julia Pagan, Sonia Missiroli, Anita Saraf, Laurence Florens, Michael P. Washburn, Ana Collazo-Lorduy, Mireia Castillo-Martin + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature22965

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構造生物学: 標的DNA切断後に形成されたCpf1エンドヌクレアーゼ–Rループ複合体の構造

Structure of the Cpf1 endonuclease R-loop complex after target DNA cleavage p.559

The structure of Cpf1, a CRISPR–Cas/RNA-guided nuclease, is presented with a three-stranded RNA–DNA loop after cleavage, providing insight into its working mechanism.

Stefano Stella, Pablo Alcón & Guillermo Montoya

doi: 10.1038/nature22398

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