今週号

Editorials

南極を守るという本来の目的にかなうよう、南極条約を見直すべき時だ。

Reform the Antarctic Treaty p.161

Political protection for the planet’s last great wilderness is no longer fit for purpose. Make its governance democratic: scrap the veto that lets individual interests rule.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05368-7

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中国が、科学分野の不正行為に厳しく対処する決意を示している。

China sets a strong example on how to address scientific fraud p.162

New measures introduce what could be the world’s strongest disincentive for misconduct so far.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05417-1

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「必要・十分」という言葉の不適切な使用は、思考を混乱させ、科学研究を誤った結論に導くことがある。

The phrase ‘necessary and sufficient’ blamed for flawed neuroscience p.162

Muddled language can lead scientists in the wrong direction, neurobiologists claim.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05418-0

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News

コロンビアに平和が訪れたことで、武装地帯であった熱帯雨林が伐採などの脅威に。

FARC and the forest: Peace is destroying Colombia’s jungle — and opening it to science p.169

As loggers and miners move into previously inaccessible regions, researchers are pooling knowledge about the country’s ecosystems.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05397-2

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中国が、科学分野の不正行為を排除して健全な発展を目指す大改革を。

China introduces sweeping reforms to crack down on academic misconduct p.171

Initiatives include a national list of cases, a blacklist of ‘poor quality’ journals and a government agency that is responsible for policing misconduct.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05359-8

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迅速なエボラウイルス検出法が、この春のコンゴ民主共和国での流行抑制に大きな効果を。

Speedy Ebola tests help contain Africa’s latest outbreak p.172

Health workers battling Ebola in the Democratic Republic of the Congo can diagnose the virus in hours, instead of days.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05389-2

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大気中の二酸化炭素を抽出するという地球工学技術が、経済的に実現可能なレベルに向けて着々と進歩を。

Sucking carbon dioxide from air is cheaper than scientists thought p.173

Estimated cost of geoengineering technology to fight climate change has plunged since a 2011 analysis.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05357-w

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糞便移植によって食餌を多様化させられることが明らかになり、絶滅危惧種の保護につながる可能性も。

Faecal transplants could help preserve vulnerable species p.173

New gut bacteria can expand the diet of animals like koalas and rhinoceroses.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05352-1

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News Features

化学:新元素の懸念

The battle behind the periodic table’s latest additions p.175

最新の4つの元素発見を契機として、周期表に新元素を追加する際の承認基準をめぐって盛んな議論が行われている。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05371-y

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News & Views

量子物理学:オンデマンドのエンタングルメント

Quantum physics: On-demand entanglement could lead to scalable quantum networks p.192

今回、2つの実験によって、量子ネットワークの離れたノード間で非古典的相関を決定論的方法で分配できることが示された。今回の成果は、量子ネットワークを拡大する道を整えるものである。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05336-1

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免疫学:単一のT細胞種の移入によって腫瘍を抑制する

Immunology: Tumour tamed by transfer of one T cell p.193

免疫系のT細胞は、腫瘍を標的にするよう操作できるが、一部の人々でこうした治療効果が高い理由はよく分かっていない。今回、治療に劇的に応答した1人の患者から、その手掛かりが得られた。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05251-5

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生物物理学:離れた場所の揺れが低温での酵素の働きを助ける

Biophysics: Enzymes can adapt to cold by wiggling regions far from their active site p.195

今回、酵素の活性部位から離れた所で生じた変異によって、酵素の活性を高める局所的な変性が生じ得ることが分かった。この知見は、寒冷地に生きる生物が生化学反応を促進できる方法を示唆している。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05302-x

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気候変動:ヒトと海水準上昇が互いに影響を及ぼし合う仕組み

Climate change: How humans and rising seas affect each other p.196

パリ協定は、地球温暖化を2°C未満に抑えることを目標にしている。今回、解析によって、この目標を達成すれば沿岸地域における海水準上昇のリスクが大きく低下するが、その恩恵を確認するには時間がかかることが示唆された。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05366-9

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遺伝子調節:転写の新たな段階

Gene regulation: Transcription regulation enters a new phase p.197

今回、酵素複合体P-TEFbのサブユニットは、細胞内で、タンパク質を細分化して液体状の滴を作ることができることが分かった。この相分離が、P-TEFbを助けて遺伝子の転写を促進している可能性がある。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05244-4

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Articles

微生物生態学:外生菌根菌の大規模な制御要因である環境と宿主

Environment and host as large-scale controls of ectomycorrhizal fungi p.243

Analyses of data from 137 forest plots across 20 European countries show that ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity is strongly influenced by environmental and host species factors and provide thresholds to inform ecosystem assessment tools

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0189-9

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生化学:ヒトリボソーム40Sサブユニット成熟の後期段階の可視化

Visualizing late states of human 40S ribosomal subunit maturation p.249

Cryo-EM structures of late intermediates in the assembly of human 40S ribosomal subunits help to define the principles by which immature rRNA conformations and ribosomal biogenesis factors shape the 40S maturation process.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0193-0

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構造生物学:LRRC8ファミリーの容積感受性陰イオンチャネルの構造

Structure of a volume-regulated anion channel of the LRRC8 family p.254

The structure of a homomeric channel of subunit A of leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 8 (LRRC8) determined by cryo-electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography reveals the basis for anion selectivity.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0134-y

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Letters

天文学:塵の多いスターバースト銀河で支配的な星の種族は宇宙時間にわたり大質量星だった

Stellar populations dominated by massive stars in dusty starburst galaxies across cosmic time p.260

Observations of 13CO and C18O emission from four dusty starburst galaxies at redshifts of approximately two to three reveal that massive stars are more numerous in starburst events than in ordinary star-forming spiral galaxies.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0196-x

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量子物理学:マイクロ波光子を用いた決定論的量子状態転送と遠隔エンタングルメント

Deterministic quantum state transfer and remote entanglement using microwave photons p.264

Deterministic quantum state transfer and entanglement generation is demonstrated between superconducting qubits on distant chips using single photons.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0195-y

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量子物理学:量子ネットワーク上における遠隔エンタングルメントの決定論的配送

Deterministic delivery of remote entanglement on a quantum network p.268

Remote deterministic spin–spin entanglement is achieved using nitrogen–vacancy centres in diamonds and a single-photon entangling protocol, with much improved entangling rates compared to previously used two-photon protocols.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0200-5

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材料科学:非係留型高速変形ソフトマテリアルのための強磁性ドメインの印刷

Printing ferromagnetic domains for untethered fast-transforming soft materials p.274

Programmed ferromagnetic domains are 3D-printed into soft materials capable of fast transformations between complex three-dimensional shapes via magnetic actuation.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0185-0

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化学:白金表面における部位特異的な一酸化炭素の酸化の速度分解カイネティクス

Velocity-resolved kinetics of site-specific carbon monoxide oxidation on platinum surfaces p.280

The catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over platinum proceeds through two distinct channels: it is dominated at low temperatures by the more active step sites and at high temperatures by the more abundant terrace sites of the platinum surface.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0188-x

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気候科学:過去800万年間における東南極氷床の陸域への極めて小さな後退

Minimal East Antarctic Ice Sheet retreat onto land during the past eight million years p.284

Analysis of cosmogenic isotopes from a marine sediment core shows that much of the land-based East Antarctic Ice Sheet has remained stable for the past eight million years, including during the warm Pliocene epoch.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0155-6

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古生物学:白亜紀末の大量絶滅後の小惑星衝突地点における生命の急速な回復

Rapid recovery of life at ground zero of the end-Cretaceous mass extinction p.288

Micro- and nannofossil, trace fossil and geochemical evidence from the Chicxulub impact crater demonstrates that proximity to the asteroid impact site did not determine rates of recovery of marine ecosystems after the end-Cretaceous mass extinction.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0163-6

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神経科学:海馬内に平行して生じる安定な記憶エングラムと動的な記憶エングラム

Parallel emergence of stable and dynamic memory engrams in the hippocampus p.292

Imaging of hippocampal neuron activity in mice performing a memory task across several days identifies both stable and dynamic memory engrams.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0191-2

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植物科学:分子可変抵抗器はオーキシン輸送を調節して根の原生師部の分化を促す

A molecular rheostat adjusts auxin flux to promote root protophloem differentiation p.297

The coordinated action of BREVIS RADIX (BRX) and PROTEIN KINASE ASSOCIATED WITH BRX (PAX) regulates auxin flux during the development of protophloem sieve elements in the root meristem of Arabidopsis.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0186-z

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心血管疾患:酸化型リン脂質は炎症促進性であり、高コレステロール血症マウスでアテローム発生を促す

Oxidized phospholipids are proinflammatory and proatherogenic in hypercholesterolaemic mice p.301

A single-chain variable fragment of the antibody E06, which binds to the phosphocholine headgroup of oxidized phospholipids, blocks the uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein by macrophages, and reduces inflammation and atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolaemic mice.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0198-8

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腫瘍免疫学:TET2の破壊はCD19標的T細胞の治療効果を高める

Disruption of TET2 promotes the therapeutic efficacy of CD19-targeted T cells p.307

Genetically engineered T cells that induced remission in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia were found to have disruption of the TET2 gene, which caused T cell changes that potentiated their anti-tumour effects.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0178-z

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細胞生物学:EMI1がAPC/CCDH1の基質から阻害因子に切り替わることで細胞周期が開始する

EMI1 switches from being a substrate to an inhibitor of APC/CCDH1 to start the cell cycle p.313

The transition between early mitotic inhibitor 1 acting as a substrate of the APC/C and as an inhibitor of the same complex results in an irreversible switch that mediates human cell-cycle commitment.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0199-7

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遺伝子調節:RNAポリメラーゼIIのC末端を過剰リン酸化するための相分離機構

Phase-separation mechanism for C-terminal hyperphosphorylation of RNA polymerase II p.318

The histidine-rich domain of cyclin T1 promotes phase separation into liquid droplets, which facilitates the hyperphosphorylation of the C-terminal domain repeats of RNA polymerase II.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0174-3

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生物物理学:動的アロステリーは酵素の低温適応の原動力となり得る

Dynamic allostery can drive cold adaptation in enzymes p.324

By engineering entropy-tuning changes into distal sites of a bacterial adenylate kinase, an allosteric tuning mechanism based on protein dynamics is revealed.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0183-2

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