Volume 542 Number 7642



Researchers should reach beyond the science bubble p.391

Scientists in the United States and elsewhere ought to address the needs and employment prospects of taxpayers who have seen little benefit from scientific advances.

doi: 10.1038/542391a


Pluto could be staging a comeback — and it’s not alone p.392

A proposal to massively expand the number of bodies called planets raises interesting questions.

doi: 10.1038/542392b


Gene editing in legal limbo in Europe p.392

The European Union is dragging its feet on gene-editing rules and scientists should push the issue.

doi: 10.1038/542392a



Inside the Chinese lab poised to study world's most dangerous pathogens p.399

Maximum-security biolab is part of plan to build network of BSL-4 facilities across China.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21487


Broad Institute wins bitter battle over CRISPR patents p.401

The US Patent and Trademark Office issues a verdict in legal tussle over rights to genome-editing technology.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21502


Giant crack in Antarctic ice shelf spotlights advances in glaciology p.402

Rift through Larsen C ice shelf has grown to 175 kilometres, and collapse of nearby ice shelves could offer a glimpse of its future.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21507


Delay in hiring science advisers intensifies Brexit worries p.403

Policy experts want scientists at the table when government decides on environmental protection and membership of international collaborations.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21511


Collapse of Aztec society linked to catastrophic salmonella outbreak p.404

DNA of 500-year-old bacteria is first direct evidence of an epidemic — one of humanity's deadliest — that occurred after Spanish conquest.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21485


The race to map the human body — one cell at a time p.404

A host of detailed cell atlases could revolutionize understanding of cancer and other diseases.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21508

News Features


An epigenetics gold rush: new controls for gene expression p.406


doi: 10.1038/542406a

News & Views


Systems neuroscience: Diversity in sight p.418


doi: 10.1038/nature21498


Climate science: Predictable ice ages on a chaotic planet p.419


doi: 10.1038/542419a


Molecular biology: RNA editing packs a one-two punch p.420


doi: 10.1038/542420a


Astronomy: Earth's seven sisters p.421


doi: 10.1038/542421a


Materials science: Organic analogues of graphene p.423


doi: 10.1038/nature21503


Cancer: A targeted treatment with off-target risks p.424


doi: 10.1038/nature21504



A simple rule to determine which insolation cycles lead to interglacials p.427

A simple model, based on only summer insolation energy and time since the previous deglaciation, correctly predicts the deglaciation history of the past 2.6 million years, including the change in frequency of glacial–interglacial cycles about one million years ago.

doi: 10.1038/nature21364

遺伝学:発達障害におけるde novo変異の保有率と構造

Prevalence and architecture of de novo mutations in developmental disorders p.433

Whole-exome analysis of individuals with developmental disorders shows that de novo mutations can equally cause loss or altered protein function, but that most mutations causing altered protein function have not yet been described.

doi: 10.1038/nature21062


Inhibition decorrelates visual feature representations in the inner retina p.439

The functional diversity of bipolar cells, which split visual inputs into different excitatory channels within the retina, arises from centre–surround interactions in their receptive fields that tune both spatial and temporal signalling.

doi: 10.1038/nature21394


Sterile protection against human malaria by chemoattenuated PfSPZ vaccine p.445

Immunization with Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites under chemoprophylaxis can protect against controlled human malaria infection with the same strain for at least 10 weeks, and protection correlates with polyfunctional T-cell memory.

doi: 10.1038/nature21060


Adipose-derived circulating miRNAs regulate gene expression in other tissues p.450

Adipose tissue is a major source of circulating exosomal miRNAs, which contribute to the regulation of gene expression in distant tissues and organs.

doi: 10.1038/nature21365



Seven temperate terrestrial planets around the nearby ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1 p.456

Last year, three Earth-sized planets were discovered to be orbiting the nearby Jupiter-sized star TRAPPIST-1; now, follow-up photometric observations from the ground and from space show that there are at least seven Earth-sized planets in this star system, and that they might be the right temperature to harbour liquid water on their surfaces.

doi: 10.1038/nature21360


Static non-reciprocity in mechanical metamaterials p.461

Suitably engineered mechanical metamaterials show static non-reciprocity—that is, the transmission of motion from one side to the other depends on the direction of that motion.

doi: 10.1038/nature21044


Onset of the aerobic nitrogen cycle during the Great Oxidation Event p.465

Nitrogen isotope data from sediments deposited during the earliest stage of the Great Oxidation Event show evidence for the emergence of a pervasive aerobic marine nitrogen cycle.

doi: 10.1038/nature20826


Theory of chaotic orbital variations confirmed by Cretaceous geological evidence p.468

Cretaceous astrochronologic evidence reveals a resonance transition associated with the orbits of Mars and the Earth, confirming predicted chaotic Solar System behaviour and enabling an improvement in the geological timescale.

doi: 10.1038/nature21402


Ancestral morphology of crown-group molluscs revealed by a new Ordovician stem aculiferan p.471

Presence of a radula in Calvapilosa kroegeri confirms the molluscan affinity of sachitids, and the single shell plate reveals the ancestral condition for all crown molluscs and early evolution of the multi-plated body plan characteristic of Aculifera.

doi: 10.1038/nature21055


m6A-dependent maternal mRNA clearance facilitates zebrafish maternal-to-zygotic transition p.475

The N 6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification facilitates maternally driven clearance of zebrafish maternal mRNAs through the m6A-binding protein Ythdf2, ensuring proper and timely embryonic development.

doi: 10.1038/nature21355


Metabolic gatekeeper function of B-lymphoid transcription factors p.479

The B-lymphoid transcription factors PAX5 and IKZF1 restrict the supply of glucose and energy to B cells to levels that are not enough to fuel a driver-oncogene, thereby acting as tumour suppressors and sensitizing acute lymphoblastic leukaemia B cells to glucocorticoid therapy.

doi: 10.1038/nature21076


Synthetic essentiality of chromatin remodelling factor CHD1 in PTEN-deficient cancer p.484

The gene CHD1 is synthetic essential in PTEN-deficient prostate and breast cancers.

doi: 10.1038/nature21357

がん:B細胞でのホスファチジルイノシトール 3-キナーゼδの遮断はゲノム不安定性を上昇させる

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase δ blockade increases genomic instability in B cells p.489

PI3Kδ controls the expression of the recombinogenic enzyme AID; excessive AID activity caused by PI3Kδ inhibition can induce genomic instability in leukaemia and lymphoma cells, as well as in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia treated with PI3Kδ inhibitors.

doi: 10.1038/nature21406


Editing and methylation at a single site by functionally interdependent activities p.494

The C-to-U deamination at position 32 of tRNAThr in Trypanosoma brucei requires two enzymatic activities and proceeds via formation of a 3-methylcytosine intermediate, supporting the notion of a coupled modification system.

doi: 10.1038/nature21396


Basis of catalytic assembly of the mitotic checkpoint complex p.498

The near-complete in vitro reconstitution of the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint reveals how the assembly of its effector, the mitotic checkpoint complex, is catalysed.

doi: 10.1038/nature21384

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