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Editorials

米国トランプ大統領がキーストーンXLパイプライン建設計画を認可したが、障害はまだたくさんあり、全てが思惑通りにいくとは限らない。

Trump’s pipeline permit is bad for both the US economy and the environment p.589

The US president’s approval of a controversial oil pipeline offers a disturbing glimpse of the future. But he will struggle to get things all his own way.

doi: 10.1038/543589a

ドイツは、犯罪捜査におけるDNA情報の利用範囲の制限を緩めようとしており、法科学者との密接な連携が大切だ。

Forensics: Germany considers wider use of DNA evidence in criminal cases p.589

The country may lift its ban on the analysis of gene-coding regions in DNA samples.

doi: 10.1038/543589b

英国や米国などで小児がん研究への関心が高まっており、取り組みが進むことによって実りが得られるはずだ。

An early start on tackling childhood cancers p.590

The most vulnerable cancer patients are drawing the attention they deserve.

doi: 10.1038/543590a

News

熱力学の法則と量子力学とを融合させる量子熱力学分野で、熱い議論が。

Battle between quantum and thermodynamic laws heats up p.597

Physicists try to rebuild the laws of heat and energy for processes at a quantum scale.

doi: 10.1038/543597a

カナダの今年の予算案は、技術と革新を公約通り重視したものの、基礎研究は据え置きに。

Canada budget falls flat with scientists p.598

Emphasis on innovation overshadowed by funding freeze for key research councils.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21699

ビル&メリンダ・ゲイツ財団が、オープンアクセス出版サイトを立ち上げへ。

Gates Foundation announces open-access publishing venture p.599

Global health charity is latest funder to start its own publishing ‘channel’ — and the European Commission is considering its own service.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21700

EU離脱の公式な手続きが進む中、英国の研究者たちは、さまざまな対応策を。

How Brexit is changing the lives of eight researchers p.600

The months between the Brexit vote and this week's triggering of Article 50 have been a turbulent time for scientists — and things show no sign of calming.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21714

慢性疲労症候群は原因不明とされてきたが、腸内微生物相や代謝経路の変化が関わっている可能性が。

Biological underpinnings of chronic fatigue syndrome begin to emerge p.602

Gut bacteria and altered metabolic pathways are suspects in mysterious disease.

doi: 10.1038/543602a

News Features

古生物学:深海の怪物

How giant marine reptiles terrorized the ancient seas p.603

海に生息した中で最も巨大で最も謎に包まれた捕食者である魚竜の姿や生活が、徐々に明らかになってきた。

doi: 10.1038/543603a

小児がん:がんの残酷なキメラ

Cruel fusion: What a young man’s death means for childhood cancer p.608

ある若者の命を奪った融合タンパク質から、悪性度の極めて高い小児がんの治療につながる手掛かりが得られるかもしれない。

doi: 10.1038/543608a

News & Views

がん:がん幹細胞の意外な役割

Cancer: Tumour stem-cell surprises p.626

幹細胞の分裂は、腫瘍の増殖に不可欠であると考えられている。今回、特定の幹細胞集団を標的にして除去することによって、腫瘍の発生および遠隔部位への細胞の移動によって形成される腫瘍の増殖におけるがん幹細胞の役割が明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/543626a

無機化学:鉄を光らせる

Inorganic chemistry: Making iron glow p.627

励起状態の寿命が長く、電荷移動過程によって室温で発光する鉄錯体が作られた。このブレークスルーによって、安価な太陽電池を作ることができるようになる可能性がある。

doi: 10.1038/543627a

回顧:線虫の細胞から得られた手掛かりの40年

In Retrospect: Forty years of cellular clues from worms p.628

1977年に、線虫の一種Caenorhabditis elegansで、幼虫が変態して成虫になる際の細胞分裂が細胞系統樹で記述された。以来この研究は、発生機構に関する多くの発見の基盤となってきた。

doi: 10.1038/543628a

海洋保全:海洋を癒やす方法

Marine conservation: How to heal an ocean p.630

加速度的な速さで海洋保護区が設けられており、傷ついた生態系が回復すると期待されている。しかし、人員と財源の著しい不足から最善の結果が得られないことが多いことが、今回分かった。

doi: 10.1038/nature21895

神経科学:認知地図の聴覚景観

Neuroscience: Auditory landscape on the cognitive map p.631

ニューロンの亜集団は特定の地理的位置で発火するため、動物の空間的位置の心象地図が得られる。今回、こうした回路が聴覚地図も支えているという知見が得られたことから、認知のニューロン構造に新たな光が当たる。

doi: 10.1038/543631a

環境科学:食料の貿易が地下水を枯渇させる

Environmental science: Eating ourselves dry p.633

人間の消費習慣は、食料の国際貿易の結果として地下水の枯渇に影響を及ぼしているのだろうか。世界規模の分析によって、実際に影響を及ぼしていることが示され、影響が最も大きい食品と国が明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/543633a

がん治療:白血病のエピゲノムを標的にする

Cancer therapy: The leukaemia epigenome targeted p.634

DNAに付加しているメチル基の修飾によって遺伝子発現が変化する。こうしたメチル化を脱調節する変異は白血病の一部でよく見られる。今回、異常なメチル化を標的にする薬剤が、有望な治療法として浮上してきた。

doi: 10.1038/543634a

惑星科学:無謀な軌道を回る太陽系の天体

Planetary science: Reckless orbiting in the Solar System p.635

惑星と大半の小惑星は、太陽の周りを同じ方向に公転している。しかし今回、木星と軌道を共有する小惑星が、約100万年間逆の方向に公転していることが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/543635a

Reviews

触媒:非共有結合性π相互作用を触媒設計に利用する

Exploiting non-covalent π interactions for catalyst design p.637

doi: 10.1038/nature21701

化学:化学系や生物物理系におけるコヒーレンスを使った機能の増強

Using coherence to enhance function in chemical and biophysical systems p.647

doi: 10.1038/nature21425

Articles

材料科学:エネルギー–構造–機能マップを用いる機能性材料の発見

Functional materials discovery using energy–structure–function maps p.657

Energy–structure–function maps that describe the possible structures and properties of molecular crystals are developed, and these maps are used to guide the experimental discovery of porous materials with specific functions.

doi: 10.1038/nature21419

海洋保全:人員と財源の不足は海洋保護区のパフォーマンスを全球的に低下させる

Capacity shortfalls hinder the performance of marine protected areas globally p.665

Although 71% of marine protected areas are benefiting fish populations, their effects are highly variable, with staff capacity proving to be the most important explanatory variable.

doi: 10.1038/nature21708

神経科学:長期連想記憶の基盤としての神経集団活動の変化

Neural ensemble dynamics underlying a long-term associative memory p.670

Use of a head-mounted miniature microscope in awake, behaving mice reveals that neural ensembles in the basal and lateral amygdala encode associations between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli in a way that matches models of supervised learning.

doi: 10.1038/nature21682

がん:Lgr5+幹細胞は原発性と転移性の大腸がんでは異なる役割を持つ

A distinct role for Lgr5+ stem cells in primary and metastatic colon cancer p.676

Ablation of Lgr5+ cancer stem cells does not result in regression of primary colorectal tumours, but prevents the formation and maintenance of metastasis in the liver.

doi: 10.1038/nature21713

がん:LACTBは脂質代謝と細胞の状態を調整する腫瘍抑制因子である

LACTB is a tumour suppressor that modulates lipid metabolism and cell state p.681

LACTB modulates mitochondrial lipid metabolism and changes the differentiation state of breast cancer cells, thereby negatively affecting the growth of various tumorigenic, but not non-tumorigenic, cells both in vitro and in vivo.

doi: 10.1038/nature21408

Letters

惑星科学:木星と同じ軌道を逆行する小惑星

A retrograde co-orbital asteroid of Jupiter p.687

Asteroid 2015 BZ509 is a retrograde co-orbital asteroid of the planet Jupiter, stably orbiting in a sense opposite to that of Jupiter’s orbit around the Sun for around a million years.

doi: 10.1038/nature22029

ナノスケール材料:直接合成したゼオライトナノシートから得られた極めて選択的なハイフラックス膜

Ultra-selective high-flux membranes from directly synthesized zeolite nanosheets p.690

A direct synthesis of high-aspect-ratio microporous zeolite nanosheets and the use of such nanosheets in separation membranes are described.

doi: 10.1038/nature21421

化学:寿命100 psの配位子から金属への電荷移動フォトルミネッセンスを示す低スピンFe(III)錯体

A low-spin Fe(iii) complex with 100-ps ligand-to-metal charge transfer photoluminescence p.695

Transition-metal complexes are used as photosensitizers, in light-emitting diodes, for biosensing and in photocatalysis. A key feature in these applications is excitation from the ground state to a charge-transfer state; the long charge-transfer-state lifetimes typical for complexes of ruthenium and other precious metals are often essential to ensure high performance. There is much interest in replacing these scarce elements with Earth-abundant metals, with iron and copper being particularly attractive owing to their low cost and non-toxicity. But despite the exploration of innovative molecular designs, it remains a formidable scientific challenge to access Earth-abundant transition-metal complexes with long-lived charge-transfer excited states. No known iron complexes are considered photoluminescent at room temperature, and their rapid excited-state deactivation precludes their use as photosensitizers. Here we present the iron complex [Fe(btz)3]3+ (where btz is 3,3′-dimethyl-1,1′-bis(p-tolyl)-4,4′-bis(1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene)), and show that the superior σ-donor and π-acceptor electron properties of the ligand stabilize the excited state sufficiently to realize a long charge-transfer lifetime of 100 picoseconds (ps) and room-temperature photoluminescence. This species is a low-spin Fe(iii) d5 complex, and emission occurs from a long-lived doublet ligand-to-metal charge-transfer (2LMCT) state that is rarely seen for transition-metal complexes. The absence of intersystem crossing, which often gives rise to large excited-state energy losses in transition-metal complexes, enables the observation of spin-allowed emission directly to the ground state and could be exploited as an increased driving force in photochemical reactions on surfaces. These findings suggest that appropriate design strategies can deliver new iron-based materials for use as light emitters and photosensitizers.

doi: 10.1038/nature21430

環境科学:食料の国際貿易に内包された地下水の枯渇

Groundwater depletion embedded in international food trade p.700

Global food consumption drives irrigation for crops, which depletes aquifers in some regions; here we quantify the volumes of groundwater depletion associated with global food production and international trade.

doi: 10.1038/nature21403

環境科学:輸送される全球の大気汚染と国際貿易の国境を越えた健康への影響

Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade p.705

The transboundary health impacts of air pollution associated with the international trade of goods and services are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

doi: 10.1038/nature21712

生物地理学:ハワイ諸島で明らかになった進化的放散および衰退の真の速度

The true tempo of evolutionary radiation and decline revealed on the Hawaiian archipelago p.710

A geologically informed model of the relationship between changing island area and species richness for the Hawaiian archipelago reveals the rates of species richness change for 14 endemic groups over their entire evolutionary histories without the need for fossil data or molecular phylogenies.

doi: 10.1038/nature21675

遺伝学:体細胞変異から明らかになったヒト初期胚における非対称性細胞動態

Somatic mutations reveal asymmetric cellular dynamics in the early human embryo p.714

Whole-genome sequencing of normal blood cells sampled from 241 adults is used to infer mosaic point mutations that are likely to have arisen during early embryogenesis, providing insight into how early cellular dynamics may affect adult tissues.

doi: 10.1038/nature21703

神経科学:海馬–嗅内野回路による非空間的な次元のマッピング

Mapping of a non-spatial dimension by the hippocampal–entorhinal circuit p.719

Cells in the hippocampal–entorhinal circuit, which fire in response to navigational variables such as location or speed, are shown also to encode continuous, task-relevant but non-spatial variables such as sound frequency.

doi: 10.1038/nature21692

腫瘍免疫学:抗原提示プロファイリングで明らかになったリンパ腫での免疫グロブリンネオアンチゲンの認識

Antigen presentation profiling reveals recognition of lymphoma immunoglobulin neoantigens p.723

Evidence for the abundant presentation of class II neoantigens by a human B-cell lymphoma.

doi: 10.1038/nature21433

がん:去勢抵抗性前立腺がんに対する効果的な併用免疫療法

Effective combinatorial immunotherapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer p.728

A new chimaeric mouse model of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer to efficiently test combination therapies in an autochthonous setting.

doi: 10.1038/nature21676

がん:アロステリック阻害剤ABL001によって可能になった、2種類の薬剤によるBCR–ABL1のターゲッティング

The allosteric inhibitor ABL001 enables dual targeting of BCR–ABL1 p.733

The selective allosteric ABL1 inhibitor ABL001 (asciminib) represents a new inhibitory mechanism for BCR–ABL1-driven malignancies, and its efficacy and evolving mechanisms of resistance do not overlap with those of other BCR–ABL1 kinase inhibitors.

doi: 10.1038/nature21702

構造生物学:哺乳類ABC輸送体であるP糖タンパク質でのエネルギー変換と交互アクセス

Energy transduction and alternating access of the mammalian ABC transporter P-glycoprotein p.738

Double electron–electron resonance and computer simulations are used to describe conformational dynamics in the ATP-binding cassette transporter Pgp, which has an important role in the clearance of xenobiotics and cancer resistance to chemotherapy.

doi: 10.1038/nature21414

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