A global vision p.311

The International Council for Science needs to define its mission and show its members that it is worth their membership fees.

doi: 10.1038/515311a


Save the museums p.311

Italy’s curators must band together to preserve their valuable collections.

doi: 10.1038/515311b

NatureおよびNature関連誌では、データの再利用を促すためにScientific Dataとの相互関係を強化し、データをより使いやすいものにする。

Data-access practices strengthened p.312

doi: 10.1038/515312a



Philae’s 64 hours of science p.319

Comet lander is now hibernating, but has already altered our understanding of these objects.

doi: 10.1038/515319a


Crisis mappers find an ally p.321

Crowdsourced disaster surveys strive for more reliability in online collaboration.

doi: 10.1038/515321a


Green List promotes conservation hotspots p.322

Project puts spotlight on protected reserves that boost biodiversity.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2014.16350


‘Platinum’ genome shapes up p.323

Disease sites targeted in assembly of more-complete version of the human genome sequence.

doi: 10.1038/515323a


Joint effort nabs next wave of US supercomputers p.324

National laboratories collaborate to purchase top-flight machines.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2014.16347

News Features


Indirect costs: Keeping the lights on p.326


doi: 10.1038/515326a


Developing world: Far-flung physics p.330


doi: 10.1038/515330a

News & Views


Genomics: Mice in the ENCODE spotlight p.346


doi: 10.1038/515346a


Origins of life: RNA made in its own mirror image p.347


doi: 10.1038/nature13935


Materials physics: Reactive walls p.348


doi: 10.1038/515348a


Biochemistry: Succinate strikes p.350


doi: 10.1038/nature13941


Biogeochemistry: Agriculture and the global carbon cycle p.351


doi: 10.1038/515351a


Plant science: Leaf veins share the time of day p.352


doi: 10.1038/nature13936



A comparative encyclopedia of DNA elements in the mouse genome OPEN p.355

The Mouse ENCODE Consortium has mapped transcription, DNase I hypersensitivity, transcription factor binding, chromatin modifications and replication domains throughout the mouse genome in diverse cell and tissue types; these data were compared with those from human to confirm substantial conservation in the newly annotated potential functional sequences and to reveal pronounced divergence of other sequences involved in transcriptional regulation, chromatin state and higher order chromatin organization.

doi: 10.1038/nature13992


Conservation of trans-acting circuitry during mammalian regulatory evolution OPEN p.365

Mouse genomic footprinting reveals conservation of transcription factor (TF) recognition repertoires and trans-regulatory circuitry despite massive turnover of DNA elements that contact TFs in vivo.

doi: 10.1038/nature13972


Principles of regulatory information conservation between mouse and human OPEN p.371

As part of the mouse ENCODE project, genome-wide transcription factor (TF) occupancy repertoires and co-association patterns in mice and humans are studied; many aspects are conserved but the extent to which orthologous DNA segments are bound by TFs in mice and humans varies both among TFs and genomic location, and TF-occupied sequences whose occupancy is conserved tend to be pleiotropic and enriched for single nucleotide variants with known regulatory potential.

doi: 10.1038/nature13985



The power of relativistic jets is larger than the luminosity of their accretion disks p.376

Blazars are quasars with a jet pointing towards Earth; analysis of archival observations of a sample of blazars reveals that jet power is larger than, and correlates with, the accretion luminosity, in agreement with numerical simulations.

doi: 10.1038/nature13856


Artificial chemical and magnetic structure at the domain walls of an epitaxial oxide p.379

The strain induced on the walls between ferroelastic domains of a thin film of terbium manganite grown on a substrate of strontium titanate can generate an unusual two-dimensional ferromagnetic phase that is yet to be produced by conventional chemical means.

doi: 10.1038/nature13918


Approaching disorder-free transport in high-mobility conjugated polymers p.384

Measurements and simulations of several high-mobility conjugated polymers show that their charge transport properties reflect an almost complete lack of disorder in the polymers, despite their amorphous microstructures, resulting from the resilience of the planar polymer backbone conformations to side-chain disorder.

doi: 10.1038/nature13854


Overcoming the limitations of directed C–H functionalizations of heterocycles p.389

A robust and synthetically useful method is reported that overcomes the complications associated with performing C–H functionalization reactions on heterocycles; a reactive PdX2 (X = ArCONOMe) species is generated in situ, and is directed to the appropriate C–H bond by an N-methoxy amide group.

doi: 10.1038/nature13885


Agricultural Green Revolution as a driver of increasing atmospheric CO2 seasonal amplitude p.394

The increase in amplitude of the atmospheric carbon dioxide cycle over the past fifty years can be attributed in part to the intensification of agriculture in the Northern Hemisphere.

doi: 10.1038/nature13893


Direct human influence on atmospheric CO2 seasonality from increased cropland productivity p.398

Increases in agricultural productivity are shown, using production statistics and a carbon accounting model, to explain as much as a quarter of the observed increase in the seasonal amplitude of the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric carbon dioxide cycle.

doi: 10.1038/nature13957


Topologically associating domains are stable units of replication-timing regulation OPEN p.402

A study of DNA replication timing in mouse and human cells reveals that replication domains (domains of the genome which replicate at the same time) share a correlation with topologically associating domains; these results reconcile cell-type-specific sub-nuclear compartmentalization with developmentally stable chromosome domains and offer a unified model for large scale chromosome structure and function.

doi: 10.1038/nature13986


The drivers of tropical speciation p.406

Diversification of Neotropical birds is not directly linked to the Andean uplift, the major landscape change of the Neogene period; instead, most diversification is post-Neogene and species diversity is dependent on how long lineages have persisted in the landscape and how easily they disperse.

doi: 10.1038/nature13687


Individual improvements and selective mortality shape lifelong migratory performance p.410

A cross-sectional study of migrating raptors aged from 1 to 27 years old shows that migratory performance gradually improves with age and is driven both by selective mortality and individual improvement, with younger birds leaving progressively earlier as they age and becoming more proficient at coping with adverse environmental conditions, such as unfavourable winds.

doi: 10.1038/nature13696


Synaptic dysregulation in a human iPS cell model of mental disorders p.414

Generation and neural differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) from patients enables new ways to investigate the cellular pathophysiology of mental disorders; this approach was used with samples from a family with a schizophrenia pedigree and a DISC1 mutation, revealing synaptic abnormalities and large-scale transcriptional dysregulation.

doi: 10.1038/nature13716


Tissue-specific clocks in Arabidopsis show asymmetric coupling p.419

A detailed analysis of Arabidopsis leaf tissues using two new versatile techniques reveals that within vasculature tissue circadian clocks have characteristics distinct from those in other tissues, and that the vasculature clocks affect circadian clock regulation in other tissues; indicating that plants, like mammals, have a dual clock system.

doi: 10.1038/nature13919


Members of the human gut microbiota involved in recovery from Vibrio cholerae infection p.423

Recovery from cholera is characterized by a pattern of accumulation of bacterial taxa that shows similarities to the pattern of maturation of the gut microbiota in healthy children, raising the possibility that some of these taxa may be useful for ‘repair’ of the gut microbiota in individuals whose gut communities have been ‘wounded’ through a variety of insults.

doi: 10.1038/nature13738


Structure of malaria invasion protein RH5 with erythrocyte basigin and blocking antibodies p.427

Reticulocyte-binding protein homologue 5 (PfRH5) of Plasmodium falciparum, the malaria parasite, is known to be necessary for red blood cell invasion, making PfRH5 a promising vaccine candidate; here the X-ray crystallographic structure of PfRH5 in complex with basigin and with inhibitory antibodies is determined.

doi: 10.1038/nature13715


Ischaemic accumulation of succinate controls reperfusion injury through mitochondrial ROS p.431

A metabolomics study on the ischaemic heart identifies succinate as a metabolite that drives the production of reactive oxygen species and contributes to ischaemia-reperfusion injury; pharmacological inhibition of succinate accumulation ameliorates ischaemia-reperfusion injury in a mouse model of heart attack and a rat model of stroke.

doi: 10.1038/nature13909


Transcript-RNA-templated DNA recombination and repair p.436

Endogenous RNA transcripts are shown to mediate recombination with yeast chromosomal DNA; as the level of RNAs in the nucleus is quite high, these results may open up new understanding of the plasticity of repair and genome instability mechanisms.

doi: 10.1038/nature13682


A cross-chiral RNA polymerase ribozyme p.440

Here, a cross-chiral RNA polymerase is developed—an RNA enzyme that can catalyse the templated polymerization of activated mononucleotides that are of the opposite handedness—shedding light on how RNA-based life could have emerged.

doi: 10.1038/nature13900


Discovery and characterization of small molecules that target the GTPase Ral p.443

Using a structure-based approach, small molecule inhibitors that selectively target the GTPase Ral are identified and characterized; these first-generation inhibitors will be valuable tools for elucidating the Ral signalling pathway and constitute a step towards developing Ral-specific agents for cancer therapy.

doi: 10.1038/nature13713


Structures of bacterial homologues of SWEET transporters in two distinct conformations p.448

The X-ray crystal structures of two bacterial homologues of the SWEET sugar transporters are solved in two conformational states, and comparison of these states suggests that transport occurs via a ‘rocker-switch’ mechanism.

doi: 10.1038/nature13670

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