Volume 516 Number 7529



The uncertain dash for gas p.7

The United States and other countries have made huge investments in fracking, but forecasts of production may be vastly overestimated.

doi: 10.1038/516007a


Harsh reality p.7

Two reports highlight the plight of postdocs on both sides of the pond aiming for academia.

doi: 10.1038/516007b


Look ahead p.8

Research into climate engineering must proceed — even if it turns out to be unnecessary.

doi: 10.1038/516008a



Ebola vaccine race begins p.15

With trials under way, scientists are working out how to give vaccines in affected regions.

doi: 10.1038/516015a

カロリンスカ研究所の胸部外科医Paolo Macchiariniが行った人工気管移植手術について、その効果や倫理に関する問題が指摘されており、研究所が調査を。

Artificial tracheas under scrutiny p.16

The Karolinska Institute is carrying out two inquiries into an experimental transplant procedure.

doi: 10.1038/516016a


Rival species recast significance of ‘first bird’ p.18

Archaeopteryx’s status is changing, but the animal is still key to the dinosaur–bird transition.

doi: 10.1038/516018a


Climate tinkerers thrash out a plan p.20

Geoengineers meet to work out what research is acceptable.

doi: 10.1038/516020a


Projects seek hidden effects of cancer drugs p.21

Researchers gather data on innovative uses of cancer treatments.

doi: 10.1038/516021a

News Features


Physics: Quantum computer quest p.24


doi: 10.1038/516024a


Natural gas: The fracking fallacy p.28


doi: 10.1038/516028a

News & Views


Cell metabolism: Autophagy transcribed p.40


doi: 10.1038/nature13939


Earth science: Controls on isotopic gradients in rain p.41


doi: 10.1038/516041a


Microbiology: A backup for bacteria p.42


doi: 10.1038/nature13938


Astrophysics: Stars fight back p.44


doi: 10.1038/516044a


Neurobiology: A molecular knife to dice depression p.45


doi: 10.1038/nature13942


Technology: Ultrafast imaging takes on a new design p.46


doi: 10.1038/516046a


Behavioural economics: Professional identity can increase dishonesty p.48


doi: 10.1038/nature14068


Diabetes: The good in fat p.49


doi: 10.1038/nature14070



β-catenin mediates stress resilience through Dicer1/microRNA regulation p.51

Here β-catenin, which has been implicated in neurological and psychiatric diseases, including depression, is shown to mediate resilience to chronic stress in mice through induction of Dicer and microRNAs in nucleus accumbens, a key brain reward region.

doi: 10.1038/nature13976


Deconstructing transcriptional heterogeneity in pluripotent stem cells p.56

This study uses single-cell expression profiling of pluripotent stem cells after various perturbations, and uncovers a high degree of variability that can be inherited through cell divisions—modulating microRNA or external signalling pathways induces a ground state with reduced gene expression heterogeneity and a distinct chromatin profile.

doi: 10.1038/nature13920


Structure of the V. cholerae Na+-pumping NADH:quinone oxidoreductase p.62

Here the structure of the membrane protein complex sodium-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) is described; as Na+-NQR is a component of the respiratory chain of various bacteria, including pathogenic ones, this structure may serve as the basis for the development of new antibiotics.

doi: 10.1038/nature14003



Stellar feedback as the origin of an extended molecular outflow in a starburst galaxy p.68

A high-velocity outflow of molecular gas from a starburst galaxy has been observed to extend about ten kiloparsecs; its velocity is consistent with the momentum flux from stellar radiation pressure, showing that bursts of star formation can eject large amounts of cold gas from the central regions of galaxies, curtailing star formation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14012


Nonlinear lattice dynamics as a basis for enhanced superconductivity in YBa2Cu3O6.5 p.71

Femtosecond X-ray diffraction and ab initio density functional theory calculations are used to determine the crystal structure of YBa2Cu3O6.5 undergoing optically driven, nonlinear lattice excitation above the transition temperature of 52 kelvin, under which conditions the electronic structure of the material changes in such a way as to favour superconductivity.

doi: 10.1038/nature13875


Single-shot compressed ultrafast photography at one hundred billion frames per second p.74

A technique based on compressed imaging with a streak camera is reported that can videotape transient events in two dimensions with temporal resolution down to tens of picoseconds, and its usefulness is demonstrated using single laser shots applied to a variety of physical phenomena.

doi: 10.1038/nature14005


Conductive two-dimensional titanium carbide ‘clay’ with high volumetric capacitance p.78

Two-dimensional titanium carbide has been produced by etching out aluminium in a lithium fluoride and hydrochloric acid mixture; it is hydrophilic and mouldable like clay and has excellent volumetric capacitance and cyclability, properties that are desirable for portable electronics.

doi: 10.1038/nature13970


Eastern Pacific tropical cyclones intensified by El Niño delivery of subsurface ocean heat p.82

El Niño events can transfer subsurface heat to the eastern North Pacific with a delay of several months, causing the intensification of tropical cyclones; the mechanism may lead to insights into past variations in tropical cyclone intensity and enhance seasonal predictions.

doi: 10.1038/nature13958


Business culture and dishonesty in the banking industry p.86

According to popular opinion, unethical business practices are common in the financial industry; here, the employees of a large, international bank are shown to behave, on average, honestly in a laboratory game to reveal dishonest behaviour, but when their professional identity as bank employees was rendered salient, the prevalence of dishonest behaviour increased.

doi: 10.1038/nature13977


Inhibition of cell expansion by rapid ABP1-mediated auxin effect on microtubules p.90

In roots and dark-grown hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana, ABP1-mediated auxin signalling induces swift re-orientation of the microtubule cytoskeleton from transverse to longitudinal, thus inhibiting cell expansion.

doi: 10.1038/nature13889


An enteric virus can replace the beneficial function of commensal bacteria p.94

Commensal bacteria are known to have an important role in keeping the host healthy, but the role of eukaryotic viruses has been unknown; now, persistent infection in mice with various strains of enteric norovirus is shown to provide similar host protection.

doi: 10.1038/nature13960


The ESCRT machinery regulates the secretion and long-range activity of Hedgehog p.99

A new role for the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) is identified in fly larvae, where it is shown to be essential for the secretion and long-range signalling of the embryonic development morphogen Hedgehog.

doi: 10.1038/nature13847


Centriole amplification by mother and daughter centrioles differs in multiciliated cells p.104

Using advanced microscopy techniques, the process of centriole amplification in multiciliated cells is explored, and the daughter centriole identified as the primary nucleation site of more than 90% of the new centrioles, contesting existing de novo theories of centriolar amplification and highlighting a new centrosome asymmetry.

doi: 10.1038/nature13770


Transcriptional regulation of autophagy by an FXR–CREB axis p.108

The FXR–CREB axis is identified as a key physiological switch that regulates autophagy during feeding/fasting cycles; in the fed state, the nuclear receptor FXR is shown to suppress autophagy in the liver by inhibiting autophagy-associated lipid breakdown triggered under fasting conditions by the transcriptional activator CREB.

doi: 10.1038/nature13949


Nutrient-sensing nuclear receptors coordinate autophagy p.112

The nuclear receptors FXR and PPARα are shown to regulate autophagy by competing for binding to shared sites in the promoters of autophagic genes; in the fed state FXR suppresses hepatic autophagy, whereas in the fasted state PPARα is activated and reverses the normal suppression of autophagy.

doi: 10.1038/nature13961


TRIM37 is a new histone H2A ubiquitin ligase and breast cancer oncoprotein p.116

The RING finger protein TRIM37 is encoded by a gene that is amplified in certain breast cancers, but its function is unknown; here, it is shown to mono-ubiquitinate histone H2A and repress gene expression, and to function as a breast cancer oncoprotein.

doi: 10.1038/nature13955


Piezo2 is the major transducer of mechanical forces for touch sensation in mice p.121

Mice lacking the mechanically activated ion channel Piezo2 in both sensory neurons and Merkel cells are almost totally incapable of light-touch sensation while other somatosensory functions, such as mechanical nociception, remain intact, implying that other mechanically activated ion channels must now be identified to account for painful touch sensation.

doi: 10.1038/nature13980

神経科学:ヒトTRAAK K+チャネルのゲーティングと機械感受性の物理的機構

Physical mechanism for gating and mechanosensitivity of the human TRAAK K+ channel p.126

X-ray structures of the human TRAAK mechanosensitive potassium channel reveal how build-up of tension in the lipid membrane can convert the channel from a non-conducting wedge shape associated with an inserted lipid acyl chain that blocks the pore to an expanded cross-sectional shape that prevents lipid entry and thus permits ion conduction.

doi: 10.1038/nature14013

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