Volume 493 Number 7431



Culture shock p.133

Health-benefit claims for Europe’s foods must at last be substantiated by science.

doi: 10.1038/493133b


No easy answer p.133

Demands to analyse Connecticut school shooter’s DNA are misguided and could lead to dangerous stigmatization, or worse.

doi: 10.1038/493133a


Realities of risk p.134

We should focus on dangers that we can control, and particularly on those of our own creation.

doi: 10.1038/493134a



Europe’s untamed carbon p.141

Funding and politics hobble CCS technology, seen as the best hope for cleaning up coal.

doi: 10.1038/493141a


Electron beams set nanostructures aglow p.143

Physicists borrow an old tool from geology to probe the interior layers of metamaterials.

doi: 10.1038/493143a


Tough talk over mercury treaty p.144

Nations debate how to share the costs of cutting emissions.

doi: 10.1038/493144a


Safety of induced stem cells gets a boost p.145

Fears of immune response have been overestimated.

doi: 10.1038/493145a


‘Rehab’ helps errant researchers return to the lab p.147

As cases of misconduct rise, ethicists test an approach for reforming offenders.

doi: 10.1038/493147a

News Features


Dyscalculia: Number games p.150


doi: 10.1038/493150a


Planetary disasters: It could happen one night p.154


doi: 10.1038/493154a

News & Views


Quantum physics: Time crystals p.166


doi: 10.1038/493166a


Animal behaviour: Older but less wise p.167


doi: 10.1038/493167a


Materials science: Topology matters p.168


doi: 10.1038/493168a


Developmental biology: Led by the nose p.169


doi: 10.1038/nature11766


Photonics: Phased array on a fingertip p.170


doi: 10.1038/493170a


Structural biology: Insulin meets its receptor p.171


doi: 10.1038/493171a


Polymer chemistry: Wasted loops quantified p.172


doi: 10.1038/493172a


Earth science: How glaciers grow p.173


doi: 10.1038/493173a



Craniofacial development of hagfishes and the evolution of vertebrates p.175

Cyclostomes, the living jawless vertebrates including hagfishes and lampreys, represent the most basal lineage of vertebrates. Although the monophyly of cyclostomes has been supported by recent molecular analyses, the phenotypic traits of hagfishes, especially the lack of some vertebrate-defining features and the reported endodermal origin of the adenohypophysis, have been interpreted as hagfishes exhibiting a more ancestral state than those of all other vertebrates. Furthermore, the adult anatomy of hagfishes cannot be compared easily with that of lampreys. Here we describe the craniofacial development of a series of staged hagfish embryos, which shows that their adenohypophysis arises ectodermally, consistent with the molecular phylogenetic data. This finding also allowed us to identify a pan-cyclostome pattern, one not shared by jawed vertebrates. Comparative analyses indicated that many of the hagfish-specific traits can be explained by changes secondarily introduced into the hagfish lineage. We also propose a possibility that the pan-cyclostome pattern may reflect the ancestral programme for the craniofacial development of all living vertebrates.

doi: 10.1038/nature11794


Crystallographic snapshot of cellulose synthesis and membrane translocation p.181

Cellulose, the most abundant biological macromolecule, is an extracellular, linear polymer of glucose molecules. It represents an essential component of plant cell walls but is also found in algae and bacteria. In bacteria, cellulose production frequently correlates with the formation of biofilms, a sessile, multicellular growth form. Cellulose synthesis and transport across the inner bacterial membrane is mediated by a complex of the membrane-integrated catalytic BcsA subunit and the membrane-anchored, periplasmic BcsB protein. Here we present the crystal structure of a complex of BcsA and BcsB from Rhodobacter sphaeroides containing a translocating polysaccharide. The structure of the BcsA–BcsB translocation intermediate reveals the architecture of the cellulose synthase, demonstrates how BcsA forms a cellulose-conducting channel, and suggests a model for the coupling of cellulose synthesis and translocation in which the nascent polysaccharide is extended by one glucose molecule at a time.

doi: 10.1038/nature11744


宇宙:M 31の超高光度の恒星質量マイクロクェーサーからの明るい電波放射

Bright radio emission from an ultraluminous stellar-mass microquasar in M 31 p.187

A new ultraluminous X-ray source has been discovered in M 31, whose variability and associated bright, compact radio emission identify it as a stellar-mass black hole accreting close to the Eddington limit.

doi: 10.1038/nature11697


Flows of gas through a protoplanetary gap p.191

Observations of the young star HD 142527, whose disk is separated into inner and outer regions by a gap suggestive of the formation of a gaseous giant planet, show that accretion onto the star is maintained by a flow of gas across the gap, in agreement with dynamical models of planet formation.

doi: 10.1038/nature11769


Large-scale nanophotonic phased array p.195

A large-scale silicon nanophotonic phased array with more than 4,000 antennas is demonstrated using a state-of-the-art complementary metal-oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) process, enabling arbitrary holograms with tunability, which brings phased arrays to many new technological territories.

doi: 10.1038/nature11727


Topological colloids p.200

Topologically distinct colloidal particles introduced into a nematic liquid crystal align and generate topology-constrained three-dimensional director fields and defects in the liquid crystal fluid that can be manipulated with a variety of methods, opening up a new area of exploration in the field of soft matter.

doi: 10.1038/nature11710


Glaciations in response to climate variations preconditioned by evolving topography p.206

Previously glaciated landscapes tend to have large areas concentrated at the same elevation; here it is shown that small climate changes can trigger massive glacial expansions for these landscapes, explaining long-term patterns of erosion in the Quaternary period.

doi: 10.1038/nature11786


Carbon-dioxide-rich silicate melt in the Earth’s upper mantle p.211

Carbon-dioxide-rich kimberlitic melt explains the low velocity and high electrical conductivity of the mantle asthenosphere and controls the flux of incompatible elements at oceanic ridges.

doi: 10.1038/nature11731


Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals the recent origin of most human protein-coding variants p.216

Resequencing of genes from individuals of European and African American ancestry indicates that approximately 73% of all protein-coding SNVs and approximately 86% of SNVs predicted to be deleterious arose in the past 5,000–10,000 years, and that European Americans carry an excess of deleterious variants in essential and Mendelian disease genes compared to African Americans.

doi: 10.1038/nature11690

神経生物学:ショウジョウバエの NOMPCは軽い接触の感知にかかわる機械刺激変換チャネルサブユニットである

Drosophila NOMPC is a mechanotransduction channel subunit for gentle-touch sensation p.221

Mechanotransduction channels studied to date are mainly involved with sensing noxious mechanical stimuli; here NOMPC, a member of the TRP ion channel family, is identified as a pore-forming subunit of an ion channel essential to the sensation of gentle touch in Drosophila.

doi: 10.1038/nature11685


Metabolic control of adult neural stem cell activity by Fasn-dependent lipogenesis p.226

Adult neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) show high levels of fatty acid synthase (Fasn)-dependent de novo lipogenesis, a process that is controlled by Spot14 to regulate the rate of proliferation; this indicates a functional coupling between the regulation of lipid metabolism and adult NSPC proliferation.

doi: 10.1038/nature11689

遺伝:長鎖非コードRNA TINCRによる体細胞組織分化の制御

Control of somatic tissue differentiation by the long non-coding RNA TINCR p.231

The human long non-coding RNA TINCR binds to STAU1 and controls epidermal differentiation by stabilizing key differentiation mRNAs, by means of a TINCR-binding motif found enriched in epidermal differentiation genes.

doi: 10.1038/nature11661


COUP-TFII inhibits TGF-β-induced growth barrier to promote prostate tumorigenesis p.236

A cell-autonomous role for the COUP-TFII transcription factor in prostate cancer cells is identified, in which COUP-TFII inhibits TGF-β signalling by binding to SMAD4; COUP-TFII promotes prostate tumorigenesis and metastasis in a mouse model, and is associated with more aggressive disease in human prostate cancers.

doi: 10.1038/nature11674


How insulin engages its primary binding site on the insulin receptor p.241

The three-dimensional structure of the insulin–insulin receptor complex has proved elusive, confounded by the complexity of producing the receptor protein; here is the first glimpse of the interaction between insulin and its primary binding site on the insulin receptor, a view based on four crystal structures of insulin bound to truncated insulin receptor complexes.

doi: 10.1038/nature11781


Recombination-restarted replication makes inverted chromosome fusions at inverted repeats p.246

A new mechanism of chromosomal rearrangement is identified through the observation that broken or collapsed DNA replication forks restarted by homologous recombination have a high propensity for U-turns at short inverted repeats; the error-prone nature of this mechanism is suggested to contribute to gross chromosomal rearrangements and copy-number variations present in cancer and other genomic disorders.

doi: 10.1038/nature11676


Post-replicative repair involves separase-dependent removal of the kleisin subunit of cohesin p.250

Cohesin, which tethers sister chromatids together, is found to be cleaved by separase after DNA damage, resulting in cohesin dissociation and allowing for post-replicative repair of DNA double-strand breaks.

doi: 10.1038/nature11630


Structure of the proton-gated urea channel from the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori p.255

The crystal structure of the inner-membrane urea channel HpUreI from Helicobacter pylori, the causative organism of peptic ulcers, reveals how the channel selectively transports urea across the membrane and buffers the pathogen’s periplasmic pH against the acidic gastric environment.

doi: 10.1038/nature11684

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