Volume 538 Number 7624



Healing the traumatized minds of refugees p.139

Host countries need to deal with the raised levels of mental-health disorders in migrants if they expect them to integrate well, and that could mean benefits for psychological care in rich countries too.

doi: 10.1038/538139a


Rethink the links between genes and disease p.140

The ExAC database has shown that many mutations thought to be harmful are benign.

doi: 10.1038/538140a


Scientific buzzwords obscure meaning p.140

‘Nexus’ is enjoying new-found popularity. But what does it actually mean?

doi: 10.1038/538140b



Brexit government’s anti-immigration stance spooks UK scientists p.147

Plans to restrict freedom of movement intensify researchers’ fears over June vote.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20755


South Africa plans health study to track half a million people p.148

Network would be Africa's largest demographics project if it can sustain long-term funding.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20754


NASA rethinks approach to Mars exploration p.149

Agency looks to time-allocation model in an era of shifting commercial and international interests.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20758


Safety concerns blight promising cancer therapy p.150

As the first T-cell therapies for tumours near US approval, researchers race to engineer less-toxic alternatives.

doi: 10.1038/538150a


World’s tiniest machines win chemistry Nobel p.152

Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Fraser Stoddart and Bernard Feringa share 2016 award.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20734


Where Nobel winners get their start p.152

Undergraduates from small, elite institutions have the best chance of winning a Nobel prize.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20757

News Features


A radical revision of human genetics p.154


doi: 10.1038/538154a


The mental-health crisis among migrants p.158


doi: 10.1038/538158a

News & Views


Earth science: Megafloods downsized p.174


doi: 10.1038/538174a


Ageing: Measuring our narrow strip of life p.175


doi: 10.1038/nature19475


Planetary science: Moon churn p.177


doi: 10.1038/538177a


In retrospect: Fifty years of C4 photosynthesis p.177


doi: 10.1038/538177b


Population genetics: A map of human wanderlust p.179


doi: 10.1038/nature19472


Animal behaviour: Lethal violence deep in the human lineage p.180


doi: 10.1038/nature19474


ナノテクノロジー:細胞内送達のためのin vitroおよびex vivo戦略

In vitro and ex vivo strategies for intracellular delivery p.183

Intracellular delivery methods, which are critical to both fundamental research applications and cell-based therapies, are reviewed, concentrating on membrane-disruption-based methods and the use of nanotechnology, microfluidics and laboratory-on-chip technology.

doi: 10.1038/nature19764


The evolution of Ebola virus: Insights from the 2013–2016 epidemic p.193

A comprehensive review of how analysis of genome sequences provided insights into the origins, evolution and spread of Ebola virus during the 2013–2016 epidemic in West Africa.

doi: 10.1038/nature19790



The Simons Genome Diversity Project: 300 genomes from 142 diverse populations p.201

Deep whole-genome sequencing of 300 individuals from 142 diverse populations provides insights into key population genetic parameters, shows that all modern human ancestry outside of Africa including in Australasians is consistent with descending from a single founding population, and suggests a higher rate of accumulation of mutations in non-Africans compared to Africans since divergence.

doi: 10.1038/nature18964


A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia p.207

Whole-genome sequence data for 108 individuals representing 28 language groups across Australia and five language groups for Papua New Guinea suggests that Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from Eurasian populations approximately 60–100 thousand years ago, following a single out-of-Africa dispersal and subsequent admixture with archaic populations.

doi: 10.1038/nature18299



Quantifying crater production and regolith overturn on the Moon with temporal imaging p.215

High-resolution ‘before and after’ imaging of the Moon is used to quantify the rate of crater production and provide insights into the cratering process.

doi: 10.1038/nature19829


Enhanced flexoelectric-like response in oxide semiconductors p.219

Semiconducting single crystals of doped barium titanate and titanium dioxide exhibit a flexoelectric-like response upon bending that is much larger than in their undoped, insulating counterparts, reaching unprecedentedly large effective flexoelectric coefficients.

doi: 10.1038/nature19761


Molecular transport through capillaries made with atomic-scale precision p.222

Nanometre-scale graphitic capillaries with atomically flat walls are engineered and studied, revealing unexpectedly fast transport of liquid water through channels that accommodate only a few layers of water.

doi: 10.1038/nature19363


Evolution of global temperature over the past two million years p.226

Reconstruction of global average surface temperature for the past two million years shows continuous cooling until about 1.2 million years ago, followed by a general flattening, with close coupling of global temperature and atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations over the past 800,000 years.

doi: 10.1038/nature19798


Progressive incision of the Channeled Scablands by outburst floods p.229

Simulations of water flow and erosion in Moses Coulee suggest that the floods that carved this canyon only partially filled it, implying much lower flood discharges than previously thought.

doi: 10.1038/nature19817


The phylogenetic roots of human lethal violence p.233

The percentage of human deaths caused by interpersonal violence reflects our membership of a particularly violent clade of mammals, although changes in socio-political organization have led to marked variations in this proportion.

doi: 10.1038/nature19758


Genomic analyses inform on migration events during the peopling of Eurasia p.238

Whole-genome sequencing of individuals from 125 populations provides insight into patterns of genetic diversity, natural selection and human demographic history during the peopling of Eurasia and finds evidence for genetic vestiges of an early expansion of modern humans out of Africa in Papuans.

doi: 10.1038/nature19792

遺伝学:韓国人のゲノムのde novoアセンブリとフェージング解析

De novo assembly and phasing of a Korean human genome OPEN p.243

De novo assembly and phasing of the genome of an individual from Korea using a combination of different sequencing approaches provides a useful population-specific reference genome and represents the most contiguous human genome assembly so far.

doi: 10.1038/nature20098


Genome-wide associations for birth weight and correlations with adult disease p.248

Multi-ancestry genome-wide association analyses for birth weight in 153,781 individuals identified 60 genomic loci in which birth weight and fetal genotype were associated and found an inverse genetic correlation between birth weight and cardiometabolic risk.

doi: 10.1038/nature19806


A cholinergic basal forebrain feeding circuit modulates appetite suppression p.253

A mouse study reveals that acetylcholine signalling networks have a role in the regulation of body weight homeostasis, with increased activity of cholinergic neurons decreasing food consumption through downstream hypothalamic targets.

doi: 10.1038/nature19789


Evidence for a limit to human lifespan p.257

Demographic analysis of life expectancy and maximum reported age at death provides evidence that human lifespan has reached its natural limit.

doi: 10.1038/nature19793


Tissue-specific mutation accumulation in human adult stem cells during life p.260

Stem cells of the liver, colon and small intestine gradually accumulate mutations throughout life at a similar rate even though cancer incidence varies greatly among these tissues.

doi: 10.1038/nature19768


Formation of new chromatin domains determines pathogenicity of genomic duplications p.265

Genomic duplications in the SOX9 region are associated with human disease phenotypes; a study using human cells and mouse models reveals that the duplications can cause the formation of new higher-order chromatin structures called topologically associated domains (TADs) thereby resulting in changes in gene expression.

doi: 10.1038/nature19800


Two distinct RNase activities of CRISPR-C2c2 enable guide-RNA processing and RNA detection p.270

The CRISPR-associated bacterial enzyme C2c2 is shown to contain two separable, distinct sites for the highly sensitive detection and cleavage of single-stranded RNA.

doi: 10.1038/nature19802

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