Volume 521 Number 7553



Trading places p.393

Scientists have a valuable part to play in clarifying the impacts of a proposed trade treaty between the United States and Europe.

doi: 10.1038/521393a


Wakey wakey p.394

Sleeping-beauty papers offer hope that authors of uncited works are in good company.

doi: 10.1038/521394a


Silicon smarts p.394

A package of articles in Nature assesses the state of artificial-intelligence research.

doi: 10.1038/521394b



Giant international trade treaties centre on science p.401

Proposed deals have potential to boost research, but also to weaken health and environmental protections.

doi: 10.1038/521401a


Antibiotic alternatives rev up bacterial arms race p.402

From predatory microbes to toxic metals, nature is inspiring new ways to treat infections.

doi: 10.1038/521402a


Big compromises needed to meet carbon-emissions goal p.404

Independent assessments of national climate plans find little common ground between wealthy and developing countries.

doi: 10.1038/521404a


Ebola teaches tough lessons about rapid research p.405

Public-health officials make plans for how to speed up responses to tropical-disease outbreaks.

doi: 10.1038/521405a

スウェーデン・カロリンスカ研究所の胸部外科医Paolo Macchiariniが行った人工気管移植の先駆的論文には不正があるという調査結果が。

Artificial-windpipe surgeon committed misconduct p.406

Papers authored by Paolo Macchiarini misrepresented success of pioneering procedure.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.17605

News Features


Military technology: Laser weapons get real p.408


doi: 10.1038/521408a


Animal behaviour: Clever fish p.412

スイス・ヌーシャテル大学のRedouan Bsharyは、霊長類に特異的とされてきた、協力、騙し、罰といった高度な社会的行動が魚類にも存在することを、観察と実験を通して明らかにしてきた。

doi: 10.1038/521412a

News & Views


Artificial intelligence: Robots with instincts p.426


doi: 10.1038/521426a


Cell biology: Polarized transport in the Golgi apparatus p.427


doi: 10.1038/nature14521


Ocean science: The origins of a climate oscillation p.428


doi: 10.1038/521428a


Cancer metabolism: A waste of insulin interference p.430


doi: 10.1038/521430a


Microbiology: Taking the bad with the good p.431


doi: 10.1038/nature14525


Palaeoanthropology: The middle Pliocene gets crowded p.432


doi: 10.1038/521432a



New species from Ethiopia further expands Middle Pliocene hominin diversity p.483

A new hominin species, Australopithecus deyiremeda, which lived between 3.5 and 3.3 million years ago, at around the same time as species such as Au. afarensis (‘Lucy’), is discovered in Ethiopia; its morphology suggests that some dental features traditionally associated with later genera such as Paranthropus and Homo emerged earlier than previously thought.

doi: 10.1038/nature14448


Whole–genome characterization of chemoresistant ovarian cancer p.489

Whole-genome sequencing of tumour and germline DNA samples from 92 patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer identifies frequent gene breakages that inactivate the tumour suppressors RB1, NF1, RAD51B and PTEN, and contribute to chemotherapy resistance; acquired resistance was associated with diverse mechanisms such as reversions of germline BRCA1/2 mutations and overexpression of the drug efflux pump MDR1.

doi: 10.1038/nature14410



A kiloparsec-scale internal shock collision in the jet of a nearby radio galaxy p.495

Observations of a collision between two knots in the jet of nearby radio galaxy 3C 264 support the internal shock model of how the jet plasma is energized.

doi: 10.1038/nature14481


Extreme ultraviolet high-harmonic spectroscopy of solids p.498

Intense light interacting with a thin film of silicon dioxide is used to generate broadband extreme ultraviolet radiation; the spectra reveal detailed information on the energy dispersion of the conduction band of silicon dioxide, which is at present inaccessible by conventional photoemission spectroscopy.

doi: 10.1038/nature14456


Robots that can adapt like animals p.503

An intelligent trial-and-error learning algorithm is presented that allows robots to adapt in minutes to compensate for a wide variety of types of damage.

doi: 10.1038/nature14422


Ocean impact on decadal Atlantic climate variability revealed by sea-level observations p.508

The circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean, interpreted via the sea level gradient along the US coast, is found to respond to atmospheric drivers from the North Atlantic Oscillation, and in turn influences the oceanic temperature changes characterized by Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation; in this way, ocean circulation acts as the intermediary between atmospheric and ocean oscillations.

doi: 10.1038/nature14491


Diverse coupling of neurons to populations in sensory cortex p.511

Exploring the relationship between population coupling and neuronal activity reveals that neighbouring neurons can differ in their coupling to the overall firing rate of the population, the circuitry of which may potentially help to explain the complex activity patterns in cortical populations.

doi: 10.1038/nature14273


Counteraction of antibiotic production and degradation stabilizes microbial communities p.516

Mathematical modelling and simulations reveal that including antibiotic degraders in ecological models of microbial species interaction allows the system to robustly move towards an intermixed stable state, more representative of real-world observations.

doi: 10.1038/nature14485


Global genetic analysis in mice unveils central role for cilia in congenital heart disease p.520

A forward genetic screen in fetal mice to identify genes involved in congenital heart disease (CHD) reveals that a large proportion of genes associated with CHD are related to cilia and cilia-transduced cell signalling, with potential implications for the human disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature14269

細胞生物学:C. elegansの加齢過程で見られるマイトファジーとミトコンドリア生合成の協調

Coordination of mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis during ageing in C. elegans p.525

Mitophagy, a selective type of autophagy targeting mitochondria for degradation, interfaces with mitochondrial biogenesis to regulate mitochondrial content and longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

doi: 10.1038/nature14300


Coordinated regulation of bidirectional COPI transport at the Golgi by CDC42 p.529

The COPI complex, which has a role in retrograde transport through the Golgi, is shown to also mediate anterograde tubular transport through the Golgi; in response to external stimuli, the small GTPase CDC42 acts as an essential modulator of bidirectional Golgi transport, and promotes the sorting of cargoes destined for anterograde transport into the tubules at the expense of those targeted for retrograde transport.

doi: 10.1038/nature14457


Defining fundamental steps in the assembly of the Drosophila RNAi enzyme complex p.533

The assembly of single Drosophila RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) is reconstituted using seven purified proteins, revealing that chaperones help stabilize the interaction of the protein heterodimer Dicer-2–R2D2 bound to the short interfering RNA with Ago2.

doi: 10.1038/nature14254


MAD2L2 controls DNA repair at telomeres and DNA breaks by inhibiting 5′ end resection p.537

MAD2L2 regulates DNA repair at deprotected telomeres and at ionizing-radiation-induced double-stranded DNA breaks by inhibiting resection of the 5′ ends; the ends are thus shunted into the non-homologous end-joining pathway.

doi: 10.1038/nature14216


REV7 counteracts DNA double-strand break resection and affects PARP inhibition p.541

Loss of REV7 is shown to regulate end resection of double-stranded DNA breaks in BRCA1-deficient cells, leading to PARP inhibitor resistance and restoration of homologous recombination; REV7 dictates pathway choice in BRCA1-deficient cells and during immunoglobulin class switching.

doi: 10.1038/nature14328


Atomic structure of anthrax protective antigen pore elucidates toxin translocation p.545

Cryo-electron microscopy determination of anthrax toxin protective antigen pore structure at a resolution of 2.9 Å, revealing the catalytic Φ-clamp and the membrane-spanning translocation channel.

doi: 10.1038/nature14247

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