Volume 553 Number 7689


Science has a gambling problem p.379

Researchers and government agencies pay too little attention to pathological gambling. This must change.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01051-z

Science must get ready for the next global flu crisis p.380

A universal flu vaccine is the only serious defence against a future flu pandemic.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01070-w

Science after a year of President Trump p.380

After 12 months in office, Trump’s effects on science have been as bad as feared.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01001-9


First monkeys cloned with technique that made Dolly the sheep p.387

Chinese scientists create cloned primates that could revolutionize studies of human disease.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01027-z

German scientists hope for windfall from incoming government p.388

Research budget could rise to 3.5% of gross domestic product if agreement struck during coalition talks holds.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01026-0

US researchers relieved as government shutdown ends p.389

Science agencies poised to resume normal operations after lawmakers agree on stopgap budget measure that expires on 8 February.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01069-3

China declared world’s largest producer of scientific articles p.390

Report shows increasing international competition, but suggests that United States remains a scientific powerhouse.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00927-4

Controversial femur could belong to ancient human relative p.391

Few scientists have had access to a thigh bone kept in a French collection for over a decade.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00972-z

News Features

Bashing holes in the tale of Earth’s troubled youth p.393

New analyses undermine a popular theory about an intense asteroid storm 4 billion years ago.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01074-6

The lost art of looking at plants p.396

Advances in genomics and imaging are reviving a fading discipline.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01075-5

News & Views

Applied physics: Trapped particle makes 3D images p.408

A technique in which a small particle is trapped and moved by laser light has been used to produce visual representations of objects in three dimensions, offering key advantages over currently used approaches.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00859-z

Structural biology: Ageing-related receptors resolved p.409

Ageing is a regulated process in which hormones have pivotal roles. Crystal structures of two hormone co-receptors should be informative for drug discovery focused on age-related disorders.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-09032-4

Astronomy: A beacon at the dawn of the Universe p.410

Quasars are the brightest continuously emitting sources of radiation in the Universe. Measurements of the most distant quasar ever detected reveal details about the evolution and structure of the early Universe.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00818-8

Sustainability: Satellite images show China going green p.411

Large-scale tree-planting projects have taken place in regions of China prone to soil erosion. Satellite imagery reveals the effects of this work, and shows that a predicted vegetation decline didn’t occur during a period of drought.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00996-5

In retrospect: Eighty years of superfluidity p.413

In 1938, two studies demonstrated that liquid helium-4 flows without friction or viscosity at temperatures close to absolute zero. The finding led to major advances in our understanding of low-temperature physics.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00417-7

Biotechnology: Kiss-and-tell way to track cell contacts p.414

Transient cellular contacts are essential for the generation of an immune response, but these are difficult to measure in vivo. A labelling technique now offers a way to record such interactions between cells.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00488-6


Midbrain circuits that set locomotor speed and gait selection p.455

Speed and gait selection in mice are controlled by glutamatergic excitatory neurons in the cuneiform nucleus and the pedunculopontine nucleus, which act in conjunction to select context-dependent locomotor behaviours.

doi: 10.1038/nature25448

α-Klotho is a non-enzymatic molecular scaffold for FGF23 hormone signalling p.461

The crystal structure of shed ectodomain of α-klotho bound to the FGFR1c ligand-binding domain and FGF23 unveils the mechanism by which klotho co-receptors promote hormonal FGF signalling.

doi: 10.1038/nature25451

Chromosomal instability drives metastasis through a cytosolic DNA response p.467

In chromosomally unstable tumour cells, rupture of micronuclei exposes genomic DNA and activates the cGAS–STING cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway, thereby promoting metastasis.

doi: 10.1038/nature25432


An 800-million-solar-mass black hole in a significantly neutral Universe at a redshift of 7.5 p.473

Observations of a quasar at redshift 7.54, when the Universe was just five per cent of its current age, suggest that the Universe was significantly neutral at this epoch.

doi: 10.1038/nature25180

Orbital misalignment of the Neptune-mass exoplanet GJ 436b with the spin of its cool star p.477

Mapping the three-dimensional trajectory of a Neptune-mass exoplanet across the disk of its cool star reveals that its orbit is nearly perpendicular to the stellar equator, implying the existence of a yet-undetected outer companion planet.

doi: 10.1038/nature24677

Enhancement and sign change of magnetic correlations in a driven quantum many-body system p.481

By periodically modulating the position of degenerate fermions unidirectionally in a three-dimensional optical lattice, antiferromagnetic correlations in this many-body system can be reduced, enhanced or even switched to ferromagnetic correlations.

doi: 10.1038/nature25135

A photophoretic-trap volumetric display p.486

Photophoretic optical trapping of cellulose particles and persistence of vision are used to produce real-space volumetric images that can be viewed from all angles, in geometries unachievable by holograms and light-field technologies.

doi: 10.1038/nature25176

Early episodes of high-pressure core formation preserved in plume mantle p.491

Xenon isotopic anomalies found in modern plume rocks are explained as the result of iodine-to-plutonium fractionations during early, high-pressure episodes of core formation.

doi: 10.1038/nature25446

Monitoring T cell–dendritic cell interactions in vivo by intercellular enzymatic labelling p.496

Interactions between receptors and ligands on immune cells are visualized in vivo and in vitro using an enzyme-tagged ligand that, when cells interact, leaves behind a detectable label on the receptor-expressing cell.

doi: 10.1038/nature25442

Structures of β-klotho reveal a ‘zip code’-like mechanism for endocrine FGF signalling p.501

Crystal structures of free and ligand-bound β-klotho reveal that it acts as a primary receptor for FGF21, and demonstrate how a sugar-cutting enzyme has evolved to become a receptor for hormones that regulate metabolic processes.

doi: 10.1038/nature25010

Regulation of embryonic haematopoietic multipotency by EZH1 p.506

The production of haematopoietic stem cells is repressed during early mammalian embryogenesis by an epigenetic mechanism that involves the action of the Polycomb protein EZH1.

doi: 10.1038/nature25435

Clonal evolution mechanisms in NT5C2 mutant-relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia p.511

Mutations in the nucleotidase-encoding gene NT5C2 drive chemotherapy resistance in relapsed acute lymphoid leukaemia but the mutations also lead to a loss-of-fitness phenotype and to collateral drug sensitivity, which could be exploited for therapy.

doi: 10.1038/nature25186

A Myc enhancer cluster regulates normal and leukaemic haematopoietic stem cell hierarchies p.515

A blood enhancer cluster forms a highly combinatorial system that allows precise control of Myc expression across normal and leukaemic haematopoietic stem-cell hierarchies.

doi: 10.1038/nature25193

Structure and mutagenesis reveal essential capsid protein interactions for KSHV replication p.521

Cryo-electron microscopy reveals the structure of the Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus capsid, and experiments with polypeptides that mimic the smallest capsid protein demonstrate the potential for structure-derived insights to help to develop antiviral agents.

doi: 10.1038/nature25438

Atomic structure of the eukaryotic intramembrane RAS methyltransferase ICMT p.526

The X-ray structure of the integral membrane protein isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase suggests mechanisms by which it recognizes both water-soluble and membrane-bound reactants to catalyze the methylation of RAS and other CAAX proteins at the membrane-cytosol interface.

doi: 10.1038/nature25439

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