Volume 553 Number 7688



China needs to listen to its researchers to become a scientific superpower p.249

The country’s research could soon dominate the world stage, but pitfalls lie in wait.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00659-5


Laws are not the only way to boost immunization p.249

The French government must mitigate the risks in its legal imposition of vaccinations by promoting more coherent and proactive vaccine policies.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00660-y


Maths strikes a blow for democracy p.250

Republican politicians caught unfairly altering electoral districts thanks to computer algorithm.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00661-x


日本のSuperKEKB加速器のアップグレードが完了し、標準理論を超える粒子を探すBelle II実験へ。

Revamped collider hunts for cracks in the fundamental theory of physics p.257

Experiment smashes electrons into positrons to search for unseen particles and problems with overarching physics framework.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00162-x


US immigration fight heightens legal limbo for young 'Dreamer' scientists p.258

Court temporarily revives protections for some unauthorized immigrants as Trump and Congress clash over policy reform.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00489-5


Synthetic species made to shun sex with wild organisms p.259

Engineered organisms that cannot breed with wild counterparts could prevent transgenic plants from spreading genes to unmodified crops and weeds, and battle pests.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00625-1


China enters the battle for AI talent p.260

The country’s ambition to become the global leader in artificial intelligence will require a large, highly skilled workforce.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00604-6


NASA test proves pulsars can function as a celestial GPS p.261

Experiment shows how spacecraft could use stellar signals to navigate in deep space without human instruction.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00478-8

News Features


Could baby’s first bacteria take root before birth? p.264


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00664-8


The dark side of light: how artificial lighting is harming the natural world p.268


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00665-7

News & Views


Cognitive neuroscience: Mice learn to avoid the rat race p.284


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08835-9


Microbiology: Pathogens boosted by food additive p.285

今回、ディフィシレ菌(Clostridium difficile)菌の流行株が、異常に低濃度の食品添加物トレハロースの下で増殖することが見いだされた。これによって、2001年以降のディフィシレ菌感染症の急増を説明できる可能性がある。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08775-4


Chemical biology: Strategy for making safer opioids bolstered p.286


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00045-1


Global warming: Homing in on a key factor of climate change p.288


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00480-0


Molecular biology: Limitless translation limits translation p.289


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08785-2



Dietary trehalose enhances virulence of epidemic Clostridium difficile p.291

Two hypervirulent ribotypes of the enteric pathogen Clostridium difficile, RT027 and RT078, have independently acquired unique mechanisms to metabolize low concentrations of the disaccharide trehalose, suggesting a correlation between the emergence of these ribotypes and the widespread adoption of trehalose in the human diet.

doi: 10.1038/nature25178


Molecular mechanism of promoter opening by RNA polymerase III p.295

Cryo-EM structures of Pol III preinitiation complexes are presented, comprising Pol III and the transcription factor TFIIIB bound to a natural promoter in different functional states.

doi: 10.1038/nature25440


Structural basis of RNA polymerase III transcription initiation p.301

Detailed structures of yeast RNA polymerase III and its initiation complex shed light on how the transcription of essential non-coding RNAs begins and allow comparisons with other RNA polymerases.

doi: 10.1038/nature25441



Black-hole-regulated star formation in massive galaxies p.307

The star formation histories of galaxies, as encapsulated in their integrated optical spectra, depend on the mass of the black holes present at their centres.

doi: 10.1038/nature24999


Large granulation cells on the surface of the giant star π1 Gruis p.310

Convection plays a major part in many astrophysical processes, including energy transport, pulsation, dynamos and winds on evolved stars, in dust clouds and on brown dwarfs. Most of our knowledge about stellar convection has come from studying the Sun: about two million convective cells with typical sizes of around 2,000 kilometres across are present on the surface of the Sun—a phenomenon known as granulation. But on the surfaces of giant and supergiant stars there should be only a few large (several tens of thousands of times larger than those on the Sun) convective cells, owing to low surface gravity. Deriving the characteristic properties of convection (such as granule size and contrast) for the most evolved giant and supergiant stars is challenging because their photospheres are obscured by dust, which partially masks the convective patterns. These properties can be inferred from geometric model fitting, but this indirect method does not provide information about the physical origin of the convective cells. Here we report interferometric images of the surface of the evolved giant star π1 Gruis, of spectral type S5,7. Our images show a nearly circular, dust-free atmosphere, which is very compact and only weakly affected by molecular opacity. We find that the stellar surface has a complex convective pattern with an average intensity contrast of 12 per cent, which increases towards shorter wavelengths. We derive a characteristic horizontal granule size of about 1.2 × 1011 metres, which corresponds to 27 per cent of the diameter of the star. Our measurements fall along the scaling relations between granule size, effective temperature and surface gravity that are predicted by simulations of stellar surface convection.

doi: 10.1038/nature25001


Systems of mechanized and reactive droplets powered by multi-responsive surfactants p.313

Droplets covered with surfactants that respond to multiple stimuli can assemble into hierarchical assemblies or non-spherical, patchy structures, mimic systems of mechanical gears, and even harbour sequences of chemical reactions.

doi: 10.1038/nature25137


Emergent constraint on equilibrium climate sensitivity from global temperature variability p.319

Equilibrium climate sensitivity—which remains the largest uncertainty in climate projections—is constrained to a ‘likely’ range of 2.2–3.4 K by taking into account the variability of global temperature about long-term historical warming.

doi: 10.1038/nature25450


A record of deep-ocean dissolved O2 from the oxidation state of iron in submarine basalts p.323

Deep-ocean O2 concentrations over the past 3.5 billion years are estimated using the oxidation state of iron in submarine basalts and indicate that deep-ocean oxygenation occurred in the Phanerozoic.

doi: 10.1038/nature25009


Warfare and wildlife declines in Africa’s protected areas p.328

Assessment of the impact of armed conflict on large herbivores in Africa between 1946 and 2010 reveals that high conflict frequency is an important predictor of wildlife population declines.

doi: 10.1038/nature25194


A global map of travel time to cities to assess inequalities in accessibility in 2015 p.333

Travel time to cities in 2015 is quantified in a high-resolution global map that will be useful for socio-economic policy design and conservation research.

doi: 10.1038/nature25181


Paternal chromosome loss and metabolic crisis contribute to hybrid inviability in Xenopus p.337

In hybrid inviability between Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis, genomic regions on two X. laevis chromosomes are incompatible with the X. tropicalis cytoplasm and are mis-segregated during mitosis, leading to unbalanced gene expression at the maternal to zygotic transition, followed by cell-autonomous catastrophic embryo death.

doi: 10.1038/nature25188


An extracellular network of Arabidopsis leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases p.342

The cells of multicellular organisms receive extracellular signals using surface receptors. The extracellular domains (ECDs) of cell surface receptors function as interaction platforms, and as regulatory modules of receptor activation. Understanding how interactions between ECDs produce signal-competent receptor complexes is challenging because of their low biochemical tractability. In plants, the discovery of ECD interactions is complicated by the massive expansion of receptor families, which creates tremendous potential for changeover in receptor interactions. The largest of these families in Arabidopsis thaliana consists of 225 evolutionarily related leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases (LRR-RKs), which function in the sensing of microorganisms, cell expansion, stomata development and stem-cell maintenance. Although the principles that govern LRR-RK signalling activation are emerging, the systems-level organization of this family of proteins is unknown. Here, to address this, we investigated 40,000 potential ECD interactions using a sensitized high-throughput interaction assay, and produced an LRR-based cell surface interaction network (CSILRR) that consists of 567 interactions. To demonstrate the power of CSILRR for detecting biologically relevant interactions, we predicted and validated the functions of uncharacterized LRR-RKs in plant growth and immunity. In addition, we show that CSILRR operates as a unified regulatory network in which the LRR-RKs most crucial for its overall structure are required to prevent the aberrant signalling of receptors that are several network-steps away. Thus, plants have evolved LRR-RK networks to process extracellular signals into carefully balanced responses.

doi: 10.1038/nature25184


High response rate to PD-1 blockade in desmoplastic melanomas p.347

Immune checkpoint blockade with anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 agents produces a high response rate in patients with desmoplastic melanoma.

doi: 10.1038/nature25187


Pharmacological activation of REV-ERBs is lethal in cancer and oncogene-induced senescence p.351

REV-ERBs, nuclear hormone receptors that regulate transcription as part of the circadian clock cell machinery, inhibit autophagy and lipogenesis in premalignant and malignant cells and impair tumour growth in vivo.

doi: 10.1038/nature25170

細胞生物学:AMD1 mRNAは分子記憶形成の機構としてリボソーム停止を利用する

AMD1 mRNA employs ribosome stalling as a mechanism for molecular memory formation p.356

A regulatory mechanism that limits the number of complete protein molecules that can be synthesized from a single mRNA molecule of the human AMD1 gene encoding adenosylmethionine decarboxylase 1.

doi: 10.1038/nature25174


Architecture of a channel-forming O-antigen polysaccharide ABC transporter p.361

The crystal structure of a channel-forming O-antigen polysaccharide ABC transporter suggests a novel biopolymer translocation mechanism.

doi: 10.1038/nature25190

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