目次

Editorials

ミトコンドリア置換を容認する英国の新指針は、賢明な一歩前進である。

Power play p.425

The replacement of mitochondria does not signal ethical problems.

doi: 10.1038/525425b

スクラブ入りスキンケア製品に含まれるプラスチック微粒子は海洋汚染の深刻な原因となっており、使用をやめるべきだ。

In the name of beauty p.425

The ugly truth is that the plastic microbeads found in many skin scrubs and other personal-care products are a serious pollutant of the marine environment. They should be phased out rapidly.

doi: 10.1038/525425a

STAP現象の再解析は、科学とは自己修正する営みである、ということを実証している。

STAP revisited p.426

Reanalysis of the controversy provides a strong example of the self-correcting nature of science.

doi: 10.1038/525426a

News

難民たちが高等教育を受ける機会を奪われたことで、中東再建が妨げられる恐れも。

Lost generation looms as refugees miss university p.433

Educational void risks hampering reconstruction in Middle East.

doi: 10.1038/525433a

国連が、新たな「持続可能な開発アジェンダ」を設定へ。

UN approves global to-do list for next 15 years p.434

Sustainable development goals aim to wipe out poverty without wrecking the environment.

doi: 10.1038/525434a

脳電気刺激治療が小児の学習障害に効果があることが分かったが、長期的影響などの懸念も。

Brain stimulation in children spurs hope — and concern p.436

Treatment of developing brains offers greater scope for improvement but also intensifies risks.

doi: 10.1038/525436a

現政府の科学軽視姿勢を変えたいと、カナダの科学者たちが総選挙に望みを。

Canadian election spotlights scientists' frustrations p.437

Prime Minister Stephen Harper's government has cut funding and limited researchers' influence over policy.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18381

インド初の天文観測衛星「ASTROSAT」の打ち上げが目前に。

Indian ASTROSAT telescope set for global stardom p.438

Observatory will extend the capabilities of existing US and European facilities, and boost Indian research.

doi: 10.1038/525438a

米国のスクリプス研究所の新首脳陣が決まり、財政運営が焦点に。

Scripps Research Institute appoints leadership duo p.438

Pair will focus on resolving financial issues after controversial failed merger.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18391

News Features

プライバシー:ビッグデータをのぞき見る

Researchers wrestle with a privacy problem p.440

納税や医療、福祉などの行政管理データは科学者にとって宝の山だが、プライバシーを確実に守れることが大前提となる。

doi: 10.1038/525440a

健康:ミトコンドリアの謎

The hidden risks for ‘three-person’ babies p.444

細胞の「発電所」ミトコンドリアの担う役割は予想以上に多い可能性があり、これがミトコンドリア置換療法にも関わってくる恐れがある。

doi: 10.1038/525444a

News & Views

フォーラム:パーキンソン病:毒性コアの結晶

Parkinson's disease: Crystals of a toxic core p.458

パーキンソン病患者の脳内で凝集するタンパク質であるα-シヌクレインが作る集合体のコア領域の構造が超高分解能で決定された。神経生物学と構造生物学をそれぞれ専門とする研究者2人にこの進展の意味するところを論じてもらった。

doi: 10.1038/nature15630

海洋科学:暴風が海洋中の栄養素を明るみに出す

Marine science: Storms bring ocean nutrients to light p.460

1回の暴風雨によって暗い深海から太陽光が当たる海洋表面へと巻き上げられる栄養素の量が船舶と海洋観測ロボットを使って定量された。これは暴風雨が海洋のバイオマス生産にどのような影響を与えるかを評価するための第一歩である。

doi: 10.1038/525460a

心臓生物学:梗塞を起こした心臓を癒やすタンパク質

Cardiac biology: A protein for healing infarcted hearts p.461

ヒト心臓の組織は損傷を受けた後に再生する能力が非常に低い。だが、普段は心外膜領域で発現されているタンパク質のFstl1が、心臓発作後の再生を誘導することが明らかにされた。

doi: 10.1038/nature15217

核物理学:中性子をひとひねり

Nuclear physics: Neutrons with a twist p.462

本来、中性子は軌道角運動量を持たない。しかし、光子が軌道角運動量を持つことが明らかになってから23年後の今、中性子ビームがこの特性を獲得できることが実証された。これは画像化技術の向上を期待させる結果である。

doi: 10.1038/525462a

進化生物学:感染が多様性を押し上げる

Evolutionary biology: Infection elevates diversity p.464

親の卵あるいは精子中で染色体シャッフリングが起こると、次の世代に全く新しい特徴が生じることがある。ショウジョウバエでは、寄生生物に感染した母親からはこうした組換えを持つ子孫が、未感染の母親に比べて多く生まれるらしい。

doi: 10.1038/525464a

計算宇宙物理学:正体が見えてきた怪物銀河

Computational astrophysics: Monstrous galaxies unmasked p.465

最も明るい銀河が形成される仕組みは謎だったが、その解明が近づいているようだ。新たに行われたシミュレーションによって、このような銀河は長寿命の大質量銀河で、大量のガスの落下と超新星が駆動するアウトフローの再利用によってエネルギーを獲得していることが示された。

doi: 10.1038/525465a

エピジェネティクス:悪いカルマを持つアブラヤシ

Epigenetics: The karma of oil palms p.466

クローン起源のアブラヤシでは、こうした起源にもかかわらず、一部の木が油のほとんど採れない果実をつけることがある。Karmaと呼ばれるDNA領域に結合しているメチル基の数によって、こうした欠陥のある木を判別できることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature15216

Review

幹細胞:分化多能性の顕著な特徴

Hallmarks of pluripotency p.469

In response to the need for a defined set of criteria to assess stem-cell potency, this review proposes guidelines for the evaluation of newly derived pluripotent stem cells, from functional assays to integrative molecular analyses of transcriptional, epigenetic and metabolic states.

doi: 10.1038/nature15515

Articles

心臓生物学:心外膜FSTL1再構成が成体哺乳類心臓を再生する

Epicardial FSTL1 reconstitution regenerates the adult mammalian heart p.479

The secreted factor follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) becomes undetectable in the epicardium of infarcted hearts; when reconstituted using a collagen patch sutured onto an infarcted heart, FSTL1 can induce cell cycle entry and division of pre-existing cardiomyocytes, thus boosting heart function and survival in mouse and pig models of myocardial infarction.

doi: 10.1038/nature15372

構造生物学:見えないほど小さい結晶から得られたα-シヌクレイン毒性コアの構造

Structure of the toxic core of α-synuclein from invisible crystals p.486

A short segment of α-synuclein called NACore (residues 68–78) is responsible for the formation of amyloid aggregates responsible for cytotoxicity in Parkinson disease; here the nanocrystal structure of this invisible-to-optical-microscopy segment is determined using micro-electron diffraction, offering insight into its function and simultaneously demonstrating the first use of micro-electron diffraction to solve a previously unknown protein structure.

doi: 10.1038/nature15368

構造生物学:哺乳類eIF3の43S開始前複合体中での構造

Structure of mammalian eIF3 in the context of the 43S preinitiation complex p.491

The cryo-electron microscopy structure of the eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) within the larger 43S complex is determined; the improved resolution enables visualization of the secondary structures of the subunits, as well as the contacts between eIF3 and both eIF2 and DHX29.

doi: 10.1038/nature14891

Letters

宇宙物理学:10億年に及ぶガスの落下による明るいサブミリ波銀河の形成

The formation of submillimetre-bright galaxies from gas infall over a billion years p.496

Submillimetre-bright galaxies at high redshift are the most luminous, heavily star-forming galaxies in the Universe, but cosmological simulations of such galaxies have so far been unsuccessful; now a cosmological hydrodynamic galaxy formation simulation is reported that can form a submillimetre galaxy that simultaneously satisfies the broad range of observed physical constraints.

doi: 10.1038/nature15383

惑星科学:67P/チュリュモフ・ゲラシメンコ彗星上の水氷の日周サイクル

The diurnal cycle of water ice on comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko p.500

Observations of water ice on the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko show the ice appearing and disappearing in a cyclic pattern that follows local illumination conditions, providing a source of localized activity and leading to cycling modification of the ice abundance on the surface.

doi: 10.1038/nature14869

量子物理学:中性子の軌道角運動量を制御する

Controlling neutron orbital angular momentum p.504

Interferometry reveals quantized changes in the angular momentum of neutrons that have been ‘twisted’ by passage through a spiral staircase structure.

doi: 10.1038/nature15265

有機化学:単純なピロール系出発物質からの(+)-バツェラジンBの簡便合成

A concise synthesis of (+)-batzelladine B from simple pyrrole-based starting materials p.507

The complex anti-HIV alkaloid (+)-batzelladine B is efficiently synthesized by using aromatic heterocycles as synthetic precursors.

doi: 10.1038/nature14902

地球力学:地球で最も長い大陸ホットスポット軌跡に沿ってリソスフェアが支配するマグマ組成

Lithospheric controls on magma composition along Earth’s longest continental hotspot track p.511

A 2,000-kilometre-long volcanic hotspot track is identified in eastern Australia, along which magma composition and volcanic outcrop show a strong correlation with lithospheric thickness, providing an observational constraint on the sub-continental melting depth of mantle plumes.

doi: 10.1038/nature14903

生態学:気候変動に対する生物種の応答を形作る新規の競争相手

Novel competitors shape species’ responses to climate change p.515

Species’ range dynamics depend not only on their ability to track climate, but also on the migration of their competitors, and the extent to which novel and current competitors exert differing competitive effects.

doi: 10.1038/nature14952

神経科学:視床下部の性的二型性回路による母親による子の世話とオキシトシン分泌の制御

A sexually dimorphic hypothalamic circuit controls maternal care and oxytocin secretion p.519

Sexual dimorphism in neuronal circuits is proposed to underlie sex differences in behaviour, such as virgin female mice acting maternally toward alien pups, while males ignore or attack them; here the authors show that specific tyrosine hydroxylase-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus are more numerous in mothers than in virgin females and males, and that they control parental behaviour in a sex-specific manner.

doi: 10.1038/nature15378

発生生物学:ユビキチンに依存した翻訳調節による細胞運命の決定

Cell-fate determination by ubiquitin-dependent regulation of translation p.523

This study shows that a vertebrate-specific ubiquitin ligase modulates neural crest specification in Xenopus development and human embryonic stem-cell differentiation; a proteomics approach reveals that the CUL3KBTBD8 ligase modulates translation by targeting the modulators of ribosomes production NOLC1 and its paralogue TCOF1, which is mutated in a neural-crest-associated syndrome.

doi: 10.1038/nature14978

免疫学:好中球の老化はマイクロバイオームによって調節される

Neutrophil ageing is regulated by the microbiome p.528

Neutrophil ageing, which encourages inflammation and vaso-occlusion in a mouse model of sickle-cell disease, is shown to depend on the intestinal microbiota and activation of the TLR/Myd88 signalling pathways.

doi: 10.1038/nature15367

農業遺伝学:アブラヤシのマントル形成型ソマクローナル変異株の出現にはKarmaトランスポゾンのメチル化喪失が関わっている

Loss of Karma transposon methylation underlies the mantled somaclonal variant of oil palm p.533

Somaclonal variation arises in plants and animals when differentiated somatic cells are induced into a pluripotent state, but the resulting clones differ from each other and from their parents. In agriculture, somaclonal variation has hindered the micropropagation of elite hybrids and genetically modified crops, but the mechanism responsible remains unknown. The oil palm fruit ‘mantled’ abnormality is a somaclonal variant arising from tissue culture that drastically reduces yield, and has largely halted efforts to clone elite hybrids for oil production. Widely regarded as an epigenetic phenomenon, ‘mantling’ has defied explanation, but here we identify the MANTLED locus using epigenome-wide association studies of the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis. DNA hypomethylation of a LINE retrotransposon related to rice Karma, in the intron of the homeotic gene DEFICIENS, is common to all mantled clones and is associated with alternative splicing and premature termination. Dense methylation near the Karma splice site (termed the Good Karma epiallele) predicts normal fruit set, whereas hypomethylation (the Bad Karma epiallele) predicts homeotic transformation, parthenocarpy and marked loss of yield. Loss of Karma methylation and of small RNA in tissue culture contributes to the origin of mantled, while restoration in spontaneous revertants accounts for non-Mendelian inheritance. The ability to predict and cull mantling at the plantlet stage will facilitate the introduction of higher performing clones and optimize environmentally sensitive land resources.

doi: 10.1038/nature15365

がん:BET阻害剤耐性は白血病幹細胞から生じる

BET inhibitor resistance emerges from leukaemia stem cells p.538

BET inhibitors that target bromodomain chromatin readers such as BRD4 are being explored as potential therapeutics in cancer; here, in a MLL–AF9 mouse leukaemia model, resistance to BET inhibitors is shown to emerge from leukaemia stem cells, and be partly due to increased Wnt/β-catenin signalling.

doi: 10.1038/nature14888

がん:転写の可塑性はBET阻害に対する一次耐性および獲得耐性を促進する

Transcriptional plasticity promotes primary and acquired resistance to BET inhibition p.543

BET bromodomain inhibitors are being explored as potential therapeutics in cancer; here, AML cells are shown to evade sensitivity to BET inhibition through rewiring the transcriptional regulation of BRD4 target genes such as MYC in a process that is facilitated by suppression of PRC2 and WNT signalling activation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14898

構造生物学:ダブルバレル型フッ化物イオンチャネルの結晶構造

Crystal structures of a double-barrelled fluoride ion channel p.548

Microorganisms can export toxic fluoride ions through highly selective channels of the Fluc family; here, the crystal structures of two bacterial Fluc homologues are presented, revealing that selectivity for small F− ions may arise from the proteins’ narrow pores and unusual anion coordination.

doi: 10.1038/nature14981

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