Volume 525 Number 7570



In the name of beauty p.425

The ugly truth is that the plastic microbeads found in many skin scrubs and other personal-care products are a serious pollutant of the marine environment. They should be phased out rapidly.

doi: 10.1038/525425a


Power play p.425

The replacement of mitochondria does not signal ethical problems.

doi: 10.1038/525425b


STAP revisited p.426

Reanalysis of the controversy provides a strong example of the self-correcting nature of science.

doi: 10.1038/525426a



Lost generation looms as refugees miss university p.433

Educational void risks hampering reconstruction in Middle East.

doi: 10.1038/525433a


UN approves global to-do list for next 15 years p.434

Sustainable development goals aim to wipe out poverty without wrecking the environment.

doi: 10.1038/525434a


Brain stimulation in children spurs hope — and concern p.436

Treatment of developing brains offers greater scope for improvement but also intensifies risks.

doi: 10.1038/525436a


Canadian election spotlights scientists' frustrations p.437

Prime Minister Stephen Harper's government has cut funding and limited researchers' influence over policy.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18381


Scripps Research Institute appoints leadership duo p.438

Pair will focus on resolving financial issues after controversial failed merger.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18391


Indian ASTROSAT telescope set for global stardom p.438

Observatory will extend the capabilities of existing US and European facilities, and boost Indian research.

doi: 10.1038/525438a

News Features


Researchers wrestle with a privacy problem p.440


doi: 10.1038/525440a


The hidden risks for ‘three-person’ babies p.444


doi: 10.1038/525444a

News & Views


Parkinson's disease: Crystals of a toxic core p.458


doi: 10.1038/nature15630


Marine science: Storms bring ocean nutrients to light p.460


doi: 10.1038/525460a


Cardiac biology: A protein for healing infarcted hearts p.461


doi: 10.1038/nature15217


Nuclear physics: Neutrons with a twist p.462


doi: 10.1038/525462a


Evolutionary biology: Infection elevates diversity p.464


doi: 10.1038/525464a


Computational astrophysics: Monstrous galaxies unmasked p.465


doi: 10.1038/525465a


Epigenetics: The karma of oil palms p.466


doi: 10.1038/nature15216



Hallmarks of pluripotency p.469

In response to the need for a defined set of criteria to assess stem-cell potency, this review proposes guidelines for the evaluation of newly derived pluripotent stem cells, from functional assays to integrative molecular analyses of transcriptional, epigenetic and metabolic states.

doi: 10.1038/nature15515



Epicardial FSTL1 reconstitution regenerates the adult mammalian heart p.479

The secreted factor follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) becomes undetectable in the epicardium of infarcted hearts; when reconstituted using a collagen patch sutured onto an infarcted heart, FSTL1 can induce cell cycle entry and division of pre-existing cardiomyocytes, thus boosting heart function and survival in mouse and pig models of myocardial infarction.

doi: 10.1038/nature15372


Structure of the toxic core of α-synuclein from invisible crystals p.486

A short segment of α-synuclein called NACore (residues 68–78) is responsible for the formation of amyloid aggregates responsible for cytotoxicity in Parkinson disease; here the nanocrystal structure of this invisible-to-optical-microscopy segment is determined using micro-electron diffraction, offering insight into its function and simultaneously demonstrating the first use of micro-electron diffraction to solve a previously unknown protein structure.

doi: 10.1038/nature15368


Structure of mammalian eIF3 in the context of the 43S preinitiation complex p.491

The cryo-electron microscopy structure of the eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) within the larger 43S complex is determined; the improved resolution enables visualization of the secondary structures of the subunits, as well as the contacts between eIF3 and both eIF2 and DHX29.

doi: 10.1038/nature14891



The formation of submillimetre-bright galaxies from gas infall over a billion years p.496

Submillimetre-bright galaxies at high redshift are the most luminous, heavily star-forming galaxies in the Universe, but cosmological simulations of such galaxies have so far been unsuccessful; now a cosmological hydrodynamic galaxy formation simulation is reported that can form a submillimetre galaxy that simultaneously satisfies the broad range of observed physical constraints.

doi: 10.1038/nature15383


The diurnal cycle of water ice on comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko p.500

Observations of water ice on the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko show the ice appearing and disappearing in a cyclic pattern that follows local illumination conditions, providing a source of localized activity and leading to cycling modification of the ice abundance on the surface.

doi: 10.1038/nature14869


Controlling neutron orbital angular momentum p.504

Interferometry reveals quantized changes in the angular momentum of neutrons that have been ‘twisted’ by passage through a spiral staircase structure.

doi: 10.1038/nature15265


A concise synthesis of (+)-batzelladine B from simple pyrrole-based starting materials p.507

The complex anti-HIV alkaloid (+)-batzelladine B is efficiently synthesized by using aromatic heterocycles as synthetic precursors.

doi: 10.1038/nature14902


Lithospheric controls on magma composition along Earth’s longest continental hotspot track p.511

A 2,000-kilometre-long volcanic hotspot track is identified in eastern Australia, along which magma composition and volcanic outcrop show a strong correlation with lithospheric thickness, providing an observational constraint on the sub-continental melting depth of mantle plumes.

doi: 10.1038/nature14903


Novel competitors shape species’ responses to climate change p.515

Species’ range dynamics depend not only on their ability to track climate, but also on the migration of their competitors, and the extent to which novel and current competitors exert differing competitive effects.

doi: 10.1038/nature14952


A sexually dimorphic hypothalamic circuit controls maternal care and oxytocin secretion p.519

Sexual dimorphism in neuronal circuits is proposed to underlie sex differences in behaviour, such as virgin female mice acting maternally toward alien pups, while males ignore or attack them; here the authors show that specific tyrosine hydroxylase-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus are more numerous in mothers than in virgin females and males, and that they control parental behaviour in a sex-specific manner.

doi: 10.1038/nature15378


Cell-fate determination by ubiquitin-dependent regulation of translation p.523

This study shows that a vertebrate-specific ubiquitin ligase modulates neural crest specification in Xenopus development and human embryonic stem-cell differentiation; a proteomics approach reveals that the CUL3KBTBD8 ligase modulates translation by targeting the modulators of ribosomes production NOLC1 and its paralogue TCOF1, which is mutated in a neural-crest-associated syndrome.

doi: 10.1038/nature14978


Neutrophil ageing is regulated by the microbiome p.528

Neutrophil ageing, which encourages inflammation and vaso-occlusion in a mouse model of sickle-cell disease, is shown to depend on the intestinal microbiota and activation of the TLR/Myd88 signalling pathways.

doi: 10.1038/nature15367


Loss of Karma transposon methylation underlies the mantled somaclonal variant of oil palm p.533

The oil palm fruit ‘mantled’ abnormality is a somaclonal variant that markedly reduces yield; here, a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis finds that hypomethylation of a single Karma family retrotransposon embedded in a homeotic gene intron is common to all mantled clones and is associated with aberrant splicing and termination of the gene transcript, and that loss of methylation predicts a loss of oil palm yield.

doi: 10.1038/nature15365


BET inhibitor resistance emerges from leukaemia stem cells p.538

BET inhibitors that target bromodomain chromatin readers such as BRD4 are being explored as potential therapeutics in cancer; here, in a MLL–AF9 mouse leukaemia model, resistance to BET inhibitors is shown to emerge from leukaemia stem cells, and be partly due to increased Wnt/β-catenin signalling.

doi: 10.1038/nature14888


Transcriptional plasticity promotes primary and acquired resistance to BET inhibition p.543

BET bromodomain inhibitors are being explored as potential therapeutics in cancer; here, AML cells are shown to evade sensitivity to BET inhibition through rewiring the transcriptional regulation of BRD4 target genes such as MYC in a process that is facilitated by suppression of PRC2 and WNT signalling activation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14898


Crystal structures of a double-barrelled fluoride ion channel p.548

Microorganisms can export toxic fluoride ions through highly selective channels of the Fluc family; here, the crystal structures of two bacterial Fluc homologues are presented, revealing that selectivity for small F− ions may arise from the proteins’ narrow pores and unusual anion coordination.

doi: 10.1038/nature14981

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