Out of Africa p.139

The Ebola outbreak in West Africa must be shut down now, or the disease will continue to spread.

doi: 10.1038/514139a


A little knowledge p.139

The significance of expertise passed on by direct contact— tacit knowledge — is moot.

doi: 10.1038/514139b


Holy cows p.140

A mass beaching of walruses in Alaska is a sign of things to come.

doi: 10.1038/514140a



US plans upgrade for ageing Greenland research station p.147

But proposals spur concern that development will pollute the nearly pristine site.

doi: 10.1038/514147a


Australian cuts rile researchers p.148

Political scorn on top of shrinking funds creates hostility between scientists and Tony Abbott’s government.

doi: 10.1038/514148a


Rivals join forces to nail down Big G p.150

Metrologists meet to design the ultimate gravitational-constant experiment.

doi: 10.1038/514150a


Marmosets are stars of Japan’s ambitious brain project p.151

Ten-year brain-mapping effort will use monkeys to study human neural and mental disorders.

doi: 10.1038/514151a


Blue LED wins physics Nobel p.152

Physics prize recognizes potential of invention with power to reduce global electricity consumption.

doi: 10.1038/514152a


Prize for place cells p.153

Discoverers of brain’s navigation system get physiology Nobel.

doi: 10.1038/514153a

News Features


Neuroscience: Brains of Norway p.154


doi: 10.1038/514154a


Large Hadron Collider: The big reboot p.158


doi: 10.1038/514158a

News & Views


Archaeology: Art on the move p.170

インドネシアの洞窟で見つかった先史時代の手形と絵画についての研究で、これらの芸術作品の年代が少なくとも3万9900年前と推定された。これは、インドネシアから1万3000 km離れた西ヨーロッパで見つかった、これまでで最も古い洞窟壁画とほぼ同じ年代である。

doi: 10.1038/514170a


Ultraluminous X-ray sources: Small field with a large impact p.171


doi: 10.1038/514171a


Structural biology: Lariat lessons p.173


doi: 10.1038/nature13754


Particle physics: The mass of a top p.174


doi: 10.1038/514174a


Health: The weighty costs of non-caloric sweeteners p.176


doi: 10.1038/nature13752


Materials analysis: Good vibrations p.177


doi: 10.1038/514177a


Animal behaviour: Incipient tradition in wild chimpanzees p.178


doi: 10.1038/nature13759



Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota p.181

Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS), widely used food additives considered to be safe and beneficial alternatives to sugars, are shown here to lead to the development of glucose intolerance through compositional and functional changes in the gut microbiota of mice, and the deleterious metabolic effects are transferred to germ-free mice by faecal transplant; NAS-induced dysbiosis and glucose intolerance are also demonstrated in healthy human subjects.

doi: 10.1038/nature13793


Inflammatory caspases are innate immune receptors for intracellular LPS p.187

Caspase-4 and caspase-11 are shown to be the direct sensors for cytoplasmic lipopolysaccharide in humans and mice, respectively, mediating inflammatory cell death in intracellular bacterial infection.

doi: 10.1038/nature13683


Crystal structure of a eukaryotic group II intron lariat p.193

This study determines the structure of a branched lariat RNA, providing insights into rearrangement of the intron between the two steps of RNA splicing.

doi: 10.1038/nature13790



A mass of less than 15 solar masses for the black hole in an ultraluminous X-ray source p.198

Ground-based and satellite observations show that the black hole in the ultraluminous X-ray source P13 has a mass of less than 15 times that of the Sun and displays the properties that typically distinguish ultraluminous X-ray sources from other stellar-mass black holes.

doi: 10.1038/nature13730


An ultraluminous X-ray source powered by an accreting neutron star p.202

X-ray pulsations with an average period of 1.37 seconds have been detected from a known ultraluminous X-ray source hitherto thought to be a black hole; the pulsations instead unequivocally identify the source as an accreting magnetized neutron star ten times brighter than any previously known.

doi: 10.1038/nature13791


Large, non-saturating magnetoresistance in WTe2 p.205

The magnetoresistance effect in WTe2, a layered semimetal, is extremely large: the electrical resistance can be changed by more than 13 million per cent at very high magnetic fields and low temperatures.

doi: 10.1038/nature13763


Vibrational spectroscopy in the electron microscope p.209

Recent advances in electron microscopy are shown to allow vibrational spectroscopy at high spatial resolution in a scanning transmission electron microscope, and also to enable the direct detection of hydrogen.

doi: 10.1038/nature13870


Global covariation of carbon turnover times with climate in terrestrial ecosystems p.213

A global, observation-based assessment of whole-ecosystem carbon turnover times shows that the overall mean global carbon turnover time is about 23 years and that locally its spatial variability depends on precipitation at least as strongly as on temperature.

doi: 10.1038/nature13731


High secondary aerosol contribution to particulate pollution during haze events in China p.218

Investigation of the chemical nature and sources of particulate matter at urban locations in four Chinese cities during a severe haze pollution event finds that the event was driven to a large extent by secondary aerosol formation.

doi: 10.1038/nature13774


Pleistocene cave art from Sulawesi, Indonesia p.223

Cave art from the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia, consisting of human hand stencils and animal paintings, is at least 40,000 years old, raising the question of why rock art traditions appeared at more or less the same time at opposite ends of the Late Pleistocene human world.

doi: 10.1038/nature13422


Inappropriate p53 activation during development induces features of CHARGE syndrome p.228

Inappropriate activation of the tumour-suppressor protein p53 during development can promote phenotypes similar to those of CHARGE syndrome, suggesting that p53 activation not only has a beneficial function in suppressing cancer but also a deleterious function in promoting developmental syndromes.

doi: 10.1038/nature13585


Protein competition switches the function of COP9 from self-renewal to differentiation p.233

Using biochemical and genetic approaches, a protein-competition-based mechanism that controls the balance between stem cell self-renewal and differentiation of germline stem cells in the Drosophila melanogaster ovary has been uncovered.

doi: 10.1038/nature13562


Interleukin-22 alleviates metabolic disorders and restores mucosal immunity in diabetes p.237

In pre-clinical mouse models, the interleukin-22 pathway is identified as a novel target for therapeutic intervention in metabolic diseases.

doi: 10.1038/nature13564


HSP70 sequestration by free α-globin promotes ineffective erythropoiesis in β-thalassaemia p.242

β-Thalassaemia major (β-TM) is an inherited haemoglobinopathy caused by a quantitative defect in the synthesis of β-globin chains of haemoglobin, leading to the accumulation of free α-globin chains that form toxic aggregates. Despite extensive knowledge of the molecular defects causing β-TM, little is known of the mechanisms responsible for the ineffective erythropoiesis observed in the condition, which is characterized by accelerated erythroid differentiation, maturation arrest and apoptosis at the polychromatophilic stage. We have previously demonstrated that normal human erythroid maturation requires a transient activation of caspase-3 at the later stages of maturation. Although erythroid transcription factor GATA-1, the master transcriptional factor of erythropoiesis, is a caspase-3 target, it is not cleaved during erythroid differentiation. We have shown that, in human erythroblasts, the chaperone heat shock protein70 (HSP70) is constitutively expressed and, at later stages of maturation, translocates into the nucleus and protects GATA-1 from caspase-3 cleavage. The primary role of this ubiquitous chaperone is to participate in the refolding of proteins denatured by cytoplasmic stress, thus preventing their aggregation. Here we show in vitro that during the maturation of human β-TM erythroblasts, HSP70 interacts directly with free α-globin chains. As a consequence, HSP70 is sequestrated in the cytoplasm and GATA-1 is no longer protected, resulting in end-stage maturation arrest and apoptosis. Transduction of a nuclear-targeted HSP70 mutant or a caspase-3-uncleavable GATA-1 mutant restores terminal maturation of β-TM erythroblasts, which may provide a rationale for new targeted therapies of β-TM.

doi: 10.1038/nature13614


PRC2 loss amplifies Ras-driven transcription and confers sensitivity to BRD4-based therapies p.247

SUZ12, a component of the PRC2 complex, can also function as a tumour suppressor in certain tumours of the nervous system and melanomas.

doi: 10.1038/nature13561


Mechanism of Dis3l2 substrate recognition in the Lin28–let-7 pathway p.252

The structure of mouse Dis3l2 bound to an oligoU substrate shows a funnel-like substrate-binding site with the RNA being fed into the active site along a path that is distinct from that seen in the related catalytic subunit of the exosome — 12 uracils of the oligoU-tailed RNA are recognized in a complex network of interactions, suggesting the basis for target specificity.

doi: 10.1038/nature13553


Required enhancer–matrin-3 network interactions for a homeodomain transcription program p.257

The POU homeodomain transcription factor Pit1 is required for pituitary development; here Pit1-occupied enhancers are shown to interact with the nuclear architecture components matrin-3 and Satb1, and this association is required for activation of Pit1-regulated enhancers and coding target genes.

doi: 10.1038/nature13573

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