目次

Editorials

ヨーロッパのHBP(ヒューマン・ブレイン・プロジェクト)に対する科学者からの批判が強まっており、明確な方向性としっかりした運営体制が求められている。

Brain fog p.125

The criticism of Europe’s Human Brain Project by leading scientists reflects a messy management structure that is in urgent need of clear direction.

doi: 10.1038/511125a

ネオニコチノイド系農薬の使用が鳥類やミツバチの減少に関係していると懸念されている。

Be concerned p.126

A possible link between neonicotinoid pesticide use and a decline in bird numbers is worrying.

doi: 10.1038/511126b

現在のエボラ出血熱の流行は、アフリカでの公衆衛生対策実施の難しさを端的に示している。

Barriers to trust p.126

An outbreak of Ebola highlights the difficulties of implementing public-health measures.

doi: 10.1038/511126a

News

HBP(ヒューマン・ブレイン・プロジェクト)の方針変更をめぐり、神経科学の研究者たちに深い亀裂が。

Row hits flagship brain plan p.133

Changes in scope and focus of European project anger factions of neuroscience community.

doi: 10.1038/511133a

開発認可システムの迅速化を図るインドの改革に、環境破壊が進むとの懸念も。

India races through environmental approvals p.134

But ecologists worry that fast turnaround will do nothing to improve quality of assessments.

doi: 10.1038/511134a

米国セントヘレンズ山の深部を、地震波を使って探る探査計画が。

Survey probes volcano’s depths p.136

Seismic project aims to reveal plumbing of Mount St Helens.

doi: 10.1038/511136a

米国が天然物に対する特許を認めない方向へと方針転換し、バイオ企業から怒りが。

Biotech reels over patent ruling p.138

Firms fight for the right to patent natural products and processes.

doi: 10.1038/511138a

News Features

研究不正問題:細胞誘発性ストレス

Research integrity: Cell-induced stress p.140

STAP細胞論文は革命的な大発見として脚光を浴びたが、その発表前に問題点を見つけることはできなかったのだろうか。

doi: 10.1038/511140a

マラリア対策:グレート・モスキート・ハント

Malaria control: The great mosquito hunt p.144

マラリアを媒介する蚊が長い乾期の間どこに潜んでいるのか探るため、イヌや風船など、さまざまな風変わりな方法を使って研究が進められている。

doi: 10.1038/511144a

News & Views

動物衛生:ウシ結核を管理する方法

Animal health: How to control bovine tuberculosis p.158

英国でのウシ結核の伝播と蔓延についてのモデルの1つは、流行を食い止めるのには、家畜の大規模な処分、あるいは複合的な管理戦略の大々的な見直しが必要だとしている。

doi: 10.1038/nature13514

応用物理学:ディスプレイの新しい顔

Applied physics: A new view on displays p.159

アモルファス状態と結晶状態の間で迅速に切り替わる材料は、熱管理やデータの記憶に広く使われている。こうした材料が、超高解像度ディスプレイ装置の構築材料として有望であることが明らかになってきた。

doi: 10.1038/511159a

幹細胞:完璧な再プログラム化細胞を求めて

Stem cells: The quest for the perfect reprogrammed cell p.160

成体細胞を再プログラム化して、体を構成する全ての細胞を生み出すことができる多能性幹細胞にするには2つの方法がある。この2つの方法の直接比較が初めて行われ、どちらの方法にも、分子レベルのごく小さな異常が引き起こされる可能性があることが示された。

doi: 10.1038/nature13515

神経科学:覚えるための構造

Neuroscience: A structure to remember p.162

NMDA受容体は、脳の働きとその異常の両方に重要である。2種類のほとんど完全な受容体の構造から、これらの大型の多ドメイン分子装置の込み入った複雑性が明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/511162a

気候科学:都市の熱

Climate science: City heat p.163

都市は、その周りの田園地帯よりも暑いことが多いのはどうしてなのだろうか。その答えは意外にも、熱対流の違いであることが判明した。

doi: 10.1038/511163a

海洋化学:微量栄養素の痕跡

Ocean chemistry: Fingerprints of a trace nutrient p.164

海水に溶存している鉄が不足してくると、生物生産力と二酸化炭素の取り込みが制限される。北大西洋での溶存鉄の供給源が、この微量栄養素の同位体の変動によって突き止められた。

doi: 10.1038/nature13513

行動経済学:思いやりのある大多数の人々が将来を保証する

Behavioural economics: A caring majority secures the future p.165

個人の利得を放棄にして未来の世代に資源を渡そうという人々の意欲についての研究から、こうした意欲が生じるのは、ただ乗りしようとする人々による引き出しが多数決原理によって制限されたときに限られることが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13510

Review

免疫:健康と疾病におけるストローマ細胞と免疫細胞の代謝

Metabolism of stromal and immune cells in health and disease p.167

Cancer cells have been at the centre of cell metabolism research, but the metabolism of stromal and immune cells has received less attention. Nonetheless, these cells influence the progression of malignant, inflammatory and metabolic disorders. Here we discuss the metabolic adaptations of stromal and immune cells in health and disease, and highlight how metabolism determines their differentiation and function.

doi: 10.1038/nature13312

Articles

細胞:ヒト多能性細胞の再プログラム化機構に起因する異常

Abnormalities in human pluripotent cells due to reprogramming mechanisms p.177

Genome-wide analysis of matched human IVF embryonic stem cells (IVF ES cells), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) and nuclear transfer ES cells (NT ES cells) derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) reveals that human somatic cells can be faithfully reprogrammed to pluripotency by SCNT; NT ES cells and iPS cells derived from the same somatic cells contain comparable numbers of de novo copy number variations, but whereas DNA methylation and transcriptome profiles of NT ES cells and IVF ES cells are similar, iPS cells have residual patterns typical of parental somatic cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature13551

免疫:耐病性防御経路を制御するアリール炭化水素受容体

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor control of a disease tolerance defence pathway p.184

Initial exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces endotoxin tolerance, which reduces immunological reactions to LPS; here it is shown that primary LPS challenge is controlled by AhR, TDO2 and IL-10, whereas sustained effects require AhR, IDO1 and TGF-β, allowing for disease tolerance with reduced immunopathology in infections.

doi: 10.1038/nature13323

構造生物学:NMDA受容体の立体構造から明らかになったサブユニット配置と小孔の構成

NMDA receptor structures reveal subunit arrangement and pore architecture p.191

X-ray crystal structures are presented of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, a calcium-permeable ion channel that opens upon binding of glutamate and glycine; glutamate is a key excitatory neurotransmitter and enhanced structural insight of this receptor may aid development of therapeutic small molecules.

doi: 10.1038/nature13548

Letters

量子物理学:長距離相互作用がある量子系における相関の非局所的伝搬

Non-local propagation of correlations in quantum systems with long-range interactions p.198

Trapped ions are used to determine the speed of propagation of correlations and the causal region to which they are confined in quantum many-body systems with medium- and long-range spin interactions.

doi: 10.1038/nature13450

量子物理学:量子多体系における準粒子設計と量子もつれの伝搬

Quasiparticle engineering and entanglement propagation in a quantum many-body system p.202

The fine control afforded by trapped atomic ions is used to explore experimentally how the range of interactions between the ions influences the spreading of information in quantum many-body systems.

doi: 10.1038/nature13461

応用物理学:低次元相変化膜によって可能になったオプトエレクトロニクスデバイスの枠組み

An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films p.206

Here stable colour changes induced by solid-state electrical switching of ultrathin films of a germanium–antimony–telluride alloy are demonstrated, adding to its established uses in data storage; possible applications include flexible and transparent displays.

doi: 10.1038/nature13487

海洋化学:北大西洋への溶存鉄供給源の定量化

Quantification of dissolved iron sources to the North Atlantic Ocean p.212

A high-resolution oceanic section of dissolved iron stable isotope ratios reveals that the primary source of dissolved iron to the North Atlantic is atmospheric dust, while seafloor sediments and submarine volcanic vents also contribute significantly.

doi: 10.1038/nature13482

気候:局地的な背景気候が都市のヒートアイランドへ与える大きな影響

Strong contributions of local background climate to urban heat islands p.216

Climate modelling is used to show that for cities across North America, geographic variations in daytime urban heat islands—that is, the temperature differences between urban and adjacent rural areas—are largely explained by variations in the efficiency with which those areas convect heat to the lower atmosphere.

doi: 10.1038/nature13462

行動経済学:未来の世代との協力

Cooperating with the future p.220

An intergenerational cooperation game has been developed to study decision-making regarding resource use: when decisions about resource extraction were made individually the resource was rapidly depleted by a minority of defectors; the resource was sustainably maintained across generations, however, when decisions were made democratically by voting.

doi: 10.1038/nature13530

微生物生態学:両生類は真菌の生菌および死菌に対する抵抗性を獲得して真菌による免疫抑制を克服する

Amphibians acquire resistance to live and dead fungus overcoming fungal immunosuppression p.224

The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in the decline of a large number of amphibian species; here it is shown that frogs can learn to avoid the pathogen, acquire resistance to it and be immunized against it using dead pathogen, findings that potentially offer a way in which resistant populations could be reintroduced into areas that have seen catastrophic declines.

doi: 10.1038/nature13491

動物衛生:英国でのウシ結核の蔓延と管理に関する動的モデル

A dynamic model of bovine tuberculosis spread and control in Great Britain p.228

Bovine tuberculosis is a major economic burden on the cattle industry, and attempts to control it have been politically controversial; here farm movement and bovine tuberculosis incidence data are used to construct a mechanistic model and tease apart the factors contributing to epidemic bovine tuberculosis spread.

doi: 10.1038/nature13529

進化遺伝学:新たな種を無性的に形成する経路としてのゲノムの水平伝播

Horizontal genome transfer as an asexual path to the formation of new species p.232

The formation of a new species can occur by an asexual mechanism by transfer of entire nuclear genomes between plant cells as shown by the creation of a new allopolyploid plant from parental herbaceous and woody plant species, this mechanism is a potential new tool for crop improvement.

doi: 10.1038/nature13291

神経科学:Cntnap4はGABA作動性シナプス伝達およびドーパミン作動性シナプス伝達に異なる寄与をする

Cntnap4 differentially contributes to GABAergic and dopaminergic synaptic transmission p.236

The molecular relationship between synaptic dysfunction and psychiatric disorders was investigated using a mouse model system; presynaptically localized Cntnap4 is required for the output of two disease-relevant neuronal subpopulations (cortical parvalbumin-positive GABAergic cells and midbrain dopaminergic neurons) and Cntnap4 mutants show behavioural abnormalities which can be pharmacologically reversed.

doi: 10.1038/nature13248

がん:頭蓋内胚細胞腫における新規の体細胞変異と生殖細胞系列変異

Novel somatic and germline mutations in intracranial germ cell tumours p.241

Intracranial germ cell tumours are rare tumours affecting mainly male adolescents, mainly in Asia; here the authors identify frequent mutations in the KIT/RAS and AKT/mTOR signalling pathways as well as rare germline variants in JMJD1C, suggesting potential therapeutic strategies focusing on the inhibition of KIT/RAS activation and the AKT1/mTOR pathway.

doi: 10.1038/nature13296

がん:SOX2は扁平上皮がんで腫瘍のイニシエーションとがん幹細胞の機能を制御する

SOX2 controls tumour initiation and cancer stem-cell functions in squamous-cell carcinoma p.246

Here, in a mouse model of skin squamous cell carcinoma, a key role is demonstrated for the transcription factor SOX2 in the initiation and progression of skin tumours.

doi: 10.1038/nature13305

分子生物学:RNase H2およびSrs2–Exo1機構によるリボヌクレオチド誘発変異の回避

Avoidance of ribonucleotide-induced mutations by RNase H2 and Srs2-Exo1 mechanisms p.251

Srs2 helicase is known to dismantle nucleofilaments of Rad51 recombinase to prevent spurious recombination events and unwind trinucleotide sequences that are prone to hairpin formation. Here we document a new, unexpected genome maintenance role of Srs2 in the suppression of mutations arising from mis-insertion of ribonucleoside monophosphates during DNA replication. In cells lacking RNase H2, Srs2 unwinds DNA from the 5′ side of a nick generated by DNA topoisomerase I at a ribonucleoside monophosphate residue. In addition, Srs2 interacts with and enhances the activity of the nuclease Exo1, to generate a DNA gap in preparation for repair. Srs2–Exo1 thus functions in a new pathway of nick processing-gap filling that mediates tolerance of ribonucleoside monophosphates in the genome. Our results have implications for understanding the basis of Aicardi–Goutières syndrome, which stems from inactivation of the human RNase H2 complex.

doi: 10.1038/nature13292

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