Volume 512 Number 7513



Future computing p.113

Pushing the boundaries of current computing technologies will show the way to new ones.

doi: 10.1038/512113b


Save the children p.113

Infants and young people are being traumatized by armed conflict in their countries. Their resulting mental illnesses must be addressed, for the good of both the individuals and their society.

doi: 10.1038/512113a



Native ecosystems blitzed by drought p.121

California’s current water crisis offers a preview of what climate change will bring.

doi: 10.1038/512121a


Health check for deep-sea mining p.122

European project evaluates risks to delicate ecosystems.

doi: 10.1038/512122a


Teen drug use gets supersize study p.123

US government programme will examine 10,000 adolescents to document effects on developing brains.

doi: 10.1038/512123a


US assesses virus of the Caribbean p.124

Researchers warn that a change of mosquito host could accelerate spread of chikungunya across the Americas.

doi: 10.1038/512124a

News Features


Online collaboration: Scientists and the social network p.126


doi: 10.1038/512126a

News & Views


Neuroscience: What females really want p.138


doi: 10.1038/512138a


Solar system: Sandcastles in space p.139


doi: 10.1038/512139a


Ageing: Old blood stem cells feel the stress p.140


doi: 10.1038/nature13652


Condensed-matter physics: Glasses made from pure metals p.142


doi: 10.1038/nature13653


Cancer: One cell at a time p.143


doi: 10.1038/nature13650


Astronomical instrumentation: Atmospheric blurring has a new enemy p.144


doi: 10.1038/512144a


Structural biology: Corralling a protein-degradation regulator p.145


doi: 10.1038/nature13644



Limits on fundamental limits to computation p.147

To evaluate the promise of potential computing technologies, this review examines a wide range of fundamental limits, such as to performance, power consumption, size and cost, from the device level to the system level.

doi: 10.1038/nature13570



Clonal evolution in breast cancer revealed by single nucleus genome sequencing p.155

To investigate genomic diversity within tumours, a new type of whole-genome and exome single cell sequencing has been developed using G2/M nuclei; the technique was used to sequence single nuclei from an oestrogen-positive breast cancer and a triple-negative ductal carcinoma—aneuploidy rearrangements emerged as early events in tumour formation and then point mutations evolved gradually over time.

doi: 10.1038/nature13600


Crystal structure of the human COP9 signalosome p.161

The COP9 signalosome (CSN) complex regulates cullin–RING E3 ubiquitin ligases—the largest class of ubiquitin ligase enzymes, which are involved in a multitude of regulatory processes; here, the crystal structure of the entire human CSN holoenzyme is presented.

doi: 10.1038/nature13566


Three-dimensional structure of human γ-secretase p.166

The three-dimensional structure of intact human γ-secretase complex at 4.5 Å resolution is revealed by cryo-electron-microscopy single-particle analysis; the complex comprises a horseshoe-shaped transmembrane domain containing 19 transmembrane segments, and a large extracellular domain from nicastrin, which sits immediately above the hollow space formed by the horseshoe.

doi: 10.1038/nature13567


宇宙:電荷交換とホットバブルにおける局所的な1/4 keVのX線フラックスの起源

The origin of the local 1/4-keV X-ray flux in both charge exchange and a hot bubble p.171

The contribution of solar-wind ions exchanging electrons with helium and hydrogen near the Sun is shown to be only about 40 per cent of the 1/4-keV X-ray flux observed in the Galactic plane; this supports the existence of a local ‘hot bubble’ filled with X-ray-emitting gas, accounting for the rest of the flux.

doi: 10.1038/nature13525

宇宙:凝集力がラブルパイル小惑星(29075) 1950 DAの自転による分裂を妨げている

Cohesive forces prevent the rotational breakup of rubble-pile asteroid (29075) 1950 DA p.174

Modelling and observations of the kilometre-sized asteroid (29075) 1950 DA reveal it to be a ‘rubble pile’ that is rotating faster than is allowed by gravity and friction; cohesive forces such as those in lunar regolith are required to prevent it breaking up.

doi: 10.1038/nature13632


Formation of monatomic metallic glasses through ultrafast liquid quenching p.177

Metallic liquids of single elements have been successfully vitrified to their glassy states by achieving an ultrafast quenching rate in a new experimental design, of which the process has been monitored and studied by a combination of in situ transmission electron microscopy and atoms-to-continuum computer modelling.

doi: 10.1038/nature13617


The tidal–rotational shape of the Moon and evidence for polar wander p.181

Analysis of the Moon's topography reveals that when its largest basins are removed, the lunar shape is consistent with processes controlled by early Earth tides, and implies a reorientation of the Moon's principal shape axes.

doi: 10.1038/nature13639


Neuropsychosocial profiles of current and future adolescent alcohol misusers p.185

Many factors have been proposed as contributors to risk of alcohol abuse, but quantifying their influence has been difficult; here a longitudinal study of a large sample of adolescents and machine learning are used to generate models of predictors of current and future alcohol abuse, assessing the relative contribution of many factors, including life history, individual personality differences, brain structure and genotype.

doi: 10.1038/nature13402


A common Greenlandic TBC1D4 variant confers muscle insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes p.190

An association mapping study of type-2-diabetes-related quantitative traits in the Greenlandic population identified a common variant in TBC1D4 that increases plasma glucose levels and serum insulin levels after an oral glucose load and type 2 diabetes risk, with effect sizes several times larger than any previous findings of large-scale genome-wide association studies for these traits.

doi: 10.1038/nature13425


Altitude adaptation in Tibetans caused by introgression of Denisovan-like DNA p.194

Admixture with other hominin species helped humans to adapt to high-altitude environments; the EPAS1 gene in Tibetan individuals has an unusual haplotype structure that probably resulted from introgression of DNA from Denisovan or Denisovan-related individuals into humans, and this haplotype is only found in Denisovans and Tibetans, and at low frequency among Han Chinese.

doi: 10.1038/nature13408


Replication stress is a potent driver of functional decline in ageing haematopoietic stem cells p.198

Haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function is known to degrade with age; here, replication stress is shown to be a potent driver of the functional decline of HSCs during physiological ageing in mice due to decreased expression of mini-chromosome maintenance helicase components and reduced activity of the DNA replication machinery.

doi: 10.1038/nature13619


Historical contingency and its biophysical basis in glucocorticoid receptor evolution p.203

By characterizing a very large number of might-have-been evolutionary trajectories starting from a resurrected ancestral protein, the authors show that the evolution of an essential modern protein was contingent on extremely unlikely historical mutations.

doi: 10.1038/nature13410


DENR–MCT-1 promotes translation re-initiation downstream of uORFs to control tissue growth p.208

This study identifies the DENR–MCT-1 complex as the first factors in animals specific for translation re-initiation downstream of upstream Open Reading Frames (uORFs).

doi: 10.1038/nature13401


Histone H4 tail mediates allosteric regulation of nucleosome remodelling by linker DNA p.213

A nucleosome-spacing mechanism for human ATP-dependent chromatin assembly and remodelling factor (ACF).

doi: 10.1038/nature13380


Visualization of arrestin recruitment by a G-protein-coupled receptor p.218

Single-particle electron microscopy and hydrogen–deuterium exchange mass spectrometry are used to characterize the structure and dynamics of a G-protein-coupled receptor–arrestin complex.

doi: 10.1038/nature13430

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