Volume 539 Number 7630



US Cancer Moonshot must strike a balance between research and prevention p.467

In the face of uncertain funding, the US initiative should not ignore proven programmes in favour of glitzy research.

doi: 10.1038/539467a


The power of big data must be harnessed for medical progress p.467

But grave challenges remain before the promise of individually tailored medicine becomes reality.

doi: 10.1038/539467b


Middle East X-ray factory is a source of hope p.468

The SESAME synchrotron shows a way towards greater trust and cooperation in the Middle East.

doi: 10.1038/539468a



First Middle Eastern X-ray factory readies for action p.475

SESAME project is set to revolutionize science in the region but is strapped for cash.

doi: 10.1038/539475a


Immigrant and minority scientists shaken by Trump win p.476

Worries include job prospects, discrimination — and safety.

doi: 10.1038/539476a


Rock core from dinosaur-killing impact reveals how enormous craters form p.478

Drilling into Mexico’s Chicxulub basin also finds shattered rock where underground life could thrive.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20994


CRISPR gene-editing tested in a person for the first time p.479

The move by Chinese scientists could spark a biomedical duel between China and the United States.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20988


Brazil’s scientists battle to escape 20-year funding freeze p.480

Cap at current spending levels could spell ‘end of science in Brazil’, researchers say.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.21014

遺伝学者たちが、コウモリの発声のカギを握る遺伝子を明らかにするためのプロジェクト「Bat 1K」を発表。

Geneticists hope to unlock secrets of bats’ complex sounds p.481

Project to sequence the DNA of more than 1,000 species seeks to reveal how bats learn to communicate.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20997

News Features


The sparrow with four sexes p.482

スズメの仲間であるノドジロシトドが持つ奇妙な染色体を長年にわたって調べてきたRusty GonserとElaina Tuttleという研究者夫妻の日々をたどる。

doi: 10.1038/539482a

News & Views


DNA repair: Clamping down on copy errors p.498


doi: 10.1038/nature20475


Materials science: Polymers make charge flow easy p.499


doi: 10.1038/539499a


Evolution: Insect invasions and natural selection p.500


doi: 10.1038/nature20472


Nanoscience: Flexible graphene strengthens friction p.502


doi: 10.1038/539502a


Cell biology: A mitochondrial brake on vascular repair p.503


doi: 10.1038/nature20476


Materials science: Improving the image of nanoparticles p.505


doi: 10.1038/nature20478


Plant science: A war over water when bacteria invade leaves p.506


doi: 10.1038/539506a



Emergent phenomena induced by spin–orbit coupling at surfaces and interfaces p.509

The interplay between spin–orbit coupling and two-dimensionality has led to the emergence of new phases of matter, such as spin-polarized surface states in topological insulators, interfacial chiral spin interactions, and magnetic skyrmions in thin films, with great potential for spin-based devices.

doi: 10.1038/nature19820



Developmental mechanisms of stripe patterns in rodents p.518

Alx3-induced modulation of Mitf expression alters melanocyte differentiation and gives rise to the hair colour differences underlying the repeated evolution of dorsal stripes in rodents.

doi: 10.1038/nature20109


Bacteria establish an aqueous living space in plants crucial for virulence p.524

A combination of high humidity and bacterial effectors, such as Pseudomonas syringae HopM1, creates an aqueous environment in the apoplast of immunodeficient Arabidopsis thaliana that allows non-pathogenic P. syringae strains to become virulent pathogens.

doi: 10.1038/nature20166


The mechanism of force transmission at bacterial focal adhesion complexes p.530

The mystery of how bacteria that lack motile structures such as pili or flagella can ‘glide’ along surfaces is solved by a detailed description of the bacterial focal adhesion complex and its associated protein machinery.

doi: 10.1038/nature20121



Doped polymer semiconductors with ultrahigh and ultralow work functions for ohmic contacts p.536

A general strategy for producing solution-processed doped polymers with the extreme work functions that are required to make good ohmic contacts to semiconductors is demonstrated in high-performance light-emitting diodes, transistors and solar cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature20133


The evolving quality of frictional contact with graphene p.541

Atomistic simulations reproduce experimental observations of transient frictional strengthening of graphene on an amorphous silicon substrate, an effect which diminishes as the number of graphene layers increases.

doi: 10.1038/nature20135


Catalytic activation of carbon–carbon bonds in cyclopentanones p.546

In the chemical industry, it is often necessary to activate carbon–carbon bonds in order to synthesize complex organic molecules, but this is challenging when starting with simple five- or six-membered carbon rings; a new method uses a rhodium pre-catalyst and an amino-pyridine co-catalyst, enabling an overall energetically favourable reaction that involves activation of carbon–carbon bonds plus activation of carbon–hydrogen bonds.

doi: 10.1038/nature19849


Magnetic reversals from planetary dynamo waves p.551

Polarity reversals caused by dynamo waves are demonstrated in a magnetohydrodynamic model that is relevant to planetary cores, suggesting a possible mechanism of geomagnetic reversals.

doi: 10.1038/nature19842


A cannabinoid link between mitochondria and memory p.555

Cannabinoids affect CB1 receptors on the mitochondrial membranes in the brain, triggering a decrease in downstream cAMP-dependent signalling; this leads to a decrease in brain mitochondrial activity and to cannabinoid-induced amnesia.

doi: 10.1038/nature20127


Designer matrices for intestinal stem cell and organoid culture p.560

The authors have designed modular synthetic hydrogel networks for mouse and human intestinal stem cell cultures that support intestinal organoid formation.

doi: 10.1038/nature20168


Different tissue phagocytes sample apoptotic cells to direct distinct homeostasis programs p.565

Apoptotic intestinal epithelial cells can be sampled by lamina propria phagocytes, leading to distinct phagocyte-type-specific anti-inflammatory gene signatures and dendritic-cell-mediated induction of regulatory T cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature20138


Macrophages redirect phagocytosis by non-professional phagocytes and influence inflammation p.570

Macrophage-derived insulin-like growth factor enhances the uptake of microvesicles by non-professional phagocytes, such as airway epithelial cells and fibroblasts, thereby dampening tissue inflammation.

doi: 10.1038/nature20141


Control of mitochondrial function and cell growth by the atypical cadherin Fat1 p.575

Fragments of the atypical cadherin Fat1 accumulate in the mitochondria of vascular smooth muscle cells where they reduce respiration, leading to a regulated proliferative response to arterial injury.

doi: 10.1038/nature20170


Mechanism of super-assembly of respiratory complexes III and IV p.579

SCAF1 is always required for the interaction between the respiratory chain complexes III and IV, and in animals carrying only the short isoform of SCAF1, the respirasome is absent in most tissues, with the exception of heart and skeletal muscle, where COX7A2 is present instead of SCAF1.

doi: 10.1038/nature20157


Cascading MutS and MutL sliding clamps control DNA diffusion to activate mismatch repair p.583

MutS and MutL—the highly conserved core proteins responsible for the repair of mismatched DNA—form sequential stable sliding clamps that together modulate one-dimensional diffusion along the DNA and, with MutH, facilitate the search for a distant excision initiation site.

doi: 10.1038/nature20562


Genetic and mechanistic diversity of piRNA 3′-end formation p.588

Drosophila have two pathways for PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) 3′-end formation—depending on which pathway is used, piRNA biogenesis is directed towards either cytoplasmic or nuclear PIWI protein effectors, which balances post-transcriptional versus transcriptional transposon silencing.

doi: 10.1038/nature20162


An oxidative N-demethylase reveals PAS transition from ubiquitous sensor to enzyme p.593

Characterization of the first Per-ARNT-Sim enzyme, a haem-dependent oxidative N-demethylase.

doi: 10.1038/nature20159

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