目次

Editorials

環境保護の努力が、限られた保護区の設定で終わってはならない。

In praise of parks p.437

Our affection for national parks is well founded, but many more areas need protection.

doi: 10.1038/529437b

囲碁で人間に勝てるコンピュータープログラムが登場したことで、今後、ヒトと機械の関係が変わるだろう。

Digital intuition p.437

A computer program that can outplay humans in the abstract game of Go will redefine our relationship with machines.

doi: 10.1038/529437a

自信を喪失した結果、詐欺師症候群に陥っている研究者は、実は意外と多い。

Found out p.438

Self-doubt is a pernicious affliction that can overwhelm researchers.

doi: 10.1038/529438a

News

グーグル・ディープマインド社が開発した人工知能が、古典的ゲームの最大の難関であった囲碁で、ヨーロッパチャンピオンに勝利を。

Google AI algorithm masters ancient game of Go p.445

Deep-learning software defeats human professional for first time.

doi: 10.1038/529445a

精神疾患と遺伝子の関連解明を目指し、イヌのDNAと行動との関連性を調べる大規模計画が。

Dog DNA probed for clues to human psychiatric ills p.446

Pet project hunts genetic links to behaviour by polling owners on their companions’ quirks.

doi: 10.1038/529446a

ブラックホールの謎をめぐるホーキング博士の最新論文に、物理学界から賛否両論が。

Hawking’s latest black-hole paper splits physicists p.448

Some welcome his latest report as a fresh way to solve a black-hole conundrum; others are unsure of its merits.

doi: 10.1038/529448a

中国の研究者たちが、自閉症の症状を示すトランスジェニックサルを作製したが、これがヒトでの症状とどれだけ合致しているか懸念も。

Monkeys genetically modified to show autism symptoms p.449

But it is unclear how well the results match the condition in humans.

doi: 10.1038/529449a

途上国が、パリ協定に従って炭素排出量実績を継続的に報告するためには、能力面でさまざまなハードルが。

Paris climate deal hinges on better carbon accountancy p.450

Local expertise is required to provide detailed emissions reports.

doi: 10.1038/529450a

2015年の世界気温は過去最高だったと、公式な発表が。

2015 declared the hottest year on record p.450

Warming in the Pacific Ocean helps to shatter past records, and could bring even faster temperature rises.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19216

News Features

保護:虐殺される小鳥たち

Slaughter of the song birds p.452

野鳥料理が珍味とされるキプロスでは、法律で禁じられているにもかかわらず鳴禽の密猟が増え、希少種を脅かす恐れが出ている。

doi: 10.1038/529452a

実験の実施基準:質を充実すべき時

How quality control could save your science p.456

再現性の取れない論文が多く発表されたり、研究の信頼性がゆらいでいたりするために、実験の質の保証が研究に欠かせないものとなりつつある。

doi: 10.1038/529456a

News & Views

ゲノム編集:Cas9はますますオンターゲット

Genome editing: The domestication of Cas9 p.468

酵素のCas9はゲノム編集に使われていて、選ばれたDNA塩基配列の切断を行うが、目的以外のオフターゲット部位も切断することがある。今回タンパク質工学の手法を用いて、Cas9のオフターゲット効果を最小にした酵素が作出された。

doi: 10.1038/529468a

神経科学:電位センサーの能力を蛍光で増強

Neuroscience: Fluorescent boost for voltage sensors p.469

微生物のロドプシンタンパク質を蛍光タンパク質と融合させた電位センサーが開発された。このセンサーによって、生きている動物体内の1個の神経細胞の活動を、これまでになかった速度と正確さで測定できるようになった。

doi: 10.1038/529469a

進化:熱を産生するトカゲ

Evolution: A lizard that generates heat p.470

鳥類や哺乳動物は熱を産生して体温を調節しているが、非鳥類型爬虫類の大半は熱を産生できない。今回、テグートカゲの一種が繁殖期間に内温性となることが見いだされた。これは、熱産生という特性の進化の解明を進めるものだ。

doi: 10.1038/529470a

感染生物学:大きな影響を及ぼす小さなRNA

Infection biology: Small RNA with a large impact p.472

サルモネラ菌が宿主であるヒト細胞に感染する際に細菌細胞と宿主細胞でそれぞれ発現されるRNA分子の同時比較から、細菌の小分子RNAが細菌と宿主細胞の両方の転写プロファイルを変更する仕組みが、今回明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature16872

恒星物理学:球状星団の謎

Stellar astrophysics: The mystery of globular clusters p.473

複数の若い星団中で、星の種族が多数見つかり、これらの形成時期はさまざまであることが分かった。この知見は、初期宇宙の球状星団中にあったこのような種族の特性と起源についての議論の種をさらに増すことになる。

doi: 10.1038/529473a

神経科学:ミエリン損傷が起こる機構

Neuroscience: A mechanism for myelin injury p.474

ミエリン膜系からなる鞘によって神経活動過程を他から隔離している細胞は、脳卒中が起こると損傷を受ける。タンパク質のTRPA1を介して起こるカルシウムイオンの取り込みがミエリンの損傷の一因となっていることが今回明らかにされた。

doi: 10.1038/nature16865

バイオ分析用機器:汗成分監視技術の飛躍的進歩

Bioanalytical devices: Technological leap for sweat sensing p.475

汗の分析は、個人の生理状態の継続的観察に非常に適した方法の1つだが、こうした目的に使うデバイスの開発は難しい。複数のバイオマーカーの値を測定できるウエアラブルな汗成分モニターが今回開発されたことは、画期的な進歩といえる。

doi: 10.1038/529475a

Perspective

気候科学:地域的な気候目標と影響に関連する気候目標に基づく許容可能な二酸化炭素排出量

Allowable CO2 emissions based on regional and impact-related climate targets p.477

Targets for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide are related to regional changes in climate extremes rather than to changes in global mean temperature, in order to convey their urgency better to individual countries.

doi: 10.1038/nature16542

Articles

計算科学:ディープニューラルネットワークと木探索を用いた囲碁の習得

Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search p.484

A computer Go program based on deep neural networks defeats a human professional player to achieve one of the grand challenges of artificial intelligence.

doi: 10.1038/nature16961

生物工学:ゲノム規模でオフターゲット効果の検出されない高忠実度CRISPR–Cas9ヌクレアーゼ

High-fidelity CRISPR–Cas9 nucleases with no detectable genome-wide off-target effects p.490

A high-fidelity variant of Streptococcus pyogenes CRISPR–Cas9 is reported that lacks detectable off-target events as assessed by genome-wide break capture and targeted sequencing methods.

doi: 10.1038/nature16526

微生物学:dual RNA-seq法によって宿主–病原体相互作用における非コードRNAの機能が明らかになった

Dual RNA-seq unveils noncoding RNA functions in host–pathogen interactions p.496

Using dual RNA-seq technology to profile RNA expression simultaneously in the bacterial pathogen Salmonella and its host during infection reveals molecular phenotypes of small noncoding RNAs in the infection process.

doi: 10.1038/nature16547

Letters

宇宙物理学:大質量の若い星団によって集積されたガスから新しい星の種族が形成される

Formation of new stellar populations from gas accreted by massive young star clusters p.502

Three massive star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds show clear evidence of burst-like star formation that occurred a few hundred million years after their initial formation era; such clusters could have accreted sufficient gas to form new stars while orbiting in their host galaxies’ gaseous disks throughout the period between their initial and more recent bursts of star formation.

doi: 10.1038/nature16493

量子物理学:エンタングル原子を用いた量子射影限界を100倍下回る低雑音計測

Measurement noise 100 times lower than the quantum-projection limit using entangled atoms p.505

Quantum entanglement is thought to offer great promise for improving measurement precision; now a spin-squeezing implementation with cold atoms offers levels of sensitivity unavailable with any competing conventional method, sensing microwave induced rotations a factor of 70 beyond the standard quantum limit.

doi: 10.1038/nature16176

健康科学:in situでの多重発汗分析のための完全一体型ウエアラブルセンサーアレイ

Fully integrated wearable sensor arrays for multiplexed in situ perspiration analysis p.509

By merging plastic-based skin sensors with silicon integrated circuits, a flexible, wearable perspiration analysis system is presented that measures skin temperature and the metabolites and electrolytes in human sweat and analyses the information in situ.

doi: 10.1038/nature16521

電池技術:低温で自己発熱するリチウムイオン電池構造

Lithium-ion battery structure that self-heats at low temperatures p.515

Here we report a lithium-ion all-climate battery that very efficiently heats itself up in extremely cold environments by diverting current through a strip of metal foil to generate heat of resistance and then reverts to normal high-power operation.

doi: 10.1038/nature16502

古海洋学:最終氷期に赤道太平洋は鉄肥沃化しなかった

No iron fertilization in the equatorial Pacific Ocean during the last ice age p.519

Core isotope measurements in the equatorial Pacific Ocean reveal that although atmospheric dust deposition during the last ice age was higher than today’s, the productivity of the equatorial Pacific Ocean did not increase; this may have been because iron-enabled greater nutrient consumption, mainly in the Southern Ocean, reduced the nutrients available in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, and hence also productivity there.

doi: 10.1038/nature16453

神経科学:プロトン依存性のCa2+透過性TRPチャネルは虚血を模倣した状態でミエリンを傷害する

Proton-gated Ca2+-permeable TRP channels damage myelin in conditions mimicking ischaemia p.523

The myelin sheaths wrapped around axons by oligodendrocytes are crucial for brain function. In ischaemia myelin is damaged in a Ca2+-dependent manner, abolishing action potential propagation. This has been attributed to glutamate release activating Ca2+-permeable N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Surprisingly, we now show that NMDA does not raise the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in mature oligodendrocytes and that, although ischaemia evokes a glutamate-triggered membrane current, this is generated by a rise of extracellular [K+] and decrease of membrane K+ conductance. Nevertheless, ischaemia raises oligodendrocyte [Ca2+]i, [Mg2+]i and [H+]i, and buffering intracellular pH reduces the [Ca2+]i and [Mg2+]i increases, showing that these are evoked by the rise of [H+]i. The H+-gated [Ca2+]i elevation is mediated by channels with characteristics of TRPA1, being inhibited by ruthenium red, isopentenyl pyrophosphate, HC-030031, A967079 or TRPA1 knockout. TRPA1 block reduces myelin damage in ischaemia. These data suggest that TRPA1-containing ion channels could be a therapeutic target in white matter ischaemia.

doi: 10.1038/nature16519

幹細胞:mitofusin 2はリンパ球系細胞への分解能が高い造血幹細胞を維持する

Mitofusin 2 maintains haematopoietic stem cells with extensive lymphoid potential p.528

The role of mitochondria in haematopoietic stem-cell maintenance has not been examined in detail; here mitofusin 2, which modulates mitochondrial fusion and tethering of endoplasmic reticulum to the mitochondria, is shown to be necessary for the maintenance of haematopoietic stem cells with extensive lymphoid potential.

doi: 10.1038/nature16500

免疫学:制御性T細胞における段階的なFoxo1活性は自発的な自己免疫から腫瘍免疫を区別する

Graded Foxo1 activity in Treg cells differentiates tumour immunity from spontaneous autoimmunity p.532

The transcription factor Foxo1 is shown to be involved in the determination of distinct subsets of regulatory T (Treg) cells, and the differentiation of activated phenotype Treg cells is associated with the repression of the Foxo1-dependent transcriptional program; constitutively active Foxo1 expression triggers depletion of activated Treg cells in peripheral tissues and leads to CD8 T-cell-mediated autoimmunity and anti-tumour immunity.

doi: 10.1038/nature16486

免疫学:輸送体TAPの低温電子顕微鏡解析により明らかになったウイルスの免疫回避機構

A mechanism of viral immune evasion revealed by cryo-EM analysis of the TAP transporter p.537

Cellular immunity against viral infection and tumour cells depends on antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules. Intracellular antigenic peptides are transported into the endoplasmic reticulum by the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) and then loaded onto the nascent MHC I molecules, which are exported to the cell surface and present peptides to the immune system. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes recognize non-self peptides and program the infected or malignant cells for apoptosis. Defects in TAP account for immunodeficiency and tumour development. To escape immune surveillance, some viruses have evolved strategies either to downregulate TAP expression or directly inhibit TAP activity. So far, neither the architecture of TAP nor the mechanism of viral inhibition has been elucidated at the structural level. Here we describe the cryo-electron microscopy structure of human TAP in complex with its inhibitor ICP47, a small protein produced by the herpes simplex virus I. Here we show that the 12 transmembrane helices and 2 cytosolic nucleotide-binding domains of the transporter adopt an inward-facing conformation with the two nucleotide-binding domains separated. The viral inhibitor ICP47 forms a long helical hairpin, which plugs the translocation pathway of TAP from the cytoplasmic side. Association of ICP47 precludes substrate binding and prevents nucleotide-binding domain closure necessary for ATP hydrolysis. This work illustrates a striking example of immune evasion by persistent viruses. By blocking viral antigens from entering the endoplasmic reticulum, herpes simplex virus is hidden from cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which may contribute to establishing a lifelong infection in the host.

doi: 10.1038/nature16506

がん:HPVが関わるp53分解に必要とされるE6/E6AP/p53複合体の構造

Structure of the E6/E6AP/p53 complex required for HPV-mediated degradation of p53 p.541

Structural details of how oncogenic human papilloma viruses induce cancer by targeting the tumour suppressor p53 for ubiquitin-mediated degradation.

doi: 10.1038/nature16481

構造生物学:HOIP/E2~ユビキチン複合体の構造から明らかになったRBR E3リガーゼの作用機構と調節

Structure of a HOIP/E2~ubiquitin complex reveals RBR E3 ligase mechanism and regulation p.546

The first structure of fully active HOIP of the RBR family of RING-type E3 ligases in its transfer complex with an E2~ubiquitin conjugate provides insights into its mechanism of action, including the ideal alignment of the E2 and E3 catalytic centres for ubiquitin transfer and the allosteric regulation of the RBR family.

doi: 10.1038/nature16511

構造生物学:転写中の哺乳類RNAポリメラーゼIIの構造

Structure of transcribing mammalian RNA polymerase II p.551

The first high-resolution, cryo-electron microscopy structure of mammalian RNA polymerase II, in the form of a transcribing complex comprising DNA template and RNA transcript.

doi: 10.1038/nature16482

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