Volume 529 Number 7587



Digital intuition p.437

A computer program that can outplay humans in the abstract game of Go will redefine our relationship with machines.

doi: 10.1038/529437a


In praise of parks p.437

Our affection for national parks is well founded, but many more areas need protection.

doi: 10.1038/529437b


Found out p.438

Self-doubt is a pernicious affliction that can overwhelm researchers.

doi: 10.1038/529438a



Google AI algorithm masters ancient game of Go p.445

Deep-learning software defeats human professional for first time.

doi: 10.1038/529445a


Dog DNA probed for clues to human psychiatric ills p.446

Pet project hunts genetic links to behaviour by polling owners on their companions’ quirks.

doi: 10.1038/529446a


Hawking’s latest black-hole paper splits physicists p.448

Some welcome his latest report as a fresh way to solve a black-hole conundrum; others are unsure of its merits.

doi: 10.1038/529448a


Monkeys genetically modified to show autism symptoms p.449

But it is unclear how well the results match the condition in humans.

doi: 10.1038/529449a


Paris climate deal hinges on better carbon accountancy p.450

Local expertise is required to provide detailed emissions reports.

doi: 10.1038/529450a


2015 declared the hottest year on record p.450

Warming in the Pacific Ocean helps to shatter past records, and could bring even faster temperature rises.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19216

News Features


Slaughter of the song birds p.452


doi: 10.1038/529452a


How quality control could save your science p.456


doi: 10.1038/529456a

News & Views


Genome editing: The domestication of Cas9 p.468


doi: 10.1038/529468a


Neuroscience: Fluorescent boost for voltage sensors p.469


doi: 10.1038/529469a


Evolution: A lizard that generates heat p.470


doi: 10.1038/529470a


Infection biology: Small RNA with a large impact p.472


doi: 10.1038/nature16872


Stellar astrophysics: The mystery of globular clusters p.473


doi: 10.1038/529473a


Neuroscience: A mechanism for myelin injury p.474


doi: 10.1038/nature16865


Bioanalytical devices: Technological leap for sweat sensing p.475


doi: 10.1038/529475a



Allowable CO2 emissions based on regional and impact-related climate targets p.477

Targets for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide are related to regional changes in climate extremes rather than to changes in global mean temperature, in order to convey their urgency better to individual countries.

doi: 10.1038/nature16542



Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search p.484

A computer Go program based on deep neural networks defeats a human professional player to achieve one of the grand challenges of artificial intelligence.

doi: 10.1038/nature16961


High-fidelity CRISPR–Cas9 nucleases with no detectable genome-wide off-target effects p.490

A high-fidelity variant of Streptococcus pyogenes CRISPR–Cas9 is reported that lacks detectable off-target events as assessed by genome-wide break capture and targeted sequencing methods.

doi: 10.1038/nature16526

微生物学:dual RNA-seq法によって宿主–病原体相互作用における非コードRNAの機能が明らかになった

Dual RNA-seq unveils noncoding RNA functions in host–pathogen interactions p.496

Using dual RNA-seq technology to profile RNA expression simultaneously in the bacterial pathogen Salmonella and its host during infection reveals molecular phenotypes of small noncoding RNAs in the infection process.

doi: 10.1038/nature16547



Formation of new stellar populations from gas accreted by massive young star clusters p.502

Three massive star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds show clear evidence of burst-like star formation that occurred a few hundred million years after their initial formation era; such clusters could have accreted sufficient gas to form new stars while orbiting in their host galaxies’ gaseous disks throughout the period between their initial and more recent bursts of star formation.

doi: 10.1038/nature16493


Measurement noise 100 times lower than the quantum-projection limit using entangled atoms p.505

Quantum entanglement is thought to offer great promise for improving measurement precision; now a spin-squeezing implementation with cold atoms offers levels of sensitivity unavailable with any competing conventional method, sensing microwave induced rotations a factor of 70 beyond the standard quantum limit.

doi: 10.1038/nature16176

健康科学:in situでの多重発汗分析のための完全一体型ウエアラブルセンサーアレイ

Fully integrated wearable sensor arrays for multiplexed in situ perspiration analysis p.509

By merging plastic-based skin sensors with silicon integrated circuits, a flexible, wearable perspiration analysis system is presented that measures skin temperature and the metabolites and electrolytes in human sweat and analyses the information in situ.

doi: 10.1038/nature16521


Lithium-ion battery structure that self-heats at low temperatures p.515

Here we report a lithium-ion all-climate battery that very efficiently heats itself up in extremely cold environments by diverting current through a strip of metal foil to generate heat of resistance and then reverts to normal high-power operation.

doi: 10.1038/nature16502


No iron fertilization in the equatorial Pacific Ocean during the last ice age p.519

Core isotope measurements in the equatorial Pacific Ocean reveal that although atmospheric dust deposition during the last ice age was higher than today’s, the productivity of the equatorial Pacific Ocean did not increase; this may have been because iron-enabled greater nutrient consumption, mainly in the Southern Ocean, reduced the nutrients available in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, and hence also productivity there.

doi: 10.1038/nature16453


Proton-gated Ca2+-permeable TRP channels damage myelin in conditions mimicking ischaemia p.523

Ischaemia damages nerve myelin by depriving neurons and their myelinating oligodendrocytes of oxygen and glucose; here it is shown that ischaemic damage is caused through the H+-dependent activation of TRPA1 channels, and not via glutamate receptors of the NMDA type, as previously thought, providing a new mechanism and promising therapeutic targets for diseases as diverse and prevalent as cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury, stroke and multiple sclerosis.

doi: 10.1038/nature16519

幹細胞:mitofusin 2はリンパ球系細胞への分解能が高い造血幹細胞を維持する

Mitofusin 2 maintains haematopoietic stem cells with extensive lymphoid potential p.528

The role of mitochondria in haematopoietic stem-cell maintenance has not been examined in detail; here mitofusin 2, which modulates mitochondrial fusion and tethering of endoplasmic reticulum to the mitochondria, is shown to be necessary for the maintenance of haematopoietic stem cells with extensive lymphoid potential.

doi: 10.1038/nature16500


Graded Foxo1 activity in Treg cells differentiates tumour immunity from spontaneous autoimmunity p.532

The transcription factor Foxo1 is shown to be involved in the determination of distinct subsets of regulatory T (Treg) cells, and the differentiation of activated phenotype Treg cells is associated with the repression of the Foxo1-dependent transcriptional program; constitutively active Foxo1 expression triggers depletion of activated Treg cells in peripheral tissues and leads to CD8 T-cell-mediated autoimmunity and anti-tumour immunity.

doi: 10.1038/nature16486


A mechanism of viral immune evasion revealed by cryo-EM analysis of the TAP transporter p.537

The cryo-electron microscopy structure of human TAP transporter, a peptide transporter central to MHC class I antigen presentation and cellular immunity, in complex with the herpes simplex virus protein ICP47.

doi: 10.1038/nature16506


Structure of the E6/E6AP/p53 complex required for HPV-mediated degradation of p53 p.541

Structural details of how oncogenic human papilloma viruses induce cancer by targeting the tumour suppressor p53 for ubiquitin-mediated degradation.

doi: 10.1038/nature16481

構造生物学:HOIP/E2~ユビキチン複合体の構造から明らかになったRBR E3リガーゼの作用機構と調節

Structure of a HOIP/E2~ubiquitin complex reveals RBR E3 ligase mechanism and regulation p.546

The first structure of fully active HOIP of the RBR family of RING-type E3 ligases in its transfer complex with an E2~ubiquitin conjugate provides insights into its mechanism of action, including the ideal alignment of the E2 and E3 catalytic centres for ubiquitin transfer and the allosteric regulation of the RBR family.

doi: 10.1038/nature16511


Structure of transcribing mammalian RNA polymerase II p.551

The first high-resolution, cryo-electron microscopy structure of mammalian RNA polymerase II, in the form of a transcribing complex comprising DNA template and RNA transcript.

doi: 10.1038/nature16482

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