Volume 497 Number 7449



Science in schools p.287

The US National Center for Science Education teaches researchers how to fight for their cause.

doi: 10.1038/497287b


Privacy in the digital age p.287

The proposed European Data Protection Regulation will rightly preserve people’s privacy — but, without exceptions for scientific research, it could hinder or prevent medical discoveries.

doi: 10.1038/497287a


Together we stand p.288

To reach a sustainable future, we must merge economic and environmental agendas.

doi: 10.1038/497288a



Human stem cells created by cloning p.295

Breakthrough sets up showdown with induced adult lines.

doi: 10.1038/497295a


Magnetar found at giant black hole p.296

Magnetized neutron star could test Einstein’s theory.

doi: 10.1038/497296a


Chinese project probes the genetics of genius p.297

Bid to unravel the secrets of brainpower faces scepticism.

doi: 10.1038/497297a

Stephan Hawkingの会合ボイコットが、イスラエルをめぐる論争の引き金に。

Hawking decision fuels Israel debate p.299

Physicist’s stance a ‘turning point’, claim supporters.

doi: 10.1038/497299a


Meeting targets lab lapses p.300

Attendees search for ways to tackle misconduct and sloppy science.

doi: 10.1038/497300a

News Features


Neanderthal culture: Old masters p.302


doi: 10.1038/497302a

生態学:18 km2のネズミ捕り

Invasive species: The 18-km2 rat trap p.306


doi: 10.1038/497306a

News & Views


Fisheries: Climate change at the dinner table p.320


doi: 10.1038/497320a


Microbiology: Bacterial communities as capitalist economies p.321


doi: 10.1038/nature12103


Planetary science: Plumbing the depths of Uranus and Neptune p.323


doi: 10.1038/497323a


Metallurgy: Iron production electrified p.324


doi: 10.1038/nature12102


Evolution: Stuck between the teeth p.325


doi: 10.1038/nature12099



Inferring ancient divergences requires genes with strong phylogenetic signals p.327

Determining major branches in the tree of life generally relies on concatenating as much genetic information as possible, but, as shown here, phylogenomic analysis often produces results that are incongruent with the results of concatenation; a method that gives credence to genes or internodes with high average internode support reduces the incongruence.

doi: 10.1038/nature12130


Structural and molecular interrogation of intact biological systems p.332

High-resolution imaging has traditionally required thin sectioning, a process that disrupts long-range connectivity in the case of brains: here, intact mouse brains and human brain samples have been made fully transparent and macromolecule permeable using a new method termed CLARITY, which allows for intact-tissue imaging as well as repeated antibody labelling and in situ hybridization of non-sectioned tissue.

doi: 10.1038/nature12107


Structure of the human smoothened receptor bound to an antitumour agent p.338

The crystal structure of the human smoothened (SMO) receptor is presented in complex with a small-molecule antitumour agent; this represents the first example of a non-class-A, 7-transmembrane (7TM) receptor structure, revealing different conserved motifs common within class frizzled 7TM receptors and an unusually complex arrangement of long extracellular loops stabilized by disulphide bonds.

doi: 10.1038/nature12167



Atmospheric confinement of jet streams on Uranus and Neptune p.344

On Uranus and Neptune, the measured fourth-order gravity harmonic, J4, constrains the atmospheric dynamics to the outermost 0.15 per cent and 0.2 per cent, respectively, of the planetary mass, indicating that these dynamics are confined to a thin weather layer no more than 1,000 kilometres deep on both planets.

doi: 10.1038/nature12131


An electrically pumped polariton laser p.348

An electrically pumped polariton laser is constructed using a quantum well microcavity, and its polaritonic nature is demonstrated unambiguously by using a magnetic field to probe the part-light, part-matter character of the system.

doi: 10.1038/nature12036


A new anode material for oxygen evolution in molten oxide electrolysis p.353

Molten oxide electrolysis is considered a promising route for extractive metallurgy with much reduced carbon dioxide emissions relative to traditional routes; now a new chromium-based alloy has been developed for use as an oxygen evolving anode that remains stable in the high-temperature corrosive conditions found during iron production via electrolysis.

doi: 10.1038/nature12134


Deep fracture fluids isolated in the crust since the Precambrian era p.357

Xenon isotopic analysis shows that ancient pockets of water found in a mine in Timmins, Canada, have survived in the Earth’s crust for at least 1.5 billion years.

doi: 10.1038/nature12127


Adaptive dynamics under development-based genotype–phenotype maps p.361

Tooth development is used as a model to examine which aspects of phenotype can be optimized by natural selection; this reveals that the complexity of the relationship between genotypic and phenotypic variation can affect adaptation

doi: 10.1038/nature12142


Signature of ocean warming in global fisheries catch p.365

The mean temperature of the catch, an index designed to characterize the effect of climate change on global fisheries catch, increased at a rate of 0.19 degrees Celsius per decade between 1970 and 2006, showing that ocean warming has already affected global fisheries.

doi: 10.1038/nature12156


Protective astrogenesis from the SVZ niche after injury is controlled by Notch modulator Thbs4 p.369

This paper identifies a specific population of subventricular-zone-generated astrocytes that increases in population density after cortical injury; these activated astrocytes migrate to the site of injury, unlike described properties for their counterparts residing in the cortex.

doi: 10.1038/nature12069

発生:X線位相差in vivo顕微鏡断層撮影法でアフリカツメガエル原腸形成の新たな側面を探る

X-ray phase-contrast in vivo microtomography probes new aspects of Xenopus gastrulation p.374

Opaque tissues provide a challenge for live imaging of Xenopus laevis development; a problem solved by in vivo time-lapse X-ray microtomography that is shown to provide a high-resolution three-dimensional view of structural changes and dynamics of gastrulation, and that is applied to identify and analyse new aspects of gastrulation in frog embryos.

doi: 10.1038/nature12116


The shaping and functional consequences of the microRNA landscape in breast cancer p.378

MicroRNA profiling of 1,302 human breast tumour samples provides an overview of the miRNA landscape and its regulation, revealing context-dependent interactions, broad prognostic value of miRNA signatures and an important modulatory role for miRNAs in the biology of breast tumours devoid of copy-number aberrations.

doi: 10.1038/nature12108


EGFR modulates microRNA maturation in response to hypoxia through phosphorylation of AGO2 p.383

Epidermal growth factor receptor, the product of a human oncogene, suppresses the maturation of specific tumour-suppressor-like microRNAs in response to hypoxic stress through phosphorylation of argonaute 2.

doi: 10.1038/nature12080


Psl trails guide exploration and microcolony formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms p.388

Cell-tracking experiments and simulations show that the Psl exopolysaccharide deposited by Pseudomonas aeruginosa guides the surface motility of subsequent cells that encounter the Psl trails, generating a ‘rich-get-richer’ effect that leads to microcolony formation.

doi: 10.1038/nature12155


Receptor binding by a ferret-transmissible H5 avian influenza virus p.392

Building on previous work that identified a mutant avian H5 virus that is transmissible between ferrets, the authors present an algorithm to predict virus avidity from the affinity of single haemagglutinin (HA)–receptor interactions; these studies predict that the mutant has a 200-fold preference for the human over the avian receptor, and crystal structures of the mutant HA in complex with human and avian receptors shed light on the molecular basis for these altered binding properties.

doi: 10.1038/nature12144

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