Volume 561 Number 7724



The costs of climate inaction p.433

A new analysis breaks down the likely social cost of carbon emissions by country and should make unhappy reading for politicians.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-06827-x


Brexit is already damaging European science p.433

With six months to go, uncertainty posed by the decision to leave the European Union is taking its toll.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-06826-y


Discovery of Galileo’s long-lost letter highlights the value of physical repositories p.434

Chance unearthing of a famous document reveals the scientist’s attempt to avoid the Inquisition.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-06825-z



Discovery of Galileo’s long-lost letter shows he edited his heretical ideas to fool the Inquisition p.441

Exclusive: Document shows that the astronomer toned down the claims that triggered science history’s most infamous battle — then lied about his edits.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-06769-4


Prominent palaeontologist loses £1-million grant following bullying investigation p.442

Nicholas Longrich has been disciplined by the University of Bath, UK, for breaching its anti-harassment policy.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-06764-9


Discovery of vibrant deep-sea life prompts new worries over seabed mining p.443

“Gummy squirrels,” single-celled organisms the size of softballs and strange worms thrive in a Pacific Ocean zone some considered an underwater desert.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-06771-w


Top US science agency unveils hotly anticipated harassment policy p.444

The National Science Foundation’s rules for reporting harassment by grant recipients are the strictest yet instituted by a US government science agency.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-06766-7


Prehistoric children as young as eight worked as brickmakers and miners p.445

Bones and artefacts suggest that kids laboured at skilled tasks thousands of years ago.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-06747-w


Reimagining of Schrödinger’s cat breaks quantum mechanics — and stumps physicists p.446

In a multi-‘cat’ experiment, the textbook interpretation of quantum theory seems to lead to contradictory pictures of reality, physicists claim.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-06749-8

News Features


Why Chinese medicine is heading for clinics around the world p.448


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-06782-7


Six months to Brexit: how scientists are preparing for the split p.452


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-06781-8

News & Views


Flexible self-powered biosensors p.466


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-06788-1


A core problem in nuclear assembly p.467


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-06668-8


Antibodies pose a double threat to HIV p.468


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-06773-8


Complex motion guided without external control p.470


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-06787-2


Designer proteins activate fluorescent molecules p.471


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-06202-w



Population dynamics of normal human blood inferred from somatic mutations p.473

Analysis of blood from a healthy human show that haematopoietic stem cells increase rapidly in numbers through early life, reaching a stable plateau in adulthood, and contribute to myeloid and B lymphocyte populations throughout life.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0497-0


Combination therapy with anti-HIV-1 antibodies maintains viral suppression p.479

Combination therapy with the anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies 3BNC117 and 10-1074 maintains long-term suppression in the absence of antiretroviral therapy in individuals with antibody-sensitive viral reservoirs.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0531-2

生化学:蛍光活性化βバレルのde novo設計

De novo design of a fluorescence-activating β-barrel p.485

The elucidation of general principles for designing β-barrels enables the de novo creation of fluorescent proteins.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0509-0


Cryo-EM structure of the active, Gs-protein complexed, human CGRP receptor p.492

The structure of a complex containing calcitonin gene-related peptide, the human calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor and the Gs heterotrimer, determined using Volta phase-plate cryo-electron microscopy, provides structural insight into the regulation of G-protein-coupled receptors by receptor activity modifying protein 1.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0535-y



Outbursts of luminous blue variable stars from variations in the helium opacity p.498

Three-dimensional simulations of the convective envelopes of massive stars suggest that it is the helium opacity that controls outbursts in luminous blue variable stars.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0525-0


A topological source of quantum light p.502

Topologically protected edge states realized in a square array of ring resonators are used to demonstrate a robust source of heralded single photons produced by spontaneous four-wave mixing.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0478-3


Extremely efficient terahertz high-harmonic generation in graphene by hot Dirac fermions p.507

Efficient terahertz harmonic generation—challenging but important for ultrahigh-speed optoelectronic technologies—is demonstrated in graphene through a nonlinear process that could potentially be generalized to other materials.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0508-1


Multi-step self-guided pathways for shape-changing metamaterials p.512

A scheme for implementing multi-step topological reorganization of a mechanical metamaterial is demonstrated, which proceeds autonomously, without the need for external control.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0541-0


Self-powered ultra-flexible electronics via nano-grating-patterned organic photovoltaics p.516

Detection of biometric signals by self-powered electronic devices that are highly flexible and can be applied to skin.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0536-x


Multicomponent synthesis of tertiary alkylamines by photocatalytic olefin-hydroaminoalkylation p.522

Complex tertiary alkylamines are prepared in one step from readily available amines, carbonyls and alkenes, via the visible-light-mediated reduction of in-situ-generated iminium ions to form alkyl-substituted α-amino radicals.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0537-9


Transience of the North American High Plains landscape and its impact on surface water p.528

The High Plains region of North America is in a transient state, with a younger, efficient network of river channels progressively cannibalizing an older, less efficient region, aiding water retention for wetlands and groundwater recharge.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0532-1


The role of miniaturization in the evolution of the mammalian jaw and middle ear p.533

Biomechanical analyses of mammaliaform and cynodont fossils demonstrate that miniaturization drove the evolutionary transformation of the mammalian jaw, which preceded the optimization of bite force-to-joint load in the mandible

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0521-4


Hydraulic diversity of forests regulates ecosystem resilience during drought p.538

The diversity in the hydraulic traits of trees mediates ecosystem resilience to drought and will probably have an important role in future ecosystem–atmosphere feedback effects.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0539-7


Sensation, movement and learning in the absence of barrel cortex p.542

Mice can learn to detect objects with their whiskers and respond appropriately even in the absence of their primary somatosensory cortex.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0527-y


Touch and tactile neuropathic pain sensitivity are set by corticospinal projections p.547

Somatosensory corticospinal neurons facilitate touch sensitivity and touch-evoked neuropathic pain in mice.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0515-2


Nuclear envelope assembly defects link mitotic errors to chromothripsis p.551

The mitotic spindle prevents normal nuclear envelope assembly on missegregated chromosomes, leading to spontaneous envelope disruption of micronuclei and subsequent genome instability.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0534-z


mRNA circularization by METTL3–eIF3h enhances translation and promotes oncogenesis p.556

METTL3, the enzyme responsible for m6A modification, influences translation by interacting with eIF3h to mediate looping between the regions near the stop codon and 5′ cap of mRNA.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0538-8


Structure of the membrane-assembled retromer coat determined by cryo-electron tomography p.561

The retromer complex (the vacuolar protein sorting heterotrimer Vps26–Vps29–Vps35) has been resolved in association with membranes and the sorting nexin protein Vps5 using cryo-electron tomography.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0526-z

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