Volume 524 Number 7566


イスラム過激派ISISから文化遺産を守ろうとして犠牲になった、シリアの考古学者Khaled al-Asaadの崇高な勇気に敬意を禁じ得ない。

Heroism in Syria p.387

A tribute to scholars of extraordinary courage.

doi: 10.1038/524387b


FDA vulnerability revealed p.387

A politically charged advisory committee meeting may have tipped the scales in favour of a mildly effective female libido drug.

doi: 10.1038/524387a



Hurricane Katrina’s psychological scars revealed p.395

Mental health worsened in the disaster’s aftermath, but survivors also showed resilience.

doi: 10.1038/524395a


North Pacific ‘blob’ stirs up fisheries management p.396

Unusually warm ocean strengthens calls to consider ecosystem variables in setting catch limits.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18218


Minnesota bog study turns up the heat on peat p.397

Experiment boosts temperature and carbon dioxide to gauge global-warming response.

doi: 10.1038/524397a


Biohackers gear up for genome editing p.398

Amateurs are ready and able to try the CRISPR technique for rewriting genes.

doi: 10.1038/524398a


Ecologists embrace their urban side p.399

Climate change and the rise of cities have broadened what it means to study ecosystems.

doi: 10.1038/524399a

News Features


How cities can beat the heat p.402


doi: 10.1038/524402a


The new war on Lyme and other tick-borne diseases p.406


doi: 10.1038/524406a

News & Views


Materials science: Superlattice substitution p.418


doi: 10.1038/524418a


Cell biology: Surviving import failure p.419


doi: 10.1038/nature14644


Structural biology: Lipid gymnastics p.420


doi: 10.1038/nature15202


Particle physics: Positrons ride the wave p.422


doi: 10.1038/524422a


Evolution: Gene transfer in complex cells p.423


doi: 10.1038/nature15205


Photonics: A stable narrow-band X-ray laser p.424


doi: 10.1038/524424a



Endosymbiotic origin and differential loss of eukaryotic genes p.427

Eukaryotes acquired their prokaryotic genes in two episodes of evolutionary influx corresponding to the origin of mitochondria and plastids, respectively, followed by extensive differential gene loss, uncovering a massive imprint of endosymbiosis in the nuclear genomes of complex cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature14963


Structure and mechanism of an active lipid-linked oligosaccharide flippase p.433

doi: 10.1038/nature14953



The disruption of multiplanet systems through resonance with a binary orbit p.439

In a multiplanet system, when orbital precession is fast enough to resonate with the orbital motion of a distant binary companion, the results range from excitation of large planetary eccentricities and mutual inclinations to total disruption.

doi: 10.1038/nature14873


Multi-gigaelectronvolt acceleration of positrons in a self-loaded plasma wakefield p.442

A particle accelerator that is two orders of magnitude more efficient than conventional radio-frequency accelerators is described in which positrons (rather than electrons) at the front of a bunch transfer their energy to a substantial number of positrons at the rear of the same bunch by exciting a wakefield in the plasma.

doi: 10.1038/nature14890


Atomic inner-shell laser at 1.5-ångström wavelength pumped by an X-ray free-electron laser p.446

A copper target is used to achieve an atomic laser in the hard-X-ray regime with strong amplified spontaneous coherent emission at a wavelength ten times shorter than previous lasers have achieved.

doi: 10.1038/nature14894


Substitutional doping in nanocrystal superlattices p.450

Substitutional atomic doping is a process by which atomic defects are introduced into a host material, altering its properties; substitutional doping of cadmium selenide or lead selenide nanocrystal lattices with gold nanocrystals has now been achieved, the key being to ensure that the dopant nanocrystals are similar in size to the host nanocrystals.

doi: 10.1038/nature14872


Multimetallic catalysed cross-coupling of aryl bromides with aryl triflates p.454

A new method for catalysing the cross-coupling of two different aryl electrophiles is described; the principle of this method, which involves cooperation between two metal catalysts that are selective towards different substrates, should be generally useful in catalysis.

doi: 10.1038/nature14676


Western US intermountain seismicity caused by changes in upper mantle flow p.458

Results from mantle flow models reveal a relationship between seismicity away from the plate boundary in the western United States and the rate change of the vertical normal stress from mantle flow, showing that mantle flow plays an important part in shaping topography, tectonics and seismic hazard within such intraplate settings.

doi: 10.1038/nature14867


The pre-vertebrate origins of neurogenic placodes p.462

A study showing that tunicates possess a proto-placodal ectoderm that produces neurons with dual neurosecretory and chemosensory function, which may represent the ancestral origin of placode-derived neurons in vertebrates.

doi: 10.1038/nature14657

神経科学:運動の差を検出する網膜内回路の形成を決めるsidekick 2

Sidekick 2 directs formation of a retinal circuit that detects differential motion p.466

The mouse retinal ganglion cell type known as the W3B-RGC, which detects motion of objects against a moving background, is shown to receive strong specific and excitatory input from amacrine cells expressing vesicular glutamine transporter 3; this selective connection is mediated by homophilic interactions of the recognition molecule sidekick 2 (Sdk2), which is expressed on both cells, and disruption of this connection affects object motion detection in W3B-RGCs.

doi: 10.1038/nature14682


SEC14L2 enables pan-genotype HCV replication in cell culture p.471

Hepatitis C virus cannot replicate in cell culture unless it possesses adaptive mutations; here, expression of cellular factor SEC14L2 is shown to allow replication of diverse hepatitis C virus genotypes in several hepatoma cell lines by enhancing vitamin E-mediated protection against lipid peroxidation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14899


Cell mixing induced by myc is required for competitive tissue invasion and destruction p.476

Live imaging of myc-driven competition in healthy Drosophila tissues shows that cells expressing higher levels of myc actively mix with the neighbouring cells, which increases the probability of eliminating neighbouring cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature14684


A cytosolic network suppressing mitochondria-mediated proteostatic stress and cell death p.481

A new pathway of mitochondria-mediated cell death termed mitochondrial precursor over-accumulation stress (mPOS) is identified that could explain the link between mitochondrial dysfunction and misfolding of cytosolic proteins during ageing and disease; the pathway is triggered not only by mutations affecting the core protein import machineries, but also by conditions that interfere with mitochondrial inner membrane integrity and function, and a large network of genes that suppress mPOS in favour of cell survival is also identified.

doi: 10.1038/nature14859


Mistargeted mitochondrial proteins activate a proteostatic response in the cytosol p.485

Mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular protein homeostasis failure are hallmarks of many diseases and age-associated pathologies; this study shows that the mitochondrial import defect of nuclear-encoded proteins triggers a cellular pathway, termed unfolded protein response activated by mistargeting of proteins (UPRam), that acts to minimize the stress caused by non-imported mitochondrial precursor proteins in order to sustain cellular protein homeostasis and organismal fitness.

doi: 10.1038/nature14951


Kinetochore-localized PP1–Sds22 couples chromosome segregation to polar relaxation p.489

A study of division in proliferating animal cells points to the existence of a kinetochore-based signalling pathway, independent of furrow formation, centrosomes and microtubules, that couples chromosome segregation to cell division.

doi: 10.1038/nature14496


Structural basis for stop codon recognition in eukaryotes p.493

All eukaryotes utilize a single termination factor, eRF1, to halt translation when the ribosome encounters one of three possible stop codons; here electron cryo-microscopy structures of ribosome–eRF1 complexes in the process of recognizing each stop codon reveal how stop codons are discriminated from sense codons.

doi: 10.1038/nature14896


Conformational dynamics of a class C G-protein-coupled receptor p.497

smFRET is used to probe the activation mechanism of two full-length mammalian glutamate receptors, revealing that the extracellular ligand-binding domains of these G-protein-coupled receptors interconvert between three confirmations (resting, activated and a short-lived intermediate state), and that the efficacy of an orthosteric agonist correlates with the degree of occupancy of the active state.

doi: 10.1038/nature14679

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