Volume 521 Number 7551



Challenging times p.125

A European initiative to ban animal research has galvanized resistance.

doi: 10.1038/521125b


A nation with ambition p.125

India is making great strides in improving its science, but it needs to look carefully at its approach and work with the rest of the world if it is to realize its full potential.

doi: 10.1038/521125a


Polls apart p.126

The UK voter opinion polls show that an anomalous answer can be the correct one.

doi: 10.1038/521126a



Mappers rush to pinpoint landslide risk in Nepal p.133

Geologists say hazard posed by earthquake-loosened earth could linger for years.

doi: 10.1038/521133a


What the UK election results mean for science p.134

A surprise Conservative majority and the rise of the Scottish National Party have implications for research policy.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.17506


Rogue antimatter found in thunderclouds p.135

Aeroplane detects signature spike in photons that does not fit any known source of antiparticles.

doi: 10.1038/521135a


Microbiomes raise privacy concerns p.136

DNA from microbes living on the human body can be used to identify individuals.

doi: 10.1038/521136a


Ebola failures prompt WHO rethink p.137

Health agency’s annual meeting will address shortcomings in outbreak response highlighted by West Africa crisis.

doi: 10.1038/521137a


India eases stance on GM crop trials p.138

States begin to permit field tests of transgenic plants.

doi: 10.1038/521138a

News Features


Science in India p.141


doi: 10.1038/521141a


India by the numbers p.142


doi: 10.1038/521142a


India: The fight to become a science superpower p.144


doi: 10.1038/521144a


Indian bioscience: The anti-bureaucrat p.148

インド・バイオテクノロジー局長官のKrishnaswamy VijayRaghavanは、自国の生物科学を煩雑な形式主義から解放しようと、大胆な計画を打ち出した。

doi: 10.1038/521148a

News & Views


Astrophysics: The slow death of red galaxies p.164


doi: 10.1038/521164a


Neuroscience: Internal compass puts flies in their place p.165


doi: 10.1038/521165a


Microscopy: Quantum control of free electrons p.166


doi: 10.1038/521166a


Microbiology: Fungus against the wall p.168


doi: 10.1038/521168a


Evolution: Steps on the road to eukaryotes p.169


doi: 10.1038/nature14522


Molecular biology: Rap and chirp about X inactivation p.170


doi: 10.1038/521170a



Complex archaea that bridge the gap between prokaryotes and eukaryotes p.173

This study identifies a clade of archaea that is the immediate sister group of eukaryotes in phylogenetic analyses, and that also has a repertoire of proteins otherwise characteristic of eukaryotes—proteins that would have provided the first eukaryotes with a ‘starter kit’ for the genomic and cellular complexity characteristic of the eukaryotic cell.

doi: 10.1038/nature14447


Neurons for hunger and thirst transmit a negative-valence teaching signal p.180

Cell-type-specific electrical activity manipulations and deep-brain imaging in mice of neuronal populations associated with homeostasis of nutrient or fluid intake reveals that learning is conditioned by a negative-valence signal from the hunger-mediating AGRP neurons and also from the thirst-mediating neurons in the subfornical organ.

doi: 10.1038/nature14416


Neural dynamics for landmark orientation and angular path integration p.186

Calcium imaging of the brain of tethered flies walking in a virtual reality arena showed that a population of neurons with dendrites that tile the ‘ellipsoid body’ use information from visual landmarks and the fly's own rotation to compute heading; this suggests insects possess neurons with similarities to ‘head direction cells’ known to contribute to spatial navigation in mammalian brains.

doi: 10.1038/nature14446



Strangulation as the primary mechanism for shutting down star formation in galaxies p.192

An analysis of the stellar metallicity of local galaxies reveals that strangulation (halting of cold gas supply) rather than sudden removal of gas (through outflows or stripping) is the primary mechanism responsible for the quenching of star formation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14439


Electron pairing without superconductivity p.196

Evidence is presented for electron pairing in strontium titanate far above the superconducting transition temperature; such pairs are thought to be the long-sought pre-formed pairs that condense at lower temperatures to give rise to the unconventional superconducting state in this system.

doi: 10.1038/nature14398


Quantum coherent optical phase modulation in an ultrafast transmission electron microscope p.200

The coherent manipulation of electron quantum states using light, commonly employed in atoms and molecules, is extended to the case of free electron beams using ultrafast transmission electron microscopy; this approach may enable a range of applications in ultrafast electron imaging and spectroscopy down to attosecond precision.

doi: 10.1038/nature14463


Global carbon export from the terrestrial biosphere controlled by erosion p.204

Particulate organic carbon export from the terrestrial biosphere is primarily controlled by physical erosion, and tectonic and climatic forcing of physical erosion may favour biospheric particulate organic carbon sequestration over silicate weathering as a long-term atmospheric carbon dioxide sink.

doi: 10.1038/nature14400


Multi-omics of permafrost, active layer and thermokarst bog soil microbiomes p.208

A multi-omics approach, integrating metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and metaproteomics, determines the phylogenetic composition of the microbial community and assesses its functional potential and activity along a thaw transition from intact permafrost to thermokast bog.

doi: 10.1038/nature14238


Pathogen-secreted proteases activate a novel plant immune pathway p.213

In Arabidopsis thaliana, pathogen-secreted proteases trigger a previously unknown defence response involving heterotrimeric G-protein complexes upstream of a mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade.

doi: 10.1038/nature14243


YAP is essential for tissue tension to ensure vertebrate 3D body shape p.217

D’Arcy Thompson predicted a century ago that animal body shape is conditioned by gravity, but there has been no animal model to study how cellular forces are coordinated to generate body shapes that withstand gravity; the hirame medaka fish mutant, with pronounced body flattening, reveals how the hirame/YAP gene controls gravity-resisting cellular forces to produce complex 3D organs and body shapes.

doi: 10.1038/nature14215


Clinical improvement in psoriasis with specific targeting of interleukin-23 p.222

A proof-of-concept phase I clinical trial demonstrates that targeting interleukin (IL)-23 with an antibody that binds to the p19 subunit leads to clinical improvement of disease in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis.

doi: 10.1038/nature14175


Nuclear architecture dictates HIV-1 integration site selection p.227

HIV-1 integration into the host cell genome occurs in the outer shell of the nucleus in close correspondence with the nuclear pore, in which a series of cellular genes are preferentially targeted by the virus.

doi: 10.1038/nature14226

分子生物学:Xist lncRNAはSHARPと直接相互作用することでHDAC3を介して転写サイレンシングを行う

The Xist lncRNA interacts directly with SHARP to silence transcription through HDAC3 p.232

The mechanisms by which Xist, a long non-coding RNA, silences one X chromosome in female mammals are unknown; here a mass spectrometry-based approach is developed to identify several proteins that interact directly with Xist, including the transcriptional repressor SHARP that is required for transcriptional silencing through the histone deacetylase HDAC3.

doi: 10.1038/nature14443


Horizontal membrane-intrinsic α-helices in the stator a-subunit of an F-type ATP synthase p.237

Electron cryomicroscopy of a complete mitochondrial ATP-synthase dimer reveals the elusive structure of the essential a-subunit.

doi: 10.1038/nature14185


Electron cryomicroscopy observation of rotational states in a eukaryotic V-ATPase p.241

Electron cryomicroscopy shows structures of three distinct rotational states of the V-ATPase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

doi: 10.1038/nature14365

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