Volume 540 Number 7634



Europe should hold fast to its scientific ambitions p.483

The EU’s fresh round of billion-euro Flagship research projects must be open to all types of science.

doi: 10.1038/540483a


Place your bets for a white Christmas p.484

But don’t fall for an old chestnut.

doi: 10.1038/540484a

40年のキャリアをNatureで勤め上げ、2016年12月をもって退職するCharles Wenzにこの記事を捧ぐ。

Raise the importance of retirement policy p.484

Studies that inform policies on retirement need to assess occupations as well.

doi: 10.1038/540484b



Peaceful EU starts to fund military research p.491

Shift in focus comes in response to a changing world order and the threat of terrorism.

doi: 10.1038/540491a


US Earth scientists plan for uncertain future under Trump p.492

Concerned by president-elect’s choice of advisers, researchers take steps to defend their fields.

doi: 10.1038/540492a


Europe's Galileo satellites herald new era for Earth science p.493

Third global fleet will soon be joined by Asian counterparts, setting the atmosphere abuzz with scientifically-useful radio-wave signals.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.21183


World Health Organization rethinks its response to disease outbreaks p.494

Programme aims to prevent crises similar to the recent Ebola epidemic.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.21134


2016 in news: The science events that shaped the year p.496

Climate accords, controversial assisted reproduction and the CRISPR patent battle are among the year's top stories.

doi: 10.1038/540496a


2016 in pictures: The best science images of the year p.500

Includes storms from space, southern stars and a striking cell.

doi: 10.1038/540500a

News Features


Nature’s 10 p.507


doi: 10.1038/540507a

News & Views


Metastasis: Pathways of parallel progression p.528


doi: 10.1038/nature21104


Supramolecular chemistry: Unexplored territory for self-assembly p.529


doi: 10.1038/540529a


Cardiovascular disease: A turbulent path to plaque formation p.531


doi: 10.1038/nature20489


Biomaterials: Sharks shift their spine into high gear p.532

ツノザメの一種Squalus acanthiasは背びれに棘が生えていて、この棘は速く泳げば泳ぐほど硬くなり、さまざまな速度で効率よく泳げるようになることが分かった。この知見はロボット材料の設計にヒントを与えるものとなるかもしれない。

doi: 10.1038/nature21102


Planetary science: Frozen in darkness p.534


doi: 10.1038/nature21108


Condensed-matter physics: Quantum mechanics in a spin p.534


doi: 10.1038/540534a


2016 Editors' choice p.536

今年度掲載されたNews & Viewsの中から編集部が精選した記事の抜粋。

doi: 10.1038/540536a



Redefining the invertebrate RNA virosphere p.539

Profiling the total RNA of 220 invertebrate species leads to the discovery of almost 1,500 new species of RNA virus, revealing that the RNA virosphere is much more diverse than was previously thought.

doi: 10.1038/nature20167


Persistent microbiome alterations modulate the rate of post-dieting weight regain p.544

The identification of an intestinal microbiome signature that persists after successful dieting in obese mice and contributes to faster weight regain upon re-exposure to an obesity-promoting diet, and that transmits the altered weight regain phenotype to non-dieting mice.

doi: 10.1038/nature20796


Early dissemination seeds metastasis in breast cancer p.552

Two related papers show that cells disseminated from malignant lesions at early time points during tumorigenesis can contribute to metastases at distant organs and provide insights into the molecular basis of dissemination.

doi: 10.1038/nature20785



Evidence for a spinon Fermi surface in a triangular-lattice quantum-spin-liquid candidate p.559

A spin excitation continuum across a large region of the Brillouin zone that persists at near-zero temperatures provides evidence for a quantum spin liquid state with a spinon Fermi surface in YbMgGaO4.

doi: 10.1038/nature20614


Self-assembly of tetravalent Goldberg polyhedra from 144 small components p.563

Graph theory is used to guide the self-assembly of a complex consisting of 48 palladium ions and 96 ligands, with the topology of a tetravalent Goldberg polyhedron.

doi: 10.1038/nature20771


Water balance creates a threshold in soil pH at the global scale p.567

There is an abrupt transition from alkaline to acid soil pH when mean annual precipitation exceeds mean annual potential evapotranspiration, demonstrating that climate creates a nonlinear pattern in soil solution chemistry at the global scale.

doi: 10.1038/nature20139


Broadening not strengthening of the Agulhas Current since the early 1990s p.570

The Agulhas Current has not intensified since the early 1990s, but has instead broadened as a result of more eddy activity.

doi: 10.1038/nature19853


Chemical intervention in plant sugar signalling increases yield and resilience p.574

Treatment with signalling precursors of trehalose-6-phosphate allows light-triggered release of trehalose-6-phosphate in Arabidopsis thaliana and increases the yield and drought resistance of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum).

doi: 10.1038/nature20591


Integrin-YAP/TAZ-JNK cascade mediates atheroprotective effect of unidirectional shear flow p.579

The Yorkie homologues YAP (Yes-associated protein) and TAZ (transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif, also known as WWTR1), effectors of the Hippo pathway, have been identified as mediators for mechanical stimuli. However, the role of YAP/TAZ in haemodynamics-induced mechanotransduction and pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here we show that endothelial YAP/TAZ activity is regulated by different patterns of blood flow, and YAP/TAZ inhibition suppresses inflammation and retards atherogenesis. Atheroprone-disturbed flow increases whereas atheroprotective unidirectional shear stress inhibits YAP/TAZ activity. Unidirectional shear stress activates integrin and promotes integrin–Gα13 interaction, leading to RhoA inhibition and YAP phosphorylation and suppression. YAP/TAZ inhibition suppresses JNK signalling and downregulates pro-inflammatory genes expression, thereby reducing monocyte attachment and infiltration. In vivo endothelial-specific YAP overexpression exacerbates, while CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Yap knockdown in endothelium retards, plaque formation in ApoE/ mice. We also show several existing anti-atherosclerotic agents such as statins inhibit YAP/TAZ transactivation. On the other hand, simvastatin fails to suppress constitutively active YAP/TAZ-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression in endothelial cells, indicating that YAP/TAZ inhibition could contribute to the anti-inflammatory effect of simvastatin. Furthermore, activation of integrin by oral administration of MnCl2 reduces plaque formation. Taken together, our results indicate that integrin–Gα13–RhoA–YAP pathway holds promise as a novel drug target against atherosclerosis.

doi: 10.1038/nature20602


NLRC3 is an inhibitory sensor of PI3K–mTOR pathways in cancer p.583

Mice deficient in the protein NLRC3 are highly prone to colitis and tumour development in the colon as NLRC3 suppresses the activation of mTOR signalling pathways that help drive tumorigenesis.

doi: 10.1038/nature20597


Mechanism of early dissemination and metastasis in Her2+ mammary cancer p.588

Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths; metastatic lesions develop from disseminated cancer cells (DCCs) that can remain dormant. Metastasis-initiating cells are thought to originate from a subpopulation present in progressed, invasive tumours. However, DCCs detected in patients before the manifestation of breast-cancer metastasis contain fewer genetic abnormalities than primary tumours or than DCCs from patients with metastases. These findings, and those in pancreatic cancer and melanoma models, indicate that dissemination might occur during the early stages of tumour evolution. However, the mechanisms that might allow early disseminated cancer cells (eDCCs) to complete all steps of metastasis are unknown. Here we show that, in early lesions in mice and before any apparent primary tumour masses are detected, there is a sub-population of Her2+p-p38lop-Atf2loTwist1hiE-cadlo early cancer cells that is invasive and can spread to target organs. Intra-vital imaging and organoid studies of early lesions showed that Her2+ eDCC precursors invaded locally, intravasated and lodged in target organs. Her2+ eDCCs activated a Wnt-dependent epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like dissemination program but without complete loss of the epithelial phenotype, which was reversed by Her2 or Wnt inhibition. Notably, although the majority of eDCCs were Twist1hiE-cadlo and dormant, they eventually initiated metastasis. Our work identifies a mechanism for early dissemination in which Her2 aberrantly activates a program similar to mammary ductal branching that generates eDCCs that are capable of forming metastasis after a dormancy phase.

doi: 10.1038/nature20609


mRNA quality control is bypassed for immediate export of stress-responsive transcripts p.593

Heat shock drives the expression of transcripts that bypass mRNA quality control for direct export and translation, allowing cells to survive extreme situations at the cost of accuracy.

doi: 10.1038/nature20572


Near-atomic-resolution cryo-EM analysis of the Salmonella T3S injectisome basal body p.597

The authors report the structure of the assembled membrane spanning ring forming proteins of the Salmonella Typhimurium injectisome basal body, including the first atomic structure of a member of the secretin family of outer-membrane pores.

doi: 10.1038/nature20576


High-resolution crystal structure of the human CB1 cannabinoid receptor p.602

The authors report a 2.6 Å resolution crystal structure of the human CB1 cannabinoid receptor trapped in the inactive conformation and bound to the antagonist taranabant.

doi: 10.1038/nature20613


Structure of RNA polymerase I transcribing ribosomal DNA genes p.607

Structures of budding yeast RNA polymerase I in a catalytically active conformation are presented and confirmed by visualizing processive transcription along ribosomal DNA genes; they support a general model for transcription elongation in which contracted and expanded polymerase conformations are associated with active and inactive states, respectively.

doi: 10.1038/nature20561

「Journal home」に戻る