Volume 507 Number 7492



What lies beneath p.273

A focus on specific biological targets rather than constellations of symptoms heralds a more scientific approach to the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders.

doi: 10.1038/507273a


How to get ahead p.273

The success of the $1,000 genome programme offers lessons for fostering innovation.

doi: 10.1038/507273b

配信を始めて数か月が経過する「Nature PastCast」は、楽しめるコンテンツであることはもちろんのこと、歴史を次世代に役立ててもらうための企画である。

Past wisdom p.274

The recent Nature PastCast series is instructive as well as entertaining.

doi: 10.1038/507274a



Telescope captures view of gravitational waves p.281

Images of the infant Universe reveal evidence for rapid inflation after the Big Bang.

doi: 10.1038/507281a


Stem-cell method faces fresh questions p.283

Papers describing acid-bath technique under more scrutiny after institute’s investigation finds errors in methodology.

doi: 10.1038/507283a


Incoming NSF director faces challenges in Congress p.285

Former Purdue University president France Córdova inherits an agency at a crossroads.

doi: 10.1038/507285a


Water returns to arid Colorado River delta p.286

US–Mexico agreement paves the way for a rare environmental test.

doi: 10.1038/507286a


NIH rethinks psychiatry trials p.288

Mental-health division will no longer fund research aiming to relieve symptoms without probing underlying causes.

doi: 10.1038/507288a

News Features


Neuroscience: Tuning the brain p.290


doi: 10.1038/507290a


Technology: The $1,000 genome p.294


doi: 10.1038/507294a

News & Views


Space science: Near-Earth space shows its stripes p.308


doi: 10.1038/507308a


Genetics: Closing the distance on obesity culprits p.309


doi: 10.1038/nature13212


Technology: Photonics illuminates the future of radar p.310

完全にフォトニクスだけに基づくコヒーレントなレーダーシステムが初めて実証されたことは、無線周波数信号の生成と測定にフォトニクスの手法を使うことが、ソフトウエアレーダーシステム(software-defined radar system)の開発を促進する可能性を示している。

doi: 10.1038/507310a


Cell biology: The disassembly of death p.312


doi: 10.1038/nature13213


Bone biology: Vessels of rejuvenation p.313


doi: 10.1038/nature13210



Comprehensive molecular characterization of urothelial bladder carcinoma OPEN p.315

This paper reports integrative molecular analyses of urothelial bladder carcinoma at the DNA, RNA, and protein levels performed as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas project; recurrent mutations were found in 32 genes, including those involved in cell-cycle regulation, chromatin regulation and kinase signalling pathways; chromatin regulatory genes were more frequently mutated in urothelial carcinoma than in any other common cancer studied so far.

doi: 10.1038/nature12965


Coupling of angiogenesis and osteogenesis by a specific vessel subtype in bone p.323

Bone homeostasis and repair declines with ageing and the mechanisms regulating the relationship between bone growth and blood vessel formation have remained unknown; this mouse study identifies the endothelial cells that promote the formation of new bone, a small microvessel subtype that can be identified by high CD31 and high Emcn expression.

doi: 10.1038/nature13145


Unexpected link between an antibiotic, pannexin channels and apoptosis p.329

The pannexin 1 channel on the plasma membrane of apoptotic cells mediates the release of find-me molecular signals to attract phagocytic cells for clearance of the apoptotic cells; here the quinolone antibiotic trovafloxacin is identified as a direct inhibitor of pannexin 1, which results in dysregulated fragmentation of apoptotic cells and may partly explain quinolone toxicity.

doi: 10.1038/nature13147



The remnant of a merger between two dwarf galaxies in Andromeda II p.335

At the lowest galactic mass scales, evidence of a merger between two galaxies is provided by the kinematic detection of a stellar stream — indicative of an accretion event — in the dwarf spheroidal galaxy Andromeda II, one of the satellite galaxies of Andromeda.

doi: 10.1038/nature12995


Rotationally driven ‘zebra stripes’ in Earth’s inner radiation belt p.338

The distributions of energetic electrons across the entire spatial extent of Earth’s inner radiation belt are found to be organized in regular, highly structured and unexpected ‘zebra stripes’, produced by Earth’s rotation.

doi: 10.1038/nature13046


A fully photonics-based coherent radar system p.341

The next generation of radar systems must be photonic to obtain frequency flexibility and improved performance; here both generation and detection of radio signals are demonstrated in a successful field trial of a photonic-based radar system using aeroplanes.

doi: 10.1038/nature13078


Sulphide oxidation and carbonate dissolution as a source of CO2 over geological timescales p.346

Sulphide oxidation coupled to carbonate dissolution can provide a transient source of carbon dioxide to Earth’s atmosphere and so balance the Cenozoic increase in carbon dioxide consumption by silicate weathering, reconciling this increase with the need for mass balance in the long-term carbon cycle.

doi: 10.1038/nature13030


Melanosome evolution indicates a key physiological shift within feathered dinosaurs p.350

Sampling of extant and fossil amniotes reveals that the diversity of melanosome morphologies increased sharply around the time of the origin of pinnate feathers in maniraptoran dinosaurs (the lineage leading to birds) and independently in mammals; lizard, turtle and crocodilian skin as well as archosaur filamentous body covering shows a limited diversity of melanosome forms, a pattern consistent with convergent changes in the melanocortin system of endothermic animals.

doi: 10.1038/nature12973


The genomic landscape of Neanderthal ancestry in present-day humans p.354

In the modern human genome, elevated Neanderthal ancestry is found at genes affecting keratin filaments, suggesting that gene flow with Neanderthals helped modern humans to adapt to non-African environments; deficiencies of Neanderthal ancestry are also found, particularly on the X chromosome and in genes expressed highly in testes, suggesting that some Neanderthal mutations were not tolerated on a modern human genetic background as they reduced male fertility.

doi: 10.1038/nature12961


A dedicated circuit links direction-selective retinal ganglion cells to the primary visual cortex p.358

Using a combination of viral-tracing and in vivo imaging techniques, the authors show that there are several parallel pathways in the mouse visual system and that directional and orientation selectivity in the cortex may arise from the specialized tuning of retinal circuits.

doi: 10.1038/nature12989

細胞:in vivoでのライブ画像化によって単一幹細胞レベルで明らかにされた腸陰窩恒常性

Intestinal crypt homeostasis revealed at single-stem-cell level by in vivo live imaging p.362

Long-term in vivo imaging of Confetti-labelled Lgr5-expressing intestinal stem cells shows that a dynamically heterogeneous cell population is able to function long-term as an equipotent stem-cell pool.

doi: 10.1038/nature12972


IL-35-producing B cells are critical regulators of immunity during autoimmune and infectious diseases p.366

B cells can secrete IL-35 upon activation, and subsequently contribute negatively to the regulation of immunity, such as T-cell-mediated autoimmunity or anti-microbial immunity, and a characterization of these cells raises new questions about possible independent roles for IL-10- and IL-35-expressing plasma cells as regulatory cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature12979


Obesity-associated variants within FTO form long-range functional connections with IRX3 p.371

Obesity-associated noncoding sequences within FTO are functionally connected with IRX3, and long-range enhancers in this region recapitulate aspects of IRX3 expression, suggesting that the obesity-associated interval is part of IRX3 regulation; Irx3-deficient mice have lower body weight and are resistant to diet-induced obesity, suggesting IRX3 as a novel determinant of body mass and composition.

doi: 10.1038/nature13138


Endothelial Notch activity promotes angiogenesis and osteogenesis in bone p.376

Blood vessel growth in bone is revealed to require Notch signalling and involve a specialized form of angiogenesis that does not involve endothelial sprouts.

doi: 10.1038/nature13146


Two independent transcription initiation codes overlap on vertebrate core promoters p.381

The transcription start sites used during the maternal to zygotic transition in zebrafish are mapped, revealing that the transition is characterized by a switch between two different sequence signs to guide transcription initiation, which often co-exist in core promoters.

doi: 10.1038/nature12974

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