Volume 548 Number 7669



Closure of US coal study marks an alarming precedent p.499

The Trump administration has stepped up its assault on environmental protections by halting a US$1-million study on the health risks of coal mining — casting a pall on academic freedom.

doi: 10.1038/548499a


Extreme weather events are the new normal p.499

Hurricane Harvey highlights the struggle to apply climate science.

doi: 10.1038/548499b


ドイツ・ハンブルグの世界最大のX線自由電子レーザーEuropean XFELが、運用開始へ。

Europe’s X-ray laser fires up p.507

High-speed shooter will help scientists to make molecular movies.

doi: 10.1038/548507a


Legal threat exposes gaps in climate-change planning p.508

Australian lawsuit highlights how difficult it is to turn global warming data into useful advice.

doi: 10.1038/548508a


US science envoy resigns in protest at Trump policies p.509

Energy researcher Daniel Kammen faults US president’s positions on climate change and energy and his failure to condemn white supremacists.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22510


Dinosaur trio roosted together like birds p.510

The animals seem to have died while huddling together 70 million years ago.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22508


Scientists solve mystery of US Civil War submarine p.511

Blast from Hunley’s own torpedo probably killed its crew instantly.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22447

News Features


Cassini’s 13 years of stunning Saturn science — in pictures p.512


doi: 10.1038/548512a

News & Views


Astronomy: Cosmic exhumation p.526


doi: 10.1038/548526a


Microbiology: The case of the mysterious messenger p.527


doi: 10.1038/nature23532


Biogeochemistry: Food for early animal evolution p.528


doi: 10.1038/nature23539


Heart disease: Putative medicines that mimic mutations p.530


doi: 10.1038/nature23544


Palaeoclimate: Volcanism caused ancient global warming p.531


doi: 10.1038/548531a


Biochemistry: A toxin that fuels metabolism p.533


doi: 10.1038/nature23541


In Retrospect: The inflammasome turns 15 p.534


doi: 10.1038/548534a



Identification of essential genes for cancer immunotherapy p.537

The authors describe a two-cell-type CRISPR screen to identify tumour-intrinsic genes that regulate the sensitivity of cancer cells to effector T cell function.

doi: 10.1038/nature23477


Type III CRISPR–Cas systems produce cyclic oligoadenylate second messengers p.543

CRISPR-associated protein Csm6 is activated by a cyclic oligoadenylate second messenger generated by Cas10 activity in the CRISPR type III interference complex, representing a novel mechanism of CRISPR interference.

doi: 10.1038/nature23467


Mammals divert endogenous genotoxic formaldehyde into one-carbon metabolism p.549

The mechanism by which formaldehyde, a potent DNA and protein crosslinking agent, is generated from folate is described, with implications for the treatment of certain cancers.

doi: 10.1038/nature23481



Fast automated analysis of strong gravitational lenses with convolutional neural networks p.555

Estimates of parameters of strong gravitational lenses are obtained in an automated way using convolutional neural networks, with similar accuracy and greatly improved speed compared to previous methods.

doi: 10.1038/nature23463


Proper-motion age dating of the progeny of Nova Scorpii AD 1437 p.558

The re-discovery of the binary star system that created the Nova Scorpii AD 1437 stellar outburst shows that it is now a dwarf nova, suggesting that nova systems spend some time as dwarf novae in between larger outbursts.

doi: 10.1038/nature23644


Magnetic antiskyrmions above room temperature in tetragonal Heusler materials p.561

Antiskyrmions, in which the magnetization rotates both as a transverse helix and as a cycloid, are found in acentric tetragonal Heusler compounds over a wide range of temperatures.

doi: 10.1038/nature23466


Molecular machines open cell membranes p.567

Rotary molecular machines, activated by ultraviolet light, are able to perturb and drill into cell membranes in a controllable manner, and more efficiently than those exhibiting flip-flopping or random motion.

doi: 10.1038/nature23657


Very large release of mostly volcanic carbon during the Palaeocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum p.573

Boron and carbon isotope data, used in an Earth system model, show that the Palaeocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum was associated with a much greater release of carbon than thought, probably triggered by volcanism in the North Atlantic.

doi: 10.1038/nature23646


The rise of algae in Cryogenian oceans and the emergence of animals p.578

Steroid biomarkers provide evidence for a rapid rise of marine planktonic algae between 659 and 645 million years ago, establishing more efficient energy transfers and driving ecosystems towards larger and increasingly complex organisms.

doi: 10.1038/nature23457


Lhx6-positive GABA-releasing neurons of the zona incerta promote sleep p.582

GABAergic Lhx6+ neurons in the ventral zona incerta promote both rapid eye movement and non-rapid eye movement sleep and inhibit the activity of wake-promoting GABAergic and Hcrt+ neurons of the lateral hypothalamus.

doi: 10.1038/nature23663


Feedback regulation of steady-state epithelial turnover and organ size p.588

Steady-state turnover of the Drosophila midgut arises through an intercellular, E-cadherin–EGFR relay that couples the death of individual enterocytes to the divisions of nearby stem cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature23678


Human iPS cell-derived dopaminergic neurons function in a primate Parkinson’s disease model p.592

In a preclinical study, dopaminergic neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells were implanted into a primate model of Parkinson’s disease, where they were found to exhibit long-term survival, function as mid-brain dopaminergic neurons, and increase spontaneous movements.

doi: 10.1038/nature23664


Public antibodies to malaria antigens generated by two LAIR1 insertion modalities p.597

Up to 10% of individuals in malaria-endemic regions produce antibodies that react to malaria antigens through an additional LAIR1 domain that is inserted by two different insertion modalities.

doi: 10.1038/nature23670


Homeostatic control of metabolic and functional fitness of Treg cells by LKB1 signalling p.602

The tumour suppressor liver kinase B1 (LKB1) regulates the metabolic and functional fitness of regulatory T cells in the control of immune tolerance and homeostasis.

doi: 10.1038/nature23665


ISWI chromatin remodellers sense nucleosome modifications to determine substrate preference p.607

A high-throughput approach using a DNA-barcoded nucleosome library shows that ISWI chromatin remodellers can distinguish between differently modified nucleosomes.

doi: 10.1038/nature23671

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