Volume 545 Number 7652


Integrity starts with the health of research groups p.5

Funders should force universities to support laboratories’ research health.

doi: 10.1038/545005b

Trump’s empty chairs rob science of a voice in government p.5

Delay in making presidential appointments harms research and the broader public.

doi: 10.1038/545005a

Increased scrutiny of climate-change models should be welcomed p.6

The apparent slowdown in global warming has provided a spur for better understanding of the underlying processes.

doi: 10.1038/545006a


Researchers frustrated by Italian misconduct probe p.13

Alfredo Fusco denies claims that his research lab hired a photo studio to manipulate images.

doi: 10.1038/545013a

Dreams of the Stone Age dated for first time in southern Africa p.14

Ancient rock art research could piece together how the peoples who lived in the region some 5,700 years ago interacted.

doi: 10.1038/545014a

Europe’s billion-euro quantum project takes shape p.16

Scientists offer more detail on flagship programme to harness quantum effects in devices.

doi: 10.1038/545016a

Party drug’s power to fight depression puzzles scientists​ p.17

Ketamine can ease depression in hours, but researchers might have misjudged how it works.

doi: 10.1038/545017a

BioRxiv preprint server gets cash boost from Chan Zuckerberg Initiative p.18

Money will be used to develop open-source platform and help put articles in web-friendly formats.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21894

News Features

The shock tactics set to shake up immunology p.20

An experimental procedure is exposing the links between the nervous and immune systems. Could it be the start of a revolution?

doi: 10.1038/545020a

News & Views

Archaeology: Of rats and resilience p.32

A revised timeline for the arrival of settlers on Mangaia island in Polynesia reveals the resilience of this population, which overcame an environmental crisis through bold measures to support a sustainable society.

doi: 10.1038/545032a

Neurodegeneration: Role of repeats in protein clearance p.33

Mutant proteins that contain stretches called polyQ repeats can misfold or form aggregates linked to neurodegeneration. It emerges that some polyQ-containing proteins regulate a process that degrades misfolded proteins. See Letter p.108

doi: 10.1038/nature22489

Organic Chemistry: Nickel steps towards selectivity p.35

Hydrocarbons called alkenes are isolated from petroleum as mixtures of isomers, often making it hard to use them as reagents for synthesis. A reaction involving a migrating nickel atom offers a possible solution. See Letter p.84

doi: 10.1038/545035a

Molecular genetics: Chaperone protein gets personal p.36

Two studies of the molecular chaperone protein HSP90 reveal how complex traits can be shaped by genetic and environmental context. This work highlights the challenges of personalized medicine.

doi: 10.1038/nature22487

Climate Science: The 'pause' unpacked p.37

Short-term climate trends are sensitive to definitions, data and testing. This sensitivity underlies an alleged pause in global warming, and highlights the need for meaningful definitions to sustain claims that it was real. See Analysis p.41

doi: 10.1038/545037a

Human Development: Advances in mini-brain technology p.39

Two studies integrate cutting-edge techniques to grow and analyse 3D cultured tissues that resemble human brain structures, enabling examination of how brain regions interact and neurons mature. See Articles p.48 & p.54

doi: 10.1038/545039a


Reconciling controversies about the ‘global warming hiatus’ p.41

Apparently contradictory conclusions regarding the ‘global warming hiatus’ are reconciled, strengthening the current scientific understanding that long-term global warming is extremely likely to be of anthropogenic origin.

doi: 10.1038/nature22315


Cell diversity and network dynamics in photosensitive human brain organoids p.48

Apparently contradictory conclusions regarding the ‘global warming hiatus’ are reconciled, strengthening the current scientific understanding that long-term global warming is extremely likely to be of anthropogenic origin.

doi: 10.1038/nature22047

Assembly of functionally integrated human forebrain spheroids p.54

Human pluripotent stem cells were used to develop dorsal and ventral forebrain 3D spheroids, which can be assembled to study interneuron migration and to derive a functionally integrated forebrain system with cortical interneurons and glutamatergic neurons.

doi: 10.1038/nature22330

T-cell invigoration to tumour burden ratio associated with anti-PD-1 response p.60

The clinical benefit of anti-PD-1 antibody treatment is dependent on the extent to which exhausted CD8 T cells are reinvigorated in relation to the tumour burden of the patient.

doi: 10.1038/nature22079

Visualizing multistep elevator-like transitions of a nucleoside transporter p.66

Multiple crystallographic structures of a concentrative nucleoside transporter show how it uses an ‘elevator’ mechanism to move its transport domain across the membrane.

doi: 10.1038/nature22057


Observation of the frozen charge of a Kondo resonance p.71

In a quantum dot in the Kondo regime, electrical charges are effectively frozen, but the quantum dot remains electrically conducting owing to strong electron–electron correlations.

doi: 10.1038/nature21704

Observed quantization of anyonic heat flow p.75

Quasiparticles in strongly interacting fractional quantum Hall systems carry heat according to the same quantization of thermal conductance as for particles in non-interacting systems.

doi: 10.1038/nature22052

Dual-phase nanostructuring as a route to high-strength magnesium alloys p.80

Combining the benefits of nanocrystals with those of amorphous metallic glasses leads to a dual-phase material—comprising sub-10-nanometre-sized nanocrystalline grains embedded in amorphous glassy shells—that exhibits a strength approaching the ideal theoretical limit.

doi: 10.1038/nature21691

Remote carboxylation of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons with carbon dioxide p.84

A nickel catalyst that promotes carboxylation of halogenated hydrocarbons at remote aliphatic sites with carbon dioxide via tunable and controllable chain-walking is described.

doi: 10.1038/nature22316

Burgess Shale fossils illustrate the origin of the mandibulate body plan p.89

Tokummia katalepsis from the Burgess Shale had a pair of mandibles and maxilliped claws, showing that large bivalved arthropods from the Cambrian period are forerunners of myriapods and pancrustaceans, thereby providing a basis for the origin of the hyperdiverse mandibulate body plan.

doi: 10.1038/nature22080

The mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger is essential for Ca2+ homeostasis and viability p.93

Conditional deletion of the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger NCLX in adult mouse hearts causes sudden death due to mitochondrial calcium overload, whereas its overexpression limits cell death elicited by ischaemia reperfusion injury and heart failure.

doi: 10.1038/nature22082

Tumour ischaemia by interferon-γ resembles physiological blood vessel regression p.98

Interferon-γ acts on tumour endothelial cells to drive vascular regression, inducing ischaemia that leads to tumour collapse.

doi: 10.1038/nature22311

Transmission of cytokinesis forces via E-cadherin dilution and actomyosin flows p.103

Under physiological forces, resulting from cytokinesis, the mechanosensitivity of adherens junction arises from a local decrease in E-cadherin concentration and results in actomyosin flows.

doi: 10.1038/nature22041

Polyglutamine tracts regulate beclin 1-dependent autophagy p.108

The polyglutamine domain in ataxin 3, which is expanded in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3, allows normal ataxin 3 to interact with and deubiquitinate beclin 1 and thereby to promote autophagy.

doi: 10.1038/nature22078

Structural insight into allosteric modulation of protease-activated receptor 2 p.112

Crystal structures of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) in complex with two different antagonist ligands and with a blocking antibody reveal binding sites that are distinct from those found on PAR1, offering new leads for structure-based drug design.

doi: 10.1038/nature22309

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