目次

Editorials

戦争や迫害による難民には、人道的立場から保護の手を差し伸べるべきだ。

Keep a welcome p.157

The plight of a record number of refugees is something the West cannot ignore. Humanitarian values should be upheld, and people fleeing war and persecution must be offered protection.

doi: 10.1038/525157a

不平等の問題には、富の偏在が見えるかどうかが大きく関わるらしい。

Money matters p.157

It is not how much people have, it is how much we know they have that stokes inequality.

doi: 10.1038/525157b

回答は、質問の言い回しに左右されやすい。

Loaded language p.158

There can be more to a question than appears at first sight.

doi: 10.1038/525158a

News

プリオンに汚染された成長ホルモン治療を受けた患者で、アルツハイマー病に特徴的なアミロイドβ病変が見られたとの報告が。

Autopsies reveal signs of Alzheimer's in growth-hormone patients p.165

Brain plaques may have been seeded by contaminated hormone extracts from cadavers.

doi: 10.1038/525165a

米政府が、生物医学研究の倫理規定の刷新へ。

US agencies plan research-ethics overhaul p.166

Long-awaited revision proposed for regulations governing studies of human subjects.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18309

量子コンピューターにも耐え得る暗号化システムの作成を目指し、暗号学者たちが模索を。

Online security braces for quantum revolution p.167

Encryption fix begins in preparation for arrival of futuristic computers.

doi: 10.1038/525167a

一流大学の競争力を高めることを目指したドイツの政策「エクセレンス・イニシアティブ」が成果を。

Germany claims success for elite universities drive p.168

Report praises US$5-billion scheme for making leading universities more competitive — but some smaller institutions have done just as well.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18312

地球の高木の総数は3兆本を超えるとの調査結果が。

Trillions of trees p.170

Survey of surveys finds 422 trees for every person on Earth.

doi: 10.1038/525170a

News Features

構造生物学:結晶化しないという革命

The revolution will not be crystallized: a new method sweeps through structural biology p.172

低温電子顕微鏡が、X線結晶構造解析に取って代わるようになっており、細胞のタンパク質装置の構造解明に大きな成果を挙げている。

doi: 10.1038/525172a

考古学:最初のアメリカ先住民を探す

Fishing for the first Americans p.176

新世界に最初に定住した「ファースト・アメリカン」の手掛かりを求めるための考古学調査が、大陸から河岸や海岸、海底へと移ってきている。

doi: 10.1038/525176a

News & Views

経済学:単純な市場モデルはテスト不合格

Economics: Simple market models fail the test p.190

需要に応じて価格が変動するエネルギー市場について行われた解析によって、このような考え方の市場モデルは、予想外にも電力使用の変化を抑制するのではなく、拡大する方向に動くことが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/nature15215

細胞生物学:脂質の流れにおける逆流

Cell biology: Countercurrents in lipid flow p.191

脂質の1つであるホスファチジルセリンは、脂質が産生される小胞体という細胞小器官の膜に比べて、細胞膜の方に豊富に存在するようになっていて、これが脂質交換サイクルの働きによっていることが、2つの研究によって示された。

doi: 10.1038/525191a

神経変性:ヒトでのアミロイドβ病変の誘発

Neurodegeneration: Amyloid-β pathology induced in humans p.193

ヒト死体に由来するヒト成長ホルモンの投与を受けた後に神経変性疾患のクロイツフェルト・ヤコブ病で死亡した患者では、アルツハイマー病の病理学的特徴の一部も発症していたことが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/525193a

大気科学:海洋のしぶき粒子は雲の中に氷を作り出す

Atmospheric science: Sea-spray particles cause freezing in clouds p.194

海洋の高緯度域に見られる氷雲は、以前に考えられていたよりも暖かくて乾いた大気中で生じている可能性が明らかになった。その理由は海洋表層水に由来する有機物質を含む粒子が大気によって運ばれて、氷結を生じさせるからである。

doi: 10.1038/525194a

宇宙物理学:原始的な星形成領域をのぞく

Astrophysics: Glimpse into a primitive stellar nursery p.195

ヘリウムより重い元素が乏しい局所銀河の星形成領域の分解能の高い画像が初めて得られた。この画像から、宇宙の初期に星形成が起こった可能性のある条件に関する、これまでで最良の描像が得られる。

doi: 10.1038/525195a

計算生物学:希少な細胞タイプを捕らえる方法

Computational biology: How to catch rare cell types p.197

RaceIDと命名されたアルゴリズムが開発され、よく似た細胞が複雑に入り交じっている場合であっても、単一細胞RNA塩基配列解読により希少な細胞タイプを見つけ出すことが可能になった。

doi: 10.1038/nature15204

がん:動く標的

Cancer: A moving target p.198

腫瘍進化のin silico三次元モデルから、細胞の運動性が腫瘍量の初期の増大における重要な因子であることが示唆されている。このモデルはまた、変異拡散の動態も明らかにした。

doi: 10.1038/nature15210

がん:p53変異体とクロマチン調節

Cancer: Mutant p53 and chromatin regulation p.199

p53タンパク質変異体の一部は、ヒストンタンパク質を修飾する酵素をコードしている遺伝子群も標的とするという知見は、このような変異がp53不活性化以外のやり方でがんを引き起こす仕組みについての手掛かりを与えてくれる。

doi: 10.1038/nature15212

Articles

森林生態学:全球規模の高木密度地図の作製

Mapping tree density at a global scale p.201

Ground-sourced tree density data is assembled to provide a global map of tree density, which reveals that there are three trillion trees (tenfold more than previous estimates); tree numbers have declined by nearly half since the start of human civilization and over 15 billion trees are lost on an annual basis.

doi: 10.1038/nature14967

がん:機能獲得p53変異体はクロマチン経路を借用してがんの増殖を駆動する

Gain-of-function p53 mutants co-opt chromatin pathways to drive cancer growth p.206

A ChIP-seq analysis of the DNA-binding properties of mutant gain-of-function p53 protein compared to wild-type p53 reveals the gain-of-function proteins bind to and activate a distinct set of genes including chromatin modifying enzymes such as the histone methyltransferase MLL; small molecular inhibitors of MLL function may represent a new target for cancers with mutant p53.

doi: 10.1038/nature15251

構造生物学:ヒトγ-セクレターゼの原子構造

An atomic structure of human γ-secretase p.212

The atomic structure of human γ-secretase at 3.4 Å resolution, determined by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy.

doi: 10.1038/nature14892

Letters

宇宙物理学:金属量の少ない矮小銀河WLM内の一酸化炭素によって明らかになった高密度のガス雲のコア

Dense cloud cores revealed by CO in the low metallicity dwarf galaxy WLM p.218

To understand the birth of stars, observations of the clouds in which they form are key; here, interferometric observations are reported of carbon monoxide clouds in the galaxy WLM, which has a metallicity that is 13 per cent of the value of our Sun.

doi: 10.1038/nature14901

量子物理学:二準位系からの直交位相振幅スクイーズド光子

Quadrature squeezed photons from a two-level system p.222

Measurements of a steady emission of single photons from a quantum dot demonstrate that the fluctuations of the electric field can periodically be 3% below the fundamental quantum limit and confirm the long-standing prediction that the quantum state of single photons can be squeezed.

doi: 10.1038/nature14868

材料科学:750ギガパスカルを超える静圧下における最も非圧縮率の高い金属オスミウム

The most incompressible metal osmium at static pressures above 750 gigapascals p.226

Subtle anomalies in how the structure of metallic osmium evolves with pressure are detected using powder X-ray diffraction measurements at ultra-high static pressures; the anomaly at 440 gigapascals is attributed to an electronic transition caused by pressure-induced interactions between core electrons.

doi: 10.1038/nature14681

材料化学:タンパク質とDNAの共集合化によるナノワイヤー形成をコンピューターで設計する

Computational design of co-assembling protein–DNA nanowires p.230

Computational protein design is used to create a protein–DNA co-assembling nanomaterial; by varying the arrangement of protein-binding sites on the double-stranded DNA, a ‘nanowire’ with single-molecule width can be spontaneously formed by mixing the protein and double-stranded DNA building blocks.

doi: 10.1038/nature14874

大気科学:大気中の氷核粒子の海洋生物由来の供給源

A marine biogenic source of atmospheric ice-nucleating particles p.234

The presence of ice in clouds can influence cloud lifetime, precipitation and radiative properties; here, organic material at the sea–air interface, possibly associated with phytoplankton cell exudates, is shown to nucleate ice under conditions relevant for ice cloud formation in the atmospheric environment.

doi: 10.1038/nature14986

古生物学:カメ類の頭蓋の進化的起源

Evolutionary origin of the turtle skull p.239

Computed tomography and phylogenetic analysis of the Eunotosaurus africanus skull suggests that not only is Eunotosaurus an early relative of the group that eventually evolved into turtles, but that it is also a diapsid caught in the act of evolving towards a secondarily anapsid state.

doi: 10.1038/nature14900

神経科学:ドーパミン作動性ニューロンによる予測誤差計算の基盤となる算術と局所神経回路

Arithmetic and local circuitry underlying dopamine prediction errors p.243

Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area calculate reward prediction error by subtracting input from neighbouring GABA neurons.

doi: 10.1038/nature14855

神経疾患:ヒトにおけるアミロイドβ病変および脳アミロイド血管症の伝播の証拠

Evidence for human transmission of amyloid-β pathology and cerebral amyloid angiopathy p.247

More than two hundred individuals developed Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) worldwide as a result of treatment, typically in childhood, with human cadaveric pituitary-derived growth hormone contaminated with prions. Although such treatment ceased in 1985, iatrogenic CJD (iCJD) continues to emerge because of the prolonged incubation periods seen in human prion infections. Unexpectedly, in an autopsy study of eight individuals with iCJD, aged 36–51 years, in four we found moderate to severe grey matter and vascular amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology. The Aβ deposition in the grey matter was typical of that seen in Alzheimer’s disease and Aβ in the blood vessel walls was characteristic of cerebral amyloid angiopathy and did not co-localize with prion protein deposition. None of these patients had pathogenic mutations, APOE ε4 or other high-risk alleles associated with early-onset Alzheimer’s disease. Examination of a series of 116 patients with other prion diseases from a prospective observational cohort study showed minimal or no Aβ pathology in cases of similar age range, or a decade older, without APOE ε4 risk alleles. We also analysed pituitary glands from individuals with Aβ pathology and found marked Aβ deposition in multiple cases. Experimental seeding of Aβ pathology has been previously demonstrated in primates and transgenic mice by central nervous system or peripheral inoculation with Alzheimer’s disease brain homogenate. The marked deposition of parenchymal and vascular Aβ in these relatively young patients with iCJD, in contrast with other prion disease patients and population controls, is consistent with iatrogenic transmission of Aβ pathology in addition to CJD and suggests that healthy exposed individuals may also be at risk of iatrogenic Alzheimer’s disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. These findings should also prompt investigation of whether other known iatrogenic routes of prion transmission may also be relevant to Aβ and other proteopathic seeds associated with neurodegenerative and other human diseases.

doi: 10.1038/nature15369

計算生物学:単一細胞のメッセンジャーRNA塩基配列解読で明らかになった腸管の希少な細胞タイプ

Single-cell messenger RNA sequencing reveals rare intestinal cell types p.251

An algorithm that allows rare cell type identification in a complex population of single cells, based on single-cell mRNA-sequencing, is applied to mouse intestinal cells, revealing novel subtypes of enteroendocrine cells and showing that the Lgr5-expressing population consists of a homogenous stem cell population with a few rare secretory cells, including Paneth cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature14966

がん:別個のEMTプログラムが正常な乳腺幹細胞と腫瘍開始細胞を制御する

Distinct EMT programs control normal mammary stem cells and tumour-initiating cells p.256

This study finds that the epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) transition program, which is common to both mammary gland reconstituting stem cells and mammary tumour-initiating cells, is differentially regulated by two distinct EMT factors, Slug and Snail; the findings illustrate that although they appear similar, normal tissue stem cells and tumour-initiating cells are controlled by distinct regulatory processes.

doi: 10.1038/nature14897

がん:腫瘍内部の不均一性が分散と細胞の新旧交代によって制限されることを予測する空間モデル

A spatial model predicts that dispersal and cell turnover limit intratumour heterogeneity p.261

A new model of tumour evolution is presented to explain how short-range migration and cell turnover within the tumour can provide the basic environment of rapid cell mixing, allowing even a small selective advantage to dominate the mass within relevant time frames.

doi: 10.1038/nature14971

植物科学:植物のペプチドホルモンであるファイトスルフォカインによるアロステリックな受容体活性化

Allosteric receptor activation by the plant peptide hormone phytosulfokine p.265

Insights derived from the crystal structures of the extracellular domain of PSKR, the receptor for the plant hormone phytosulfokine (PSK) that affects plant growth and development, reveal that PSK interacts with PSKR and enhances PSKR interaction with its co-receptor SERK allosterically.

doi: 10.1038/nature14858

植物科学:ジャスモン酸シグナル伝達の際に起こるJAZによるMYC転写因子抑制の構造的基盤

Structural basis of JAZ repression of MYC transcription factors in jasmonate signalling p.269

Structural view of a dynamic molecular switch mechanism that governs repression and activation of the jasmonate plant hormone pathway.

doi: 10.1038/nature14661

生物物理学:RNAポリメラーゼIIによる転写開始のリアルタイム観察

Real-time observation of the initiation of RNA polymerase II transcription p.274

A single-molecule optical tweezer assay is developed to monitor transcription initiation in eukaryotic RNA polymerase II in real-time, making use of a highly purified preinitiation complex (PIC) from yeast; observations show that a large bubble is opened up in the DNA template during initiation, driven by the TFIIH helicase that forms part of the PIC, along with synthesis of an extended transcript before the transition from transcription initiation into elongation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14882

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