目次

Editorials

HIV感染症の流行を止めるために、早期の抗ウイルス薬投与を世界的に実施すべきだ。

The HIV epidemic can be stopped p.127

Mounting evidence that rapid treatment with antiretroviral drugs dramatically reduces HIV transmission must be acted on fast if a target date for curbing the epidemic is to be met.

doi: 10.1038/523127a

研究評価のための数値的手法は確かに有効だが、不透明なものも多く、透明性を高める努力が必要である。

A numbers game p.127

Institutions must be plain about research metrics if academics are to engage with them.

doi: 10.1038/523127b

ビッグ・データの時代にクラウドの活用は不可避だが、その方法についての障害も徐々に明らかになってきた。

Cloud cover p.128

Opposition to storing vast scientific data sets on cloud-computing platforms is weakening.

doi: 10.1038/523128a

News

米国の大平原地帯で、頻発する夜間の激しい雷雨を追跡する大規模実地調査が。

Night-time storm chasers stalk their prey on US Plains p.135

Violent nocturnal thunderstorms are hard to explain and even harder to forecast.

doi: 10.1038/523135a

ヨーロッパの3つの主要な研究機関が、クラウドによるデータ保存計画を。

European labs set sights on continent-wide computing cloud p.136

Giant public–private computing network would fulfil the European Commission’s vision of an open-research platform.

doi: 10.1038/523136a

植物の生態系を、微生物や虫なども含めた「植物バイオーム(phytobiome)」として捉えようとの試みが。

Plant denizens get the big-science treatment p.137

Researchers seek holistic view of botanic ecosystems.

doi: 10.1038/523137a

HIVワクチンの臨床研究結果を不正に操作したとして研究者に懲役刑を命じた有罪判決で、科学的不正行為に対する罰則の一貫性の無さが浮き彫りに。

US vaccine researcher sentenced to prison for fraud p.138

The case of Dong-Pyou Han illustrates the uneven nature of penalties for scientific misconduct.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.17660

NASAのニュー・ホライズンズ探査機が、冥王星に到達した時に見るもの。

Pluto fly-by: a graphical guide to the historic mission p.140

New Horizons mission is set to speed past an ice world at the fringes of the Solar System.

doi: 10.1038/523140a

News Features

地震学:地震ハンター

The 24/7 search for killer quakes p.142

米国地震情報センター(NEIC)のPaul Earleたちは、大地震が地球のどこで起ころうと、24時間体制で目を光らせている。

doi: 10.1038/523142a

公衆衛生:HIVに打ち勝つ方法

How to beat HIV p.146

HIV感染症の流行を終わらせる手段はあるが、それをうまく活用する方法が必要だ。

doi: 10.1038/523146a

News & Views

生物地球化学:深海底からの鉄の旅

Biogeochemistry: Iron's voyage from the abyss p.160

熱水噴出孔からの鉄を大量に含む噴出水は、大洋全体に4000 km以上にわたって広がっていくことが分かった。この知見は海生藻類の生産性に関係があり、従って気候にも関わってくると考えられる。

doi: 10.1038/523160a

がん:細胞外小胞を使う診断法

Cancer: Diagnosis by extracellular vesicles p.161

循環血中の細胞外小胞に繋留されている1種類の分子を検出するという方法を使って、患者の一滴の血液から進行中の膵臓がんを検出できるようになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature14626

生物多様性:樹木伐採の隠れた影響

Biodiversity: Hidden impacts of logging p.163

熱帯林に生息する鳥類の個体数変化に関するメタ解析から、選択的な木材収穫の影響が伐採の種類や種の機能形質によって変わることが分かった。この結果は、生物多様性への影響をうまく処理するための枠組みを示している。

doi: 10.1038/523163a

宇宙物理学:γ線バーストの意外な原因

Astrophysics: A twist in the tale of γ-ray bursts p.164

2011年12月、継続時間が4時間という異例な長さのγ線バーストが地球で観測された。このバーストの原因が、自転している磁化された中性子星から生まれた変わった超新星であるらしいことが今回報告された。

doi: 10.1038/523164b

原生生物学:微生物の眼の成り立ち

Protistology: How to build a microbial eye p.166

渦鞭毛藻類ワルノヴィア科の微生物の細胞にある眼点構造が詳細に調べられ、この構造の構成要素が色素体とミトコンドリアという2つの細胞小器官であることが明らかにされた。

doi: 10.1038/nature14630

骨髄疾患:サリドマイド誘導体のもう1つの作用

Myeloid disease: Another action of a thalidomide derivative p.167

レナリドマイドは、第5染色体長腕(5q)欠失が原因で起こる血液疾患の治療に有効性を発揮する。今回、レナリドマイドがCRBNを標的として結合し、5q領域にある遺伝子にコードされている酵素の分解を促進することが示された。

doi: 10.1038/nature14628

Review

宇宙物理学:初期宇宙の低質量銀河におけるフィードバック

Feedback in low-mass galaxies in the early Universe p.169

Feedback in the form of galactic-scale outflows of gas from star-forming, low-mass galaxies allowed ionizing radiation to escape from galaxies when the Universe was about 500 million years old, changing the hydrogen between galaxies from neutral to ionized.

doi: 10.1038/nature14454

Articles

がん:グリピカン1によるがんエキソソームの同定と早期膵臓がんの検出

Glypican-1 identifies cancer exosomes and detects early pancreatic cancer p.177

Glypican-1 identifies cancer exosomes and serves as a biomarker for detection of early pancreatic cancer in patients and mouse models of the disease; the findings may enable early and non-invasive identification, and prevention of malignant cancer.

doi: 10.1038/nature14581

がん:レナリドマイドはdel(5q) MDSにおいてCK1αのユビキチン化と分解を引き起こす

Lenalidomide induces ubiquitination and degradation of CK1α in del(5q) MDS p.183

Lenalidomide, a derivative of thalidomide, is an effective drug for myelodysplastic syndrome; lenalidomide binds the CRL4CRBN E3 ubiquitin ligase and promotes degradation of casein kinase 1a, on which the malignant cells rely for survival.

doi: 10.1038/nature14610

Letters

宇宙物理学:超長時間持続するγ線バーストを伴ない非常に高輝度のマグネターによってエネルギーを供給される超新星

A very luminous magnetar-powered supernova associated with an ultra-long γ-ray burst p.189

A new class of ultra-long-duration (more than 10,000 seconds) γ-ray bursts has recently been suggested. They may originate in the explosion of stars with much larger radii than those producing normal long-duration γ-ray bursts or in the tidal disruption of a star. No clear supernova has yet been associated with an ultra-long-duration γ-ray burst. Here we report that a supernova (SN 2011kl) was associated with the ultra-long-duration γ-ray burst GRB 111209A, at a redshift z of 0.677. This supernova is more than three times more luminous than type Ic supernovae associated with long-duration γ-ray bursts, and its spectrum is distinctly different. The slope of the continuum resembles those of super-luminous supernovae, but extends further down into the rest-frame ultraviolet implying a low metal content. The light curve evolves much more rapidly than those of super-luminous supernovae. This combination of high luminosity and low metal-line opacity cannot be reconciled with typical type Ic supernovae, but can be reproduced by a model where extra energy is injected by a strongly magnetized neutron star (a magnetar), which has also been proposed as the explanation for super-luminous supernovae.

doi: 10.1038/nature14579

惑星科学:プラズマ圏ヒスから生じる放射線帯電子消失の全球スケールのコヒーレンス変調

Global-scale coherence modulation of radiation-belt electron loss from plasmaspheric hiss p.193

Simultaneous measurements of structured radiation-belt electron losses (in the form of bremsstrahlung X-rays) and plasmaspheric hiss (which causes the losses) reveal that the loss dynamics is coherent with the hiss dynamics on spatial scales comparable to the size of the plasmasphere.

doi: 10.1038/nature14515

物理化学:単一超分子ナノファイバーにおける室温での長距離エネルギー輸送

Long-range energy transport in single supramolecular nanofibres at room temperature p.196

Coherent energy transport is key to the operation of the photosynthetic machinery and the successful implementation of molecular electronics; self-assembled supramolecular nanofibres based on carbonyl-bridged triarylamines are now shown to transport singlet excitons over micrometre-scale distances at room temperature.

doi: 10.1038/nature14570

海洋化学:南太平洋全域における熱水活動由来の溶存金属の海盆スケールの輸送

Basin-scale transport of hydrothermal dissolved metals across the South Pacific Ocean p.200

Hydrothermal dissolved iron, manganese, and aluminium from the southern East Pacific Rise is transported several thousand kilometres westward across the South Pacific Ocean; global hydrothermal dissolved iron input is estimated to be more than four times what was previously thought and modelling suggests it must be physically or chemically stabilized in solution.

doi: 10.1038/nature14577

微生物学:眼に類似した構造であるocelloidは内部共生で獲得された異なる複数の構成要素から作られる

Eye-like ocelloids are built from different endosymbiotically acquired components p.204

Dinoflagellate eye-like ocelloids are built from pre-existing organelles of disparate origin, including a cornea-like layer made of mitochondria and a retinal body made of anastomosing plastids.

doi: 10.1038/nature14593

微生物学:細菌ドメインの15%以上を構成する細菌群に見られる独特の生物学的特性

Unusual biology across a group comprising more than 15% of domain Bacteria p.208

More than 15% of the bacterial domain consists of a radiation of phyla about which very little is known; here, metagenomics is used to reconstruct 8 complete and 789 draft genomes from more than 35 of these phyla, revealing a shared evolutionary history, metabolic limitations, and unusual ribosome compositions.

doi: 10.1038/nature14486

エピゲノミクス:ヒトの体のエピゲノム地図が非カノニカルなDNAメチル化の多様性を明らかにする

Human body epigenome maps reveal noncanonical DNA methylation variation OPEN p.212

As part of the Epigenome Roadmap Project, genome-wide maps of DNA methylation and transcriptomes together with genomic DNA sequencing of 18 different primary human tissue types from 4 individuals are presented; analysis reveals widespread differential methylation of CG sites between tissues, and the presence of non-CG methylation in adult tissues.

doi: 10.1038/nature14465

感染症:季節性インフルエンザウイルスの連続抗原変異(ドリフト)に伴う地球規模での流行パターンは、多様性を示す

Global circulation patterns of seasonal influenza viruses vary with antigenic drift p.217

The analysis of more than 9,000 haemagglutinin sequences of human seasonal influenza viruses over a 12-year time period shows that the global circulation patterns of A/H1N1 and B viruses are different from those of the well characterised A/H3N2 viruses; in particular the A/H1N1 and B viruses are shown to persist locally across several seasons and do not display the same degree of global movement as the H3N2 viruses.

doi: 10.1038/nature14460

免疫学:TH17細胞は炎症が消散する際に制御性T細胞に分化転換する

Th17 cells transdifferentiate into regulatory T cells during resolution of inflammation p.221

Analysis of a mouse model shows that during the course of an immune response, helper T cells undergo functional reprogramming to transdifferentiate into regulatory T cells; this T cell plasticity could possibly be exploited to develop better therapies for restoring immune tolerance in autoimmune diseases.

doi: 10.1038/nature14452

細胞生物学:低酸素予定運命図によって成体心で代謝回転する心筋細胞が突き止められた

Hypoxia fate mapping identifies cycling cardiomyocytes in the adult heart p.226

Fate-mapping hypoxic cells in the mouse heart identifies a rare population of cycling cardiomyocytes, which show characteristics of neonatal cardiomyocytes, including smaller size and mononucleation, and contribute to new cardiomyocyte formation in the adult heart.

doi: 10.1038/nature14582

がん:黒色腫に内在しているβカテニンシグナル伝達は抗腫瘍免疫を阻止する

Melanoma-intrinsic β-catenin signalling prevents anti-tumour immunity p.231

Melanoma treatment is being revolutionized by the development of effective immunotherapeutic approaches. These strategies include blockade of immune-inhibitory receptors on activated T cells; for example, using monoclonal antibodies against CTLA-4, PD-1, and PD-L1 (refs 3, 4, 5). However, only a subset of patients responds to these treatments, and data suggest that therapeutic benefit is preferentially achieved in patients with a pre-existing T-cell response against their tumour, as evidenced by a baseline CD8+ T-cell infiltration within the tumour microenvironment. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie the presence or absence of a spontaneous anti-tumour T-cell response in subsets of cases, therefore, should enable the development of therapeutic solutions for patients lacking a T-cell infiltrate. Here we identify a melanoma-cell-intrinsic oncogenic pathway that contributes to a lack of T-cell infiltration in melanoma. Molecular analysis of human metastatic melanoma samples revealed a correlation between activation of the WNT/β-catenin signalling pathway and absence of a T-cell gene expression signature. Using autochthonous mouse melanoma models we identified the mechanism by which tumour-intrinsic active β-catenin signalling results in T-cell exclusion and resistance to anti-PD-L1/anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody therapy. Specific oncogenic signals, therefore, can mediate cancer immune evasion and resistance to immunotherapies, pointing to new candidate targets for immune potentiation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14404

微生物学:サイクリックdi-GMPは染色体複製を駆動する細胞周期の振動子として機能する

Cyclic di-GMP acts as a cell cycle oscillator to drive chromosome replication p.236

In Caulobacter crescentus, oscillating levels of the second messenger cyclic-di-GMP drive the cell cycle through regulation of the essential cell cycle kinase CckA; as its levels increase during the G1–S transition, cyclic-di-GMP binds to CckA to inhibit kinase and stimulate phosphatase activity, thereby enabling replication initiation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14473

分子生物学:遺伝子量補償の際にコンデンシンが引き起こすX染色体のトポロジー再構成

Condensin-driven remodelling of X chromosome topology during dosage compensation p.240

Genome-wide chromosome conformation capture analysis in C. elegans reveals that the dosage compensation complex, a condensin complex, remodels the X chromosomes of hermaphrodites into a sex-specific topology distinct from autosomes while regulating gene expression chromosome-wide.

doi: 10.1038/nature14450

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