目次

Editorials

気候変動に関連した危機を回避するには、気候変動に対する人間の適応に関するモデルを作成し、これを気候モデルに組み込むことが必要だ。

People power p.347

Climate models must consider how humans are responding to a warming world.

doi: 10.1038/512347b

緊急事態への対応と危機管理を期待される各国政府の科学顧問は、過去の危機対応に学び、国境を超えた協力体制の構築に力を注ぐべきだ。

Diplomatic service p.347

Government science advisers are unlikely to be specialists on the subject of a crisis, but they are key to bringing together relevant experts and disseminating the information clearly and accurately.

doi: 10.1038/512347a

News

エボラ出血熱の制圧のために、さらなる国際的な支援・協力を求める声が。

World struggles to stop Ebola p.355

Greater international assistance is needed to quell the epidemic, say health officials.

doi: 10.1038/512355a

ブラジルで遺伝子組換え(GM)ユーカリの承認審査が始まり、科学界のみならず産業界や活動家からも大きな注目が。

Brazil considers transgenic trees p.357

Genetically modified eucalyptus could be a global test case.

doi: 10.1038/512357a

環境に優しいとして人気が高まっているエコツーリズムだが、ホエールウォッチングなどでは逆に、こうした観察行為がイルカやクジラに悪影響を及ぼしている可能性が。

Ecotourism rise hits whales p.358

Desire to observe whales and dolphins up close is affecting animals’ behaviour.

doi: 10.1038/512358a

温暖化によって植生の高地への移動が起こっているヒマラヤ山脈では、その恵まれた生物多様性の変化を記録しようとする研究が盛んに。

Himalayan plants seek cooler climes p.359

Race is on to record mountain biodiversity before it is lost.

doi: 10.1038/512359a

News Features

科学的助言:危機カウンセラー

Scientific advice: Crisis counsellors p.360

国家が危機に直面した時、政府レベルの対応に関して助言するのが科学顧問であり、近年の火山噴火、原油流出事故、致命的な疾患の流行に対する彼らの取り組みを追った。

doi: 10.1038/512360a

News & Views

ゲノミクス:丸見えのところに隠れている

Genomics: Hiding in plain sight p.374

ENCODE(Encyclopedia of DNA Elements)およびmodENCODE(Model Organism ENCODE)研究コンソーシアムからの最新の報告は、線虫、ショウジョウバエとヒトのゲノム中にある機能エレメントのデータセットの数を2倍以上にするものだ。

doi: 10.1038/512374a

宇宙物理学:γ線観測を介して超新星を見る

Astrophysics: Supernova seen through γ-ray eyes p.375

Ia型超新星に由来するγ線の観測は、この種の星の爆発が前駆天体での急な熱核融合からエネルギーを得ていることを示している。

doi: 10.1038/512375a

免疫:哺乳類の侵入監視受容体は細菌を標的としている

Immunology: Mammalian watchdog targets bacteria p.377

芳香族炭化水素受容体は環境中の毒性分子に対する防御応答を誘導する。新たな研究から、この受容体は細菌の遺伝子にコードされている毒性因子の識別も行っていて、免疫系にも役立っていることが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13741

ニュートリノ物理学:太陽を光らせているもの

Neutrino physics: What makes the Sun shine p.378

太陽エネルギー生成のきっかけとなる核反応の際に生じるニュートリノが観測された。太陽ニュートリノ探索におけるこの画期的な成果には、地下深くに設置された極めて感度の高い測定器が必要だった。

doi: 10.1038/512378a

応用物理学:ハイブリッドセンサーの感度を上げる

Applied physics: Hybrid sensors ring the changes p.380

ある種の磁力計の設計が改良され、このような機器の感度が大幅に向上した。これは、異なる種類の信号を併用して感度を上げる新世代のハイブリッドセンサーの先駆けとなるかもしれない。

doi: 10.1038/512380a

行動生態学:汝の隣人を愛せよ

Behavioural ecology: Love thy neighbour p.381

理論モデルの1つでは、雌が誘導するつがい外交尾が起こる原因は、雄が近隣の家族に関心を向けることにあり、つがい外交尾は雄の協力を引き出す強力な動機を作り出し、また同時に雌に利益をもたらすと考えられている。

doi: 10.1038/512381a

Articles

素粒子物理学:太陽中の陽子と陽子の核融合過程から生じるニュートリノ

Neutrinos from the primary proton–proton fusion process in the Sun p.383

Spectral observations of the low-energy neutrinos produced by proton–proton fusion in the Sun demonstrate that about 99 per cent of the Sun’s power is generated by this process.

doi: 10.1038/nature13702

免疫:AhRによる細菌性色素の感知は抗菌防御を調節する

AhR sensing of bacterial pigments regulates antibacterial defence p.387

The mammalian aryl hydrocarbon receptor (known to sense environmental pollutants) is shown to also have a role as a pattern recognition receptor in sensing bacterial virulence factors, resulting in an antibacterial response and activation of innate and natural defences.

doi: 10.1038/nature13684

ゲノミクス:ショウジョウバエトランスクリプトームの多様性と動態

Diversity and dynamics of the Drosophila transcriptome OPEN p.393

A large-scale transcriptome analysis in Drosophila melanogaster, across tissues, cell types and conditions, provides insights into global patterns and diversity of transcription initiation, splicing, polyadenylation and non-coding RNA expression.

doi: 10.1038/nature12962

ゲノミクス:C. elegansゲノムの時空間的分解能での調節解析

Regulatory analysis of the C. elegans genome with spatiotemporal resolution OPEN p.400

Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing across multiple stages of Caenorhabditis elegant development reveals the genomic distribution of binding sites for 92 transcription factors and regulatory proteins, and integration of these and cellular-resolution expression data produce a spatiotemporally resolved metazoan transcription factor binding map allowing exploration into the properties of developmental regulatory circuits.

doi: 10.1038/nature13497

Letters

宇宙:Ia型超新星2014Jから生じたコバルト56のγ線輝線

Cobalt-56 γ-ray emission lines from the type Ia supernova 2014J p.406

A type Ia supernova is thought to be a thermonuclear explosion of either a single carbon–oxygen white dwarf or a pair of merging white dwarfs. The explosion fuses a large amount of radioactive 56Ni (refs 1–3). After the explosion, the decay chain from 56Ni to 56Co to 56Fe generates γ-ray photons, which are reprocessed in the expanding ejecta and give rise to powerful optical emission. Here we report the detection of 56Co lines at energies of 847 and 1,238 kiloelectronvolts and a γ-ray continuum in the 200–400 kiloelectronvolt band from the type Ia supernova 2014J in the nearby galaxy M82. The line fluxes suggest that about 0.6 ± 0.1 solar masses of radioactive 56Ni were synthesized during the explosion. The line broadening gives a characteristic mass-weighted ejecta expansion velocity of 10,000 ± 3,000 kilometres per second. The observed γ-ray properties are in broad agreement with the canonical model of an explosion of a white dwarf just massive enough to be unstable to gravitational collapse, but do not exclude merger scenarios that fuse comparable amounts of 56Ni.

doi: 10.1038/nature13672

量子物理学:検出されない光子による量子イメージング

Quantum imaging with undetected photons p.409

A new quantum imaging experiment demonstrates images made with light that does not encounter the object; one of a pair of photons created at two crystals illuminates the object but is never detected, and the other photon, which is in a joint quantum state with the first and does not interact with the object, forms an image of the object on a camera.

doi: 10.1038/nature13586

有機化学:三核チタンヒドリド錯体によるベンゼンの炭素–炭素結合切断および骨格変換反応

Carbon–carbon bond cleavage and rearrangement of benzene by a trinuclear titanium hydride p.413

A trinuclear titanium polyhydride complex can be used to cleave carbon–carbon bonds in benzene and transform the benzene ring, suggesting that multinuclear titanium hydrides could be used to activate aromatic molecules.

doi: 10.1038/nature13624

気候:気候変動に対する平均降雪量と極端な降雪量の対照的な応答

Contrasting responses of mean and extreme snowfall to climate change p.416

In many regions, a warming climate may lead to large decreases in annual snowfall while having a much weaker effect on the intensities of the heaviest snowfall events — those that can be most disruptive to urban infrastructure.

doi: 10.1038/nature13625

進化:北米のカンブリア紀層で見つかった原始的な魚類の化石

A primitive fish from the Cambrian of North America p.419

Fossils of Metaspriggina, one of the earliest known and most primitive fishes, are described, with the structure of the gills shown to presage that of jawed vertebrates in many ways.

doi: 10.1038/nature13414

神経科学:学習に対する神経の制約

Neural constraints on learning p.423

During learning, the new patterns of neural population activity that develop are constrained by the existing network structure so that certain patterns can be generated more readily than others.

doi: 10.1038/nature13665

神経科学:ショウジョウバエの動き検出を担うON経路とOFF経路の処理特性

Processing properties of ON and OFF pathways for Drosophila motion detection p.427

Four medulla neurons implement two critical processing steps to incoming signals in Drosophila motion detection.

doi: 10.1038/nature13427

がん:miR-34aは破骨細胞生成とTgif2の阻害により骨粗鬆症と骨転移を阻止する

miR-34a blocks osteoporosis and bone metastasis by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis and Tgif2 p.431

A microRNA, miR-34a, is a novel and critical suppressor of osteoclastogenesis, bone resorption and the bone metastatic niche.

doi: 10.1038/nature13375

植物科学:拡散的相互作用による耐性多型の長期維持

The long-term maintenance of a resistance polymorphism through diffuse interactions p.436

Long-term plant resistance polymorphism does not require obligate association but instead is maintained in the face of diffuse ecological interactions.

doi: 10.1038/nature13439

細胞生物学:Get1/2膜貫通複合体は小胞体膜へのタンパク質の挿入を行う酵素である

The Get1/2 transmembrane complex is an endoplasmic-reticulum membrane protein insertase p.441

The receptor for the cytoplasmic factor that targets tail-anchored proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum is an enzyme that enables a facilitated insertion path into the lipid bilayer.

doi: 10.1038/nature13471

ゲノミクス:系統的に離れた複数種にわたるトランスクリプトーム比較解析

Comparative analysis of the transcriptome across distant species OPEN p.445

Uniform processing and detailed annotation of human, worm and fly RNA-sequencing data reveal ancient, conserved features of the transcriptome, shared co-expression modules (many enriched in developmental genes), matched expression patterns across development and similar extent of non-canonical, non-coding transcription; furthermore, the data are used to create a single, universal model to predict gene-expression levels for all three organisms from chromatin features at the promoter.

doi: 10.1038/nature13424

ゲノミクス:後生動物のクロマチン構造の比較分析

Comparative analysis of metazoan chromatin organization OPEN p.449

A large collection of new modENCODE and ENCODE genome-wide chromatin data sets from cell lines and developmental stages in worm, fly and human are analysed; this reveals many conserved features of chromatin organization among the three organisms, as well as notable differences in the composition and locations of repressive chromatin.

doi: 10.1038/nature13415

ゲノミクス:系統的に離れた複数の生物種にわたる遺伝子調節の情報および回路の比較解析

Comparative analysis of regulatory information and circuits across distant species OPEN p.453

A map of genome-wide binding locations of 165 human, 93 worm and 52 fly transcription-regulatory factors (almost 50% presented for the first time) from diverse cell types, developmental stages, or conditions reveals that gene-regulatory properties previously observed for individual factors may be general principles of metazoan regulation that are well preserved.

doi: 10.1038/nature13668

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