目次

Editorials

世界各地で続く異常気象は人間活動が原因であることを明言した論文が初めて出版された。

Extreme weather explicitly blamed on humans for the first time p.291

Scientists take the bold step of saying phenomena wouldn’t have happened without global warming.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08808-y

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ドイツではナチスの優生学の傷が残るが、DIYバイオやバイオハッカーが生物学への好感と信頼を育てる助けになるかもしれない。

Biohackers can boost trust in biology p.291

DIY scientists in Germany can bring techniques out of the lab and help the country learn to love the field.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08807-z

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クリスマスの季節に、謎めいた小天体「オウムアムア」が、太陽系外から飛来した。

Interstellar message of ‘Oumuamua p.292

Mysterious traveller from afar highlights a seasonal greeting.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08809-x

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News

1960~1970年代に航空機によって得られた南極の大量のレーダー画像のデジタル化が行われ、その氷床の進化を知る手掛かりに。

Rescued radar maps reveal Antarctica's past p.299

More than 2 million newly digitized images extend the history of the bottom of the ice sheet.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08329-8

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CRISPR–Cas技術によって、ヒトの遺伝性難聴のマウスモデルで聴力が回復したとの報告が。

Gene editing staves off deafness in mice p.300

Technique to knock out mutant gene relies on fatty molecules to deliver CRISPR components to inner-ear cells.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08722-3

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ビットコインを支える「ブロックチェーン」技術が科学界にも進出しており、期待と懸念が。

Could Bitcoin technology help science? p.301

Blockchain could lend security measures to the scientific process, but the approach has its own risks.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08589-4

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韓国の研究用原子炉HANAROが3年半ぶりに再稼働し、実験再開へ。

South Korean scientists eager for reactor restart p.302

It’s good news for neutron scientists in the region.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08476-y

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政治的混乱やセクハラ問題など科学者にとって厳しい年ではあったが、新しいタイプのがん治療法であるCAR-T療法の認可や中性子星合体からの重力波検出など明るい話題もあった。

2017 in news: The science events that shaped the year p.304

A giant iceberg, a quantum-entanglement experiment and the death of a spacecraft are among the year’s top stories.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08493-x

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写真で見る2017年

2017 in pictures: The best science images of the year p.308

A spectacular total eclipse, hitch-hiking octopus, nanoscale fireworks and more.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08492-y

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News Features

Natureが選ぶ今年の10人

Nature's 10 p.315

今年、科学の大きな話題を生み出したのは、どのような人たちだろうか。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07763-y

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News & Views

微生物生態学:大気の微量成分からエネルギーを得る

Microbial ecology: Energy from thin air p.336

今回、先進的なゲノム解析によって、寒冷で栄養の乏しい南極の土壌の微生物群集が、光合成ではなく、微量ガスの酸化によってエネルギーを得ていることが示唆された。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07579-w

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免疫学:記憶T細胞の起源

Immunology: The origins of memory T cells p.337

記憶T細胞は、以前に遭遇したことのある病原体を防ぐが、記憶T細胞の起源はよく分かっていない。今回、DNA修飾を長期にわたって追跡した2つの研究によって、記憶T細胞がエフェクターT細胞から生じることが見いだされた。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08280-8

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惑星科学:地下に蓄えられている火星の水

Planetary science: Martian water stored underground p.339

地球の表面には水が保持されているのに、火星では表面の水の大半が失われたのはなぜか。これら2つの惑星における鉱物の進化のモデルは、1つの説明を示唆している。つまり、火星の水は、惑星内部に取り込まれたのである。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08670-y

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がん:腫瘍のリンパ管が免疫療法の効果を高める

Cancer: Tumour lymph vessels boost immunotherapy p.340

リンパ管量が多く予後不良の腫瘍には、増殖因子タンパク質VEGF-Cの高レベルの発現が伴っている。今回、そうした腫瘍は免疫療法への感受性が極めて高いことが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08669-5

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神経変性疾患:アルツハイマー病に関するスペックの知見

Neurodegenerative disorders: Specks of insight into Alzheimer’s disease p.342

炎症の合図は、ミクログリア細胞からのASCタンパク質の放出の引き金となる。今回、ASCスペックが、マウスの脳において、アルツハイマー病の顕著な特徴であるアミロイドβタンパク質の凝集と沈着を促進することが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08668-6

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エディターが選んだ2017年N&Vの「逸品」

2017 in research: Choice cuts from this year’s News & Views articles p.344

今年度掲載されたNews & Viewsの中から編集部が精選した記事の抜粋。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08516-7

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Articles

有機化学:触媒的クロスメタセシスによるE型とZ型の三置換アルケンの合成

Synthesis of E- and Z-trisubstituted alkenes by catalytic cross-metathesis p.347

An approach for the synthesis of E- and Z- trisubstituted alkenes in high stereoisomeric purity is developed by merging catalytic cross-metathesis and cross-coupling processes.

doi: 10.1038/nature25002

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神経変性疾患:ミクログリア由来のASCスペックはアルツハイマー病でアミロイドβをクロスシードする

Microglia-derived ASC specks crossseed amyloid-β in Alzheimer’s disease p.355

The spreading of pathology within and between brain areas is a hallmark of neurodegenerative disorders. In patients with Alzheimer’s disease, deposition of amyloid-β is accompanied by activation of the innate immune system and involves inflammasome-dependent formation of ASC specks in microglia. ASC specks released by microglia bind rapidly to amyloid-β and increase the formation of amyloid-β oligomers and aggregates, acting as an inflammation-driven cross-seed for amyloid-β pathology. Here we show that intrahippocampal injection of ASC specks resulted in spreading of amyloid-β pathology in transgenic double-mutant APPSwePSEN1dE9 mice. By contrast, homogenates from brains of APPSwePSEN1dE9 mice failed to induce seeding and spreading of amyloid-β pathology in ASC-deficient APPSwePSEN1dE9 mice. Moreover, co-application of an anti-ASC antibody blocked the increase in amyloid-β pathology in APPSwePSEN1dE9 mice. These findings support the concept that inflammasome activation is connected to seeding and spreading of amyloid-β pathology in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature25158

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免疫学:ワクチン接種後のヒト記憶CD8 T細胞の起源と分化

Origin and differentiation of human memory CD8 T cells after vaccination p.362

In vivo deuterium labelling reveals a quiescent population of long-lived human virus-specific memory CD8 T cells that maintain the epigenetic landscape of effector cells, which facilitates rapid responses to pathogen re-exposure.

doi: 10.1038/nature24633

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構造生物学:mTORC1のRHEBによる活性化とPRAS40による阻害の機構

Mechanisms of mTORC1 activation by RHEB and inhibition by PRAS40 p.368

The cryo-electron microscopy and crystal structures of several mTORC1 complexes, and accompanying biochemical analyses, shed light on how mTORC1 is regulated and how cancer mutations lead to its hyperactivation.

doi: 10.1038/nature25023

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Letters

天文学:ねじれた不均質なジェットによって説明されるブレーザーのスペクトル変動

Blazar spectral variability as explained by a twisted inhomogeneous jet p.374

The spectral variability of the blazar CTA 102 during a recent extreme outburst could be explained by a twisted, inhomogeneous jet containing regions of different orientations that vary in time.

doi: 10.1038/nature24623

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天文学:赤色の極端に細長い恒星間小惑星のつかの間の訪問

A brief visit from a red and extremely elongated interstellar asteroid p.378

The first interstellar object to be detected in the Solar System is asteroidal in nature and has a shape unlike any Solar System body, with a length about ten times its width.

doi: 10.1038/nature25020

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磁気圏物理学:地球近傍空間におけるアルベド中性子崩壊と中性子密度からの電子の測定

Measurement of electrons from albedo neutron decay and neutron density in near-Earth space p.382

Electrons derived from cosmic rays become trapped in the radiation belts that surround Earth, but how the electrons are generated has been uncertain; new measurements confirm the involvement of neutron decay.

doi: 10.1038/nature24642

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素粒子物理学:宇宙線ミューオンの観測によるクフ王のピラミッド内部における大空間の発見

Discovery of a big void in Khufu’s Pyramid by observation of cosmic-ray muons p.386

Cosmic-ray muon radiography has been used to non-invasively visualize the voids in the Great Pyramid (Khufu’s Pyramid), revealing a large void situated above the Grand Gallery.

doi: 10.1038/nature24647

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惑星科学:地球と火星の始原的水圏の水の異なる運命

The divergent fates of primitive hydrospheric water on Earth and Mars p.391

Modelling the reactions of water with the crusts of early Earth and Mars sheds light on how water was transported through their crusts to give the surfaces we see today.

doi: 10.1038/nature25031

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古生物学:シンクロトロンによるスキャンで明らかになった、新たな鳥類様恐竜クレードの水陸両生性の生態形態

Synchrotron scanning reveals amphibious ecomorphology in a new clade of bird-like dinosaurs p.395

The recently discovered theropod Halszkaraptor escuillei reveals a novel basal dromaeosaurid clade, and its adaptations that suggest a semi-aquatic predatory lifestyle add an additional ecomorphology to those developed by non-avian maniraptorans.

doi: 10.1038/nature24679

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微生物生態学:南極砂漠では大気中の微量ガスが表面土壌の一次生産を支えている

Atmospheric trace gases support primary production in Antarctic desert surface soil p.400

Metagenomic and biochemical analyses of soil samples from Antarctic desert regions provides evidence that bacteria in these soils derive carbon and energy from atmospheric CO, H2 and CO2.

doi: 10.1038/nature25014

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免疫学:エフェクターCD8 T細胞は長期生存記憶細胞へ脱分化する

Effector CD8 T cells dedifferentiate into long-lived memory cells p.404

DNA methylation profiling of virus-specific T cells during acute viral infection in mice provides evidence that a fate-permissive subset of effector CD8 T cells dedifferentiates into long-lived memory T cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature25144

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細胞生物学:クラスリンを介したエンドサイトーシス輸送におけるホスホイノシチド変換の動態

Dynamics of phosphoinositide conversion in clathrin-mediated endocytic traffic p.410

‘Coincidence-detecting’ phosphoinositide sensors are used to study changes in the phosphoinositide lipid species found in membranes during the development and maturation of endocytic clathrin-coated vesicles.

doi: 10.1038/nature25146

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生物工学:自身のRNAゲノムを封入するように設計されたタンパク質集合体の進化

Evolution of a designed protein assembly encapsulating its own RNA genome p.415

Computationally designed icosahedral protein-based assemblies can protect their genetic material and evolve in biochemical environments, suggesting a route to the custom design of synthetic nanomaterials for non-viral drug delivery.

doi: 10.1038/nature25157

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構造生物学:カルシウム依存性塩素イオンチャネルTMEM16Aの、クライオ電子顕微鏡によって明らかになった活性化機構

Activation mechanism of the calcium-activated chloride channel TMEM16A revealed by cryo-EM p.421

Cryo-electron microscopy mapping of the calcium-activated chloride channel TMEM16A combined with functional experiments reveals that calcium ions interact directly with the pore to activate the channel.

doi: 10.1038/nature24652

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構造生物学:カルシウム依存性塩素イオンチャネルTMEM16Aのクライオ電子顕微鏡構造

Cryo-EM structures of the TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channel p.426

Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) encoded by TMEM16A control neuronal signalling, smooth muscle contraction, airway and exocrine gland secretion, and rhythmic movements of the gastrointestinal system. To understand how CaCCs mediate and control anion permeation to fulfil these physiological functions, knowledge of the mammalian TMEM16A structure and identification of its pore-lining residues are essential. TMEM16A forms a dimer with two pores. Previous CaCC structural analyses have relied on homology modelling of a homologue (nhTMEM16) from the fungus Nectria haematococca that functions primarily as a lipid scramblase, as well as subnanometre-resolution electron cryo-microscopy. Here we present de novo atomic structures of the transmembrane domains of mouse TMEM16A in nanodiscs and in lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol as determined by single-particle electron cryo-microscopy. These structures reveal the ion permeation pore and represent different functional states. The structure in lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol has one Ca2+ ion resolved within each monomer with a constricted pore; this is likely to correspond to a closed state, because a CaCC with a single Ca2+ occupancy requires membrane depolarization in order to open (C.J.P. et al., manuscript submitted). The structure in nanodiscs has two Ca2+ ions per monomer and its pore is in a closed conformation; this probably reflects channel rundown, which is the gradual loss of channel activity that follows prolonged CaCC activation in 1 mM Ca2+. Our mutagenesis and electrophysiological studies, prompted by analyses of the structures, identified ten residues distributed along the pore that interact with permeant anions and affect anion selectivity, as well as seven pore-lining residues that cluster near pore constrictions and regulate channel gating. Together, these results clarify the basis of CaCC anion conduction.

doi: 10.1038/nature25024

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