Volume 553 Number 7686


Nature Researchは、Nature SustainabilityNature ElectronicsNature Catalysisの3誌を創刊し、研究が持つ潜在的インパクトの正しい評価に取り組み続ける。

Reward research that changes society p.5

Tracking societal impacts encourages academics to pursue them. The launch of three new Nature journals should also help.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08943-6



Deep learning sharpens views of cells and genes p.9

Neural networks are making biological images easier to process.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00004-w

Facebookの共同創設者Dustin Moskovitzとその妻Cari TunaらによるOpen Philanthropy Projectが、イヌ用がんワクチンの開発などの高リスクな研究に資金を。

Facebook billionaire pours funds into high-risk research p.10

Silicon Valley philanthropy project revives some grants rejected by a mainstream US biomedical funder.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08795-0


US government lifts ban on risky pathogen research p.11

The National Institutes of Health will again fund research that makes viruses more dangerous.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08837-7


What to expect in 2018: science in the new year p.12

Moon missions, ancient genomes and a publishing showdown are set to shape the new year.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00009-5

News Features


A reboot for chronic fatigue syndrome research p.14


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08965-0

News & Views


Ocean thermometer from the past p.30


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08721-4


A bloody brake on myelin repair p.31


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08232-2


Nanoscale interfaces made easily p.32


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08755-8


More than one way to a central nervous system p.34


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08195-4


Ultrasound approach tracks gut microbes p.36

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08911-0


Escape from senescence boosts tumour growth p.37


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08652-0



Mean global ocean temperatures during the last glacial transition p.39

Noble gases trapped in ice cores are used to show that the mean global ocean temperature increased by 2.6 degrees Celsius over the last glacial transition and is closely correlated with Antarctic temperature.

doi: 10.1038/nature25152


Convergent evolution of bilaterian nerve cords p.45

In bilaterian animals, the final configurations of central nervous systems seem unrelated to neuroectodermal patterning systems, so it is likely that the various architectures of the ventral nerve cords evolved convergently, many times.

doi: 10.1038/nature25030



Galaxy growth in a massive halo in the first billion years of cosmic history p.51

Two extremely massive galaxies are seen 800 million years after the Big Bang, showing the rapid growth of early structure and marking the most massive halo known in that era.

doi: 10.1038/nature24629


Exploring 4D quantum Hall physics with a 2D topological charge pump p.55

By implementing a 2D topological charge pump using ultracold bosonic atoms, the theoretically predicted 4D integer quantum Hall effect is confirmed experimentally.

doi: 10.1038/nature25000


Photonic topological boundary pumping as a probe of 4D quantum Hall physics p.59

A 2D topological charge pump in a photonic waveguide array is used to observe boundary physics associated with the 4D quantum Hall effect experimentally.

doi: 10.1038/nature25011


One-pot growth of two-dimensional lateral heterostructures via sequential edge-epitaxy p.63

An approach is developed for the continuous fabrication of lateral multi-junction heterostructures of transition-metal dichalcogenides, in which the sequential formation of heterojunctions is achieved solely by changing the composition of the reactive gas environment in the presence of water vapour.

doi: 10.1038/nature25155


Perovskite nickelates as electric-field sensors in salt water p.68

Application of an electric field changes the transport and optical properties of samarium nickelate submerged in water, making it a suitable passive sensor of weak electric fields in salt water.

doi: 10.1038/nature25008


Unexpectedly large impact of forest management and grazing on global vegetation biomass p.73

Analyses of potential and actual biomass stocks indicate that trade-offs exist between conserving carbon stocks on managed land and raising the contribution of biomass to raw material and energy supply for the mitigation of climate change.

doi: 10.1038/nature25138


Sooty mangabey genome sequence provides insight into AIDS resistance in a natural SIV host p.77

Whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomic analysis of immune-related genes of Cercocebus atys and Macaca mulatta identify candidate genes, such as ICAM2 and TLR4, that may explain the AIDS resistance of C. atys.

doi: 10.1038/nature25140


MicroRNAs from the parasitic plant Cuscuta campestris target host messenger RNAs p.82

A parasitic plant produces microRNAs that target host messenger RNAs, causing them to be processed into small interfering RNAs.

doi: 10.1038/nature25027


Acoustic reporter genes for noninvasive imaging of microorganisms in mammalian hosts p.86

Heterologous expression of engineered gas vesicles allows noninvasive, deep-tissue ultrasound visualization of engineered bacteria in vivo in mouse tumour models and in the gastrointestinal tract.

doi: 10.1038/nature25021

細胞生物学:サイクリンD–CDK4キナーゼはcullin 3–SPOPを介してPD-L1を不安定化し、がんの免疫監視を制御する

Cyclin D–CDK4 kinase destabilizes PD-L1 via cullin 3–SPOP to control cancer immune surveillance p.91

Abundance of PD-L1, the ligand of the anti-cancer immunotherapy target PD-1, is negatively regulated by poly-ubiquitination via the cyclin D–CDK4/cullin 3–SPOP axis and PD-1 blockade treatment in mice improved survival when combined with CDK4/6 inhibitors.

doi: 10.1038/nature25015


Senescence-associated reprogramming promotes cancer stemness p.96

Cellular senescence induced by chemotherapy leads to the acquisition of stemness in cancer cells, which results in enhanced tumour-promoting capacity after forced release or spontaneous escape from the senescent cell-cycle arrest.

doi: 10.1038/nature25167


Therapeutic targeting of ependymoma as informed by oncogenic enhancer profiling p.101

Super enhancers regulate oncogenes and other molecular targets in ependymomas, and identification of these genes provides potential therapeutic targets.

doi: 10.1038/nature25169


Structure of the glucagon receptor in complex with a glucagon analogue p.106

The crystal structure of the full-length glucagon receptor in complex with a glucagon analogue NNC1702 reveals how the peptide ligand interacts with its target and shows the conformational changes required for receptor activation.

doi: 10.1038/nature25153


Structure of the complement C5a receptor bound to the extra-helical antagonist NDT9513727 p.111

The crystal structure of the complement receptor C5aR1 bound to a small-molecule antagonist provides insights into this receptor class and how they could be better targeted therapeutically.

doi: 10.1038/nature25025

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