Volume 552 Number 7684


Bureaucratic drag dents Japan’s nuclear science p.147

Japan needs a better way to assess whether research reactors are safe to re-open.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08464-2

Loss of net neutrality could harm research p.147

Moves to create a multi-speed Internet could push science into the slow lane.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07842-0

How to avoid glib interdisciplinarity p.148

To make progress on the grand challenges, authors, reviewers and editors must take the time to respect each others’ expertise and blind spots.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08465-1


Nine researchers sue University of Rochester over sexual-harassment allegations p.155

Lawsuit alleges that the institution mishandled complaints about cognitive scientist Florian Jaeger.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08235-z

Tasmanian tiger genome offers clues to its extinction p.156

Geneticists analyse DNA from preserved pup, more than 80 years after the last of its kind died.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08368-1

US graduate students in uproar over proposed tax hike p.157

Worries over the cost of an education spill over into protests.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07879-1

Acupuncture in cancer study reignites debate about controversial technique p.157

Large study suggests acupuncture could help women stick with unpleasant cancer treatments.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08309-y

Argentinian geoscientist faces criminal charges over glacier survey p.158

Government researcher Ricardo Villalba stands accused of shaping a study to benefit mining interests.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08236-y

News Features

The science that’s never been cited p.162

Nature investigates how many papers really end up without a single citation.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08404-0

News & Views

Developmental biology: Early embryos kept in check p.178

As pluripotent stem cells become primed to give rise to all bodily cell types, they begin to form the amniotic cavity in which the mammalian fetus will grow. A checkpoint that gates this transition has now been identified.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07436-w

Astrophysics: Stellar cannibalism in fits and starts p.179

Dense stellar remnants called white dwarfs are often found in binary star systems. Satellite observations suggest a previously unknown way in which a white dwarf can draw material from its companion star.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08286-2

Vascular biology: A dark side to omega-3 fatty acids p.180

The molecule 19,20-dihydroxydocosapentaenoic acid, formed by the metabolism of a fatty acid involved in normal brain function, promotes the development of a diabetes-associated form of blindness in a mouse model.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07678-8

Ageing: Longer life through an odd Pol enzyme p.182

The evolutionarily conserved enzyme RNA polymerase III is a driver of protein synthesis and cell growth. It emerges that partial suppression of this essential enzyme extends lifespan in yeast, roundworms and flies.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07435-x

Palaeoglaciology: Antarctic ice dynamics in warm climates p.183

A geological record reveals that the Aurora sector of the Antarctic Ice Sheet showed contrasting responses to past periods of atmospheric warmth. The findings might help to predict the ice sheet’s response to modern warming.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08285-3

Infection: Viruses hijack a long non-coding RNA p.184

Manipulation of host-cell metabolism is an essential aspect of viral replication cycles. Viral co-option of a cellular long non-protein-coding RNA has now been found to be a key step in this process.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07692-w


Enhancing mitochondrial proteostasis reduces amyloid-β proteotoxicity p.187

Amyloid-β peptide proteopathies disrupt mitochondria, and restoring mitochondrial proteostasis reduces protein aggregation in animal models of amyloid-β disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature25143

Alcohol-abuse drug disulfiram targets cancer via p97 segregase adaptor NPL4 p.194

Amyloid-β peptide proteopathies disrupt mitochondria, and restoring mitochondrial proteostasis reduces protein aggregation in animal models of amyloid-β disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature25016

Electron cryo-microscopy structure of a human TRPM4 channel p.200

The structure of the Ca2+-activated, non-selective ion channel TRPM4 bound to the agonist Ca2+ and a modulator decavanadate, solved using electron cryo-microscopy.

doi: 10.1038/nature24674

Structures of the calcium-activated, non-selective cation channel TRPM4 p.205

Electron cryo-microscopy structures of mouse TRPM4, a calcium-activated, non-selective cation channel, in the apo and ATP-bound states.

doi: 10.1038/nature24997


Magnetically gated accretion in an accreting ‘non-magnetic’ white dwarf p.210

A weak magnetic field regulates magnetically gated accretion of gas from a companion star onto the white dwarf in the binary system MV Lyrae, previously labelled as a ‘non-magnetic’ system.

doi: 10.1038/nature24653

An electric-eel-inspired soft power source from stacked hydrogels p.214

Miniature hydrogel compartments in scalable stacked and folded geometries were used to prepare a contact-activated artificial electric organ.

doi: 10.1038/nature24670

Force loading explains spatial sensing of ligands by cells p.219

The formation of cellular adhesion complexes is important in normal and pathological cell activity, and is determined by the force imposed by the combined effect of the distribution of extracellular matrix molecules and substrate rigidity.

doi: 10.1038/nature24662

Initiation and long-term instability of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet p.225

Geophysical and geological data reveal increased ice-sheet variability and surface meltwater—possibly analogous to future conditions—offshore of the Aurora subglacial basin of East Antarctica during warm climate intervals of the past 50 million years.

doi: 10.1038/nature25026

Large emissions from floodplain trees close the Amazon methane budget p.230

Methane fluxes from the stems of Amazonian floodplain trees indicate that the escape of soil gas through wetland trees is the dominant source of methane emissions in the Amazon basin.

doi: 10.1038/nature24639

A compositional tipping point governing the mobilization and eruption style of rhyolitic magma p.235

Measurements of the composition-dependent viscosity of rhyolitic magma reveal a tipping point that changes the physical properties of the melt and controls the transition between effusive and explosive eruptions.

doi: 10.1038/nature24488

Pluripotent state transitions coordinate morphogenesis in mouse and human embryos p.239

Exit of epiblasts from an unrestricted naive pluripotent state is required for epithelialization and generation of the pro-amniotic cavity in mouse embryos and for amniotic cavity formation in human embryos and human embryonic stem cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature24675

Moving beyond microbiome-wide associations to causal microbe identification p.244

Triangulation of microbe–phenotype relationships is an effective method for reducing the noise inherent in microbiota studies and enabling identification of causal microbes of disease, which may be applicable to human microbiome studies.

doi: 10.1038/nature25019

Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase prevents diabetic retinopathy p.248

A product of the soluble epoxide hydrolase enzyme, 19,20-dihydroxydocosapentaenoic acid (19,20-DHDP), is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy; levels of 19,20-DHDP increase in the retinas of mice and humans with diabetes, and inhibition of its production can rescue vascular abnormalities in a mouse model of the disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature25013

Runx3 programs CD8+ T cell residency in non-lymphoid tissues and tumours p.253

The transcription factor Runx3 is identified as a central regulator of the development of tissue-resident memory CD8+ T cells, providing insights into the signals that promote T cell residency in non-lymphoid tissues and tumours.

doi: 10.1038/nature24993

A non-canonical Notch complex regulates adherens junctions and vascular barrier function p.258

The transmembrane domain of NOTCH1 plays a key role in the assembly of adherens junctions and the non-transcriptional regulation of vascular permeability that links transcriptional programs with adhesive and cytoskeletal remodelling.

doi: 10.1038/nature24998

RNA polymerase III limits longevity downstream of TORC1 p.263

RNA polymerase III is a key evolutionarily conserved regulator of longevity that may have potential as a therapeutic target for age-related conditions.

doi: 10.1038/nature25007

piRNA-mediated regulation of transposon alternative splicing in the soma and germ line p.268

A new mechanism of pre-mRNA splicing regulation is revealed that is mediated by piRNA pathway components and is dependent on heterochromatin histone modifications.

doi: 10.1038/nature25018

KAT2A coupled with the α-KGDH complex acts as a histone H3 succinyltransferase p.273

The histone acetyl transferase KAT2A (also known as GCN5) can also catalyse histone succinylation, with the α-KGDH complex providing a local source of succinyl-CoA.

doi: 10.1038/nature25003

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