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Editorial

科学では大陸を越えた国際協力がごく当たり前のことになっているが、政治的、社会的、経済的、歴史的に不利な状況にある地域が取り残されてはならない。

Come together p.5

Cross-continent collaboration in the sciences has become the norm. We must ensure that disadvantaged regions are not left out

doi: 10.1038/529005a

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News

中国で、米国を大きく上回る規模のプレシジョン・メディシン推進計画が。

China embraces precision medicine on a massive scale p.9

Strong genomics record bodes well but a shortage of doctors could pose a hurdle.

doi: 10.1038/529009a

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根絶目前だったギニア虫症で、イヌでの謎のエピデミックが障害に。

Dogs thwart effort to eradicate Guinea worm p.10

Epidemic in dogs complicates push to wipe out parasite.

doi: 10.1038/529010a

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米国が、先端技術を駆使して50年ぶりに南極の雲の研究を。

Antarctic clouds studied for first time in five decades p.12

AWARE project will help unravel effects of global warming.

doi: 10.1038/529012a

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オランダが、ヨーロッパのオープンアクセス出版推進の先頭に。

Dutch lead European push to flip journals to open access p.13

Academic consortia urge faster changes in scholarly publishing.

doi: 10.1038/529013a

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Natureが予想する、2016年の科学を彩るものは?

The science to look out for in 2016 p.14

Space missions, carbon capture and gravitational waves are set to shape the year.

doi: 10.1038/529014a

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News Features

アクティブマター:生命の物理学

The physics of life p.16

鳥の大群から生体分子まで、群れをなして動く「アクティブマター」の物理学的解明が、生物世界の基本理論に結び付くかもしれない。

doi: 10.1038/529016a

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News & Views

宇宙物理学:ブラックホールがパルス状に輝く訳

Astrophysics: Why black holes pulse brightly p.28

ブラックホールは振動するアウトバーストを生じることがあり、高い質量降着率と関連していると考えられてきた。だが、ブラックホールから放出される可視光のパルスの観測によって、この説はもっと複雑なものであるらしいことが分かってきた。

doi: 10.1038/529028a

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生態学:別々の世界

Ecology: Different worlds p.29

種同士の結び付きのパターンから、現在の陸生動植物群集は、大規模な人間活動が始まるのに先立つ3億年間にわたって存在していた群集とは異なる法則に従って構築されていることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature16329

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ウイルス学:鳥インフルエンザウイルスの哺乳類への伝播を防いでいるのは宿主のタンパク質だった

Virology: Host protein clips bird flu's wings in mammals p.30

A型鳥インフルエンザウイルスのポリメラーゼはヒトの細胞中では十分な機能を発揮しない。この宿主による伝播制限に主な働きをしている細胞因子は、宿主細胞のタンパク質のANP32Aであることが突き止められた。

doi: 10.1038/529030a

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考古学:チャコ遺跡の材木はどこから来たのか

Archaeology: Sources of Chaco wood p.31

材木の年輪からは、樹齢だけでなく、それがどこに生えていたかまでが現在では正確に特定できるようになった。今回、この方法を使って、先コロンブス期にチャコ・キャニオンに「グレート・ハウス」を造ったネイティブアメリカンが使った木材がどこから供給されたのかが突き止められた。

doi: 10.1038/nature16864

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宇宙論:まれな同位体元素がもたらす宇宙についての手掛かり

Cosmology: Rare isotopic insight into the Universe p.33

水素とヘリウムの軽い同位体は、ビッグバンの数十分後に形成された。このような始原的同位体の1つであるヘリウム3について調べた研究によって、宇宙の標準模型の物理学的性質を絞り込むのに役立つ戦略が提案された。

doi: 10.1038/nature16326

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がん:ループに組み込まれた発がん遺伝子

Cancer: Oncogene brought into the loop p.34

腫瘍細胞中のDNAの三次元構造の解析から、IDH1遺伝子に生じた変異と、変異に伴って起こったDNA結合メチル基の変化が、がん発症を促進する遺伝子の発現を増やす仕組みが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature16330

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Articles

細胞生物学:オートファジーは老化を防いで幹細胞性を維持する

Autophagy maintains stemness by preventing senescence p.37

The regenerative properties of muscle stem cells decline with age as the stem cells enter an irreversible state of senescence; a study of mouse muscle stem cells reveals that entry into senescence is an autophagy-dependent process and promoting autophagy in old satellite cells can reverse senescence and restore their regenerative properties in an injury model.

doi: 10.1038/nature16187

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がん:がん発生に対する外因性リスク要因の多大な寄与

Substantial contribution of extrinsic risk factors to cancer development p.43

Recent analyses have suggested that the intrinsic behaviour of tissue stem cells may be responsible for malignant transformation and cancer progression, raising questions regarding the influence of extrinsic factors on tumorigenesis; here, both data-driven and model-driven evidence show that such intrinsic risk factors contribute only marginally to cancer development, indicating that cancer risk is heavily influenced by extrinsic factors.

doi: 10.1038/nature16166

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分子生物学:RNAポリメラーゼII C末端ドメインの対称的アルギニンジメチル化とSMNが転写終結を制御する

SMN and symmetric arginine dimethylation of RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain control termination p.48

Symmetric dimethylation of the human RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain residue R1810 by the protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) directly recruits the protein survival of motor neuron (SMN) and indirectly recruits the helicase senataxin to resolve R-loops and promote transcription termination.

doi: 10.1038/nature16469

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Letters

宇宙物理学:近傍のブラックホール連星はくちょう座V404星における反復するパターンを持つ短時間の可視光変動

Repetitive patterns in rapid optical variations in the nearby black-hole binary V404 Cygni p.54

Observations of V404 Cygni, an X-ray transient containing a black hole of nine solar masses and a companion star, show that optical oscillations on timescales of 100 seconds to 2.5 hours can occur at mass-accretion rates at least ten times lower than previously thought, suggesting that the accretion rate is not the critical parameter for inducing inner-disk instabilities.

doi: 10.1038/nature16452

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惑星科学:水が始原的に枯渇していないホットジュピター型系外惑星の澄んだものから雲の多いものまでさまざまな大気のコンティニューム

A continuum from clear to cloudy hot-Jupiter exoplanets without primordial water depletion p.59

A spectroscopic comparison of ten hot-Jupiter exoplanets reveals that the difference between the planetary radius measured at optical and infrared wavelengths allows atmosphere types ranging from clear to cloudy to be distinguished; the difference in radius at a given wavelength correlates with the spectral strength of water at that wavelength, suggesting that haze obscures the signal from water.

doi: 10.1038/nature16068

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物性物理学:325 GPa以上における高密度水素の新しい相を示す証拠

Evidence for a new phase of dense hydrogen above 325 gigapascals p.63

Raman spectroscopy of three isotopes of hydrogen under very high compression yields evidence of a new phase of hydrogen—phase V—which could potentially be a precursor to the long-sought non-molecular phase.

doi: 10.1038/nature16164

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電気触媒:二酸化炭素の電解還元による液体燃料合成のための部分酸化された原子コバルト層

Partially oxidized atomic cobalt layers for carbon dioxide electroreduction to liquid fuel p.68

Electroreduction of carbon dioxide into useful fuels helps to reduce fossil-fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions, but activating carbon dioxide requires impractically high overpotentials; here a metal atomic layer combined with its native oxide that requires low overpotentials to reduce carbon dioxide is developed, adapted from an existing cobalt-based catalyst.

doi: 10.1038/nature16455

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化学:単一金属サイトにおける一酸化炭素の4電子脱酸素還元カップリング

Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site p.72

The environmental and geopolitical problems associated with fossil fuels might be alleviated if it were possible to produce synthetic multicarbon fuels efficiently from single-carbon feedstocks; here, a molybdenum compound supported by a terphenyl–diphosphine ligand is used to convert carbon monoxide into a metal-free C2O1 fragment, with the ligand both serving as an electron reservoir and stabilizing the different intermediate species.

doi: 10.1038/nature16154

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地質学:深部への炭素沈み込みの障壁としてのスラブ融解

Slab melting as a barrier to deep carbon subduction p.76

Experiments show that carbonated oceanic crust subducting into the mantle will intersect the melting curve at depths of about 300 to 700 kilometres, creating a barrier to direct carbonate recycling into the deep mantle.

doi: 10.1038/nature16174

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古生態学:完新世に生じた動植物群集の集合の変化は人類による影響を示している

Holocene shifts in the assembly of plant and animal communities implicate human impacts p.80

Plant and animal assemblage co-occurrence patterns have remained relatively consistent for 300 million years but have changed over the Holocene epoch as the impact of humans has dramatically increased.

doi: 10.1038/nature16447

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気候科学:世界の作物生産量に対する極端な気象災害の影響

Influence of extreme weather disasters on global crop production p.84

Analyses of the effects of extreme weather disasters on global crop production over the past five decades show that drought and extreme heat reduced national cereal production by 9–10%, whereas no discernible effect at the national level was seen for floods and extreme cold; droughts affect yields and the harvested area, whereas extreme heat mainly affects yields.

doi: 10.1038/nature16467

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神経科学:カルシウムセンサーのシナプトタグミン7はシナプス促通に必要とされる

The calcium sensor synaptotagmin 7 is required for synaptic facilitation p.88

Synaptotagmin 7 is shown to be essential for synaptic facilitation at a variety of central synapses, and the results pave the way for future functional studies of short-term synaptic plasticity, a fundamental form of neuronal computation.

doi: 10.1038/nature16507

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加齢:C. elegans成虫の神経IIS/FOXOトランスクリプトームから明らかになる成虫表現型の調節因子

The C. elegans adult neuronal IIS/FOXO transcriptome reveals adult phenotype regulators p.92

The FOXO transcription factor, DAF-16, is required for the long-life phenotype of daf-2 mutant nematode worms; here the authors find that daf-2 mutant worms maintain neuronal functions and behaviours with age by using a set of transcriptional targets that are distinct from previously identified canonical FOXO/DAF-16-regulated targets.

doi: 10.1038/nature16483

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がん:PTPRK-RSPO3大腸がんのターゲッティングは分化と幹細胞機能の消失を促す

Targeting PTPRK-RSPO3 colon tumours promotes differentiation and loss of stem-cell function p.97

Antibody-mediated inhibition of R-spondin-3 in colorectal tumours decreases tumour growth and promotes differentiation—these effects are associated with a decrease in expression of genes associated with stem-cell function.

doi: 10.1038/nature16466

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ウイルス学:ANP32Aの種による違いがA型インフルエンザウイルスポリメラーゼに見られる宿主制限の基盤となっている

Species difference in ANP32A underlies influenza A virus polymerase host restriction p.101

The host protein ANP32A is shown here to be a species barrier to the function of avian influenza virus polymerase in mammalian cells; the mutation E627K in viral protein PB2, which allows mammalian ANP32 family proteins to support the avian virus polymerase, is known to be associated with increased virulence of avian viruses in mammals.

doi: 10.1038/nature16474

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免疫学:LAIR1の挿入はマラリア抗原バリアントに対して広く反応する抗体を生み出す

A LAIR1 insertion generates broadly reactive antibodies against malaria variant antigens p.105

Monoclonal antibodies with broad reactivity against antigens on the parasite that causes malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, are isolated from two subjects and are found to have an unusual insertion of an immunoglobulin-like domain from a different chromosome, illustrating a new mechanism of antibody diversification.

doi: 10.1038/nature16450

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がん:IDH変異のあるグリオーマで見られるインスレーター機能不全とがん遺伝子活性化

Insulator dysfunction and oncogene activation in IDH mutant gliomas p.110

An epigenetic mechanism in which gain-of-function IDH mutations promote gliomagenesis by disrupting chromosomal topology is presented, with IDH mutations causing the binding sites of the methylation-sensitive insulator CTCF to become hypermethylated; disruption of a CTCF boundary near the glioma oncogene PDGFRA allows a constitutive enhancer to contact and activate the oncogene aberrantly.

doi: 10.1038/nature16490

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