Volume 529 Number 7585



Solving the drink problem p.127

The United Kingdom's new guidelines on alcohol consumption are a sound example of evidence-based policymaking.

doi: 10.1038/529127a


A secure future p.127

Research advances mean that the time is ripe to ratify the ban on testing nuclear weapons.

doi: 10.1038/529127b

Nature EnergyNature Reviews MaterialsNature Microbiologyの3誌が今週創刊。

Three new Nature journals p.128

doi: 10.1038/529128a



Vietnam begins huge effort to identify war dead p.135

World’s largest systematic identification project will use smart DNA-testing technology.

doi: 10.1038/529135a


Taiwan’s SARS hero poised to be vice-president p.136

Epidemiologist who spearheaded response to outbreak is a popular choice.

doi: 10.1038/529136a


Hunt for Ebola’s wild hideout takes off as epidemic wanes p.138

Researchers aim to prevent recurrences by finding the virus’s natural host.

doi: 10.1038/529138a


Rebooted Kepler spacecraft hauls in the planets p.139

Fresh worlds found by K2 mission push beyond original discoveries.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19126


Nuclear rumours delay India’s bid for neutrino glory p.140

Rumours frustrate physicists in a global competition to understand elusive particles.

doi: 10.1038/529140a

News Features


Trouble in Tibet p.142


doi: 10.1038/529142a


Why boredom is anything but boring p.146


doi: 10.1038/529146a

News & Views


Microbiome: Fibre for the future p.158


doi: 10.1038/529158a


Cosmology: Photons from dwarf galaxy zap hydrogen p.159


doi: 10.1038/529159a


Vascular biology: Transcriptional control of endothelial energy p.160


doi: 10.1038/nature16866


Climate science: Earth's narrow escape from a big freeze p.162


doi: 10.1038/529162a


Ecology: A trail map for trait-based studies p.163


doi: 10.1038/nature16862


Neurobiology: Pull out the stops for plasticity p.164


doi: 10.1038/529164a



The global spectrum of plant form and function p.167

The authors found that the key elements of plant form and function, analysed at global scale, are largely concentrated into a two-dimensional plane indexed by the size of whole plants and organs on the one hand, and the construction costs for photosynthetic leaf area, on the other.

doi: 10.1038/nature16489


An ID2-dependent mechanism for VHL inactivation in cancer p.172

HIFα transcription factors are highly expressed in cancer stem cells from glioma; DYRK1 kinases inhibit the protein ID2 to modulate the level of HIF2α and the tumorigenic properties of glioblastoma-associated cancer stem cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature16475



Eight per cent leakage of Lyman continuum photons from a compact, star-forming dwarf galaxy p.178

Far-ultraviolet observations of the nearby low-mass star-forming galaxy J0925+1403 show that the galaxy is leaking ionizing radiation with an escape fraction of about 8 per cent, which is sufficient to ionize intergalactic medium material that is about 40 times as massive as the stellar mass of the galaxy.

doi: 10.1038/nature16456


Weakened magnetic braking as the origin of anomalously rapid rotation in old field stars p.181

The age of a young to middle-aged star can be determined from how quickly or slowly it rotates, but the relationship breaks down for old stars; models now show that old stars are rotating much more quickly than expected, perhaps because magnetic winds are weaker and therefore brake the rotation less effectively.

doi: 10.1038/nature16168


Controlling many-body states by the electric-field effect in a two-dimensional material p.185

To be able to control the properties of a system that has strong electron–electron interactions using only an external electric field would be ideal, but the material must be thin enough to avoid shielding of the electric field in the bulk material; here pure electric-field control of the charge-density wave and superconductivity transition temperatures is achieved by electrolyte gating through an electric-field double layer transistor in the two-dimensional material 1T-TiSe2.

doi: 10.1038/nature16175


Rapid removal of organic micropollutants from water by a porous β-cyclodextrin polymer p.190

An alternative material to activated carbon for water remediation is reported: a porous material based on crosslinked cyclodextrins that is better than activated carbons at adsorbing a range of pharmaceuticals, pesticides and other anthropogenic pollutants.

doi: 10.1038/nature16185


Iron-catalysed tritiation of pharmaceuticals p.195

An iron-catalysed method for the direct 3H labelling of pharmaceuticals by hydrogen isotope exchange using tritium gas is reported; the site selectivity of the iron catalyst is orthogonal to currently used iridium catalysts and allows isotopic labelling of complementary positions in drug molecules.

doi: 10.1038/nature16464


Critical insolation–CO2 relation for diagnosing past and future glacial inception p.200

A critical functional relationship between boreal summer insolation and global carbon dioxide concentration is proposed and tested with simulations; it accounts for the beginning of the past eight glacial cycles and predicts that the next one is unusually far off, even without the effect of anthropogenic emissions.

doi: 10.1038/nature16494


Plant functional traits have globally consistent effects on competition p.204

Data from millions of trees in thousands of locations are used to show that certain key traits affect competitive ability in predictable ways, and that there are trade-offs between traits that favour growth with and without competition.

doi: 10.1038/nature16476


Earliest hominin occupation of Sulawesi, Indonesia p.208

New excavations in Sulawesi, where in situ stone artefacts associated with fossil remains of megafauna have been recovered from stratified deposits between 200,000 and 100,000 years ago, suggest that Sulawesi was host to a long-established population of archaic hominins.

doi: 10.1038/nature16448


Diet-induced extinctions in the gut microbiota compound over generations p.212

In mice on a low microbiota-accessible carbohydrate (MAC) diet, the diversity of the gut microbiota is depleted, and the effect is transferred and compounded over generations; this phenotype is only reversed after supplementation of the missing taxa via faecal microbiota transplantation, suggesting dietary intervention alone may by insufficient at managing diseases characterized by a dysbiotic microbiota.

doi: 10.1038/nature16504


FOXO1 couples metabolic activity and growth state in the vascular endothelium p.216

The transcription factor FOXO1 is identified as a crucial checkpoint of vascular growth, coupling the metabolic and proliferative activities of endothelial cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature16498


Tuft-cell-derived IL-25 regulates an intestinal ILC2–epithelial response circuit p.221

Epithelial tuft cells are shown to be the source of intestinal interleukin (IL)-25 that is required for activation of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), ILC2-regulated tuft and goblet cell expansion, and control of parasite infection.

doi: 10.1038/nature16161


Intestinal epithelial tuft cells initiate type 2 mucosal immunity to helminth parasites p.226

Epithelial tuft cells secretion of IL-25 is shown to regulate type 2 epithelial responses to helminth parasite infection via an IL-13/IL-4Rα-dependent feedback loop.

doi: 10.1038/nature16527


Crystal structure of a DNA catalyst p.231

Both DNA and RNA molecules have been shown to exhibit catalytic activity, but only the structure of catalytic RNAs has previously been determined; here the structure of an RNA-ligating DNA in the post-catalytic state is solved.

doi: 10.1038/nature16471


Structures of two distinct conformations of holo-non-ribosomal peptide synthetases p.235

X-ray crystal structures of two distinct steps in the catalytic cycle of non-ribosomal peptide synthetases are described, offering the potential to generate novel products through engineering enzyme activity.

doi: 10.1038/nature16163


Synthetic cycle of the initiation module of a formylating nonribosomal peptide synthetase p.239

X-ray crystal structures are presented of each major step of the assembly-line synthesis by the initiation module of the nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) LgrA; the structures reveal large conformational changes, demonstrating a requirement for NRPSs to be very dynamic.

doi: 10.1038/nature16503

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