Volume 529 Number 7584



Come together p.5

Cross-continent collaboration in the sciences has become the norm. We must ensure that disadvantaged regions are not left out

doi: 10.1038/529005a



China embraces precision medicine on a massive scale p.9

Strong genomics record bodes well but a shortage of doctors could pose a hurdle.

doi: 10.1038/529009a


Dogs thwart effort to eradicate Guinea worm p.10

Epidemic in dogs complicates push to wipe out parasite.

doi: 10.1038/529010a


Antarctic clouds studied for first time in five decades p.12

AWARE project will help unravel effects of global warming.

doi: 10.1038/529012a


Dutch lead European push to flip journals to open access p.13

Academic consortia urge faster changes in scholarly publishing.

doi: 10.1038/529013a


The science to look out for in 2016 p.14

Space missions, carbon capture and gravitational waves are set to shape the year.

doi: 10.1038/529014a

News Features


The physics of life p.16


doi: 10.1038/529016a

News & Views


Astrophysics: Why black holes pulse brightly p.28


doi: 10.1038/529028a


Ecology: Different worlds p.29


doi: 10.1038/nature16329


Virology: Host protein clips bird flu's wings in mammals p.30


doi: 10.1038/529030a


Archaeology: Sources of Chaco wood p.31


doi: 10.1038/nature16864


Cosmology: Rare isotopic insight into the Universe p.33


doi: 10.1038/nature16326


Cancer: Oncogene brought into the loop p.34


doi: 10.1038/nature16330



Autophagy maintains stemness by preventing senescence p.37

The regenerative properties of muscle stem cells decline with age as the stem cells enter an irreversible state of senescence; a study of mouse muscle stem cells reveals that entry into senescence is an autophagy-dependent process and promoting autophagy in old satellite cells can reverse senescence and restore their regenerative properties in an injury model.

doi: 10.1038/nature16187


Substantial contribution of extrinsic risk factors to cancer development p.43

Recent analyses have suggested that the intrinsic behaviour of tissue stem cells may be responsible for malignant transformation and cancer progression, raising questions regarding the influence of extrinsic factors on tumorigenesis; here, both data-driven and model-driven evidence show that such intrinsic risk factors contribute only marginally to cancer development, indicating that cancer risk is heavily influenced by extrinsic factors.

doi: 10.1038/nature16166

分子生物学:RNAポリメラーゼII C末端ドメインの対称的アルギニンジメチル化とSMNが転写終結を制御する

SMN and symmetric arginine dimethylation of RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain control termination p.48

Symmetric dimethylation of the human RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain residue R1810 by the protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) directly recruits the protein survival of motor neuron (SMN) and indirectly recruits the helicase senataxin to resolve R-loops and promote transcription termination.

doi: 10.1038/nature16469



Repetitive patterns in rapid optical variations in the nearby black-hole binary V404 Cygni p.54

Observations of V404 Cygni, an X-ray transient containing a black hole of nine solar masses and a companion star, show that optical oscillations on timescales of 100 seconds to 2.5 hours can occur at mass-accretion rates at least ten times lower than previously thought, suggesting that the accretion rate is not the critical parameter for inducing inner-disk instabilities.

doi: 10.1038/nature16452


A continuum from clear to cloudy hot-Jupiter exoplanets without primordial water depletion p.59

A spectroscopic comparison of ten hot-Jupiter exoplanets reveals that the difference between the planetary radius measured at optical and infrared wavelengths allows atmosphere types ranging from clear to cloudy to be distinguished; the difference in radius at a given wavelength correlates with the spectral strength of water at that wavelength, suggesting that haze obscures the signal from water.

doi: 10.1038/nature16068

物性物理学:325 GPa以上における高密度水素の新しい相を示す証拠

Evidence for a new phase of dense hydrogen above 325 gigapascals p.63

Raman spectroscopy of three isotopes of hydrogen under very high compression yields evidence of a new phase of hydrogen—phase V—which could potentially be a precursor to the long-sought non-molecular phase.

doi: 10.1038/nature16164


Partially oxidized atomic cobalt layers for carbon dioxide electroreduction to liquid fuel p.68

Electroreduction of carbon dioxide into useful fuels helps to reduce fossil-fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions, but activating carbon dioxide requires impractically high overpotentials; here a metal atomic layer combined with its native oxide that requires low overpotentials to reduce carbon dioxide is developed, adapted from an existing cobalt-based catalyst.

doi: 10.1038/nature16455


Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site p.72

The environmental and geopolitical problems associated with fossil fuels might be alleviated if it were possible to produce synthetic multicarbon fuels efficiently from single-carbon feedstocks; here, a molybdenum compound supported by a terphenyl–diphosphine ligand is used to convert carbon monoxide into a metal-free C2O1 fragment, with the ligand both serving as an electron reservoir and stabilizing the different intermediate species.

doi: 10.1038/nature16154


Slab melting as a barrier to deep carbon subduction p.76

Experiments show that carbonated oceanic crust subducting into the mantle will intersect the melting curve at depths of about 300 to 700 kilometres, creating a barrier to direct carbonate recycling into the deep mantle.

doi: 10.1038/nature16174


Holocene shifts in the assembly of plant and animal communities implicate human impacts p.80

Plant and animal assemblage co-occurrence patterns have remained relatively consistent for 300 million years but have changed over the Holocene epoch as the impact of humans has dramatically increased.

doi: 10.1038/nature16447


Influence of extreme weather disasters on global crop production p.84

Analyses of the effects of extreme weather disasters on global crop production over the past five decades show that drought and extreme heat reduced national cereal production by 9–10%, whereas no discernible effect at the national level was seen for floods and extreme cold; droughts affect yields and the harvested area, whereas extreme heat mainly affects yields.

doi: 10.1038/nature16467


The calcium sensor synaptotagmin 7 is required for synaptic facilitation p.88

Synaptotagmin 7 is shown to be essential for synaptic facilitation at a variety of central synapses, and the results pave the way for future functional studies of short-term synaptic plasticity, a fundamental form of neuronal computation.

doi: 10.1038/nature16507

加齢:C. elegans成虫の神経IIS/FOXOトランスクリプトームから明らかになる成虫表現型の調節因子

The C. elegans adult neuronal IIS/FOXO transcriptome reveals adult phenotype regulators p.92

The FOXO transcription factor, DAF-16, is required for the long-life phenotype of daf-2 mutant nematode worms; here the authors find that daf-2 mutant worms maintain neuronal functions and behaviours with age by using a set of transcriptional targets that are distinct from previously identified canonical FOXO/DAF-16-regulated targets.

doi: 10.1038/nature16483


Targeting PTPRK-RSPO3 colon tumours promotes differentiation and loss of stem-cell function p.97

Antibody-mediated inhibition of R-spondin-3 in colorectal tumours decreases tumour growth and promotes differentiation—these effects are associated with a decrease in expression of genes associated with stem-cell function.

doi: 10.1038/nature16466


Species difference in ANP32A underlies influenza A virus polymerase host restriction p.101

The host protein ANP32A is shown here to be a species barrier to the function of avian influenza virus polymerase in mammalian cells; the mutation E627K in viral protein PB2, which allows mammalian ANP32 family proteins to support the avian virus polymerase, is known to be associated with increased virulence of avian viruses in mammals.

doi: 10.1038/nature16474


A LAIR1 insertion generates broadly reactive antibodies against malaria variant antigens p.105

Monoclonal antibodies with broad reactivity against antigens on the parasite that causes malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, are isolated from two subjects and are found to have an unusual insertion of an immunoglobulin-like domain from a different chromosome, illustrating a new mechanism of antibody diversification.

doi: 10.1038/nature16450


Insulator dysfunction and oncogene activation in IDH mutant gliomas p.110

An epigenetic mechanism in which gain-of-function IDH mutations promote gliomagenesis by disrupting chromosomal topology is presented, with IDH mutations causing the binding sites of the methylation-sensitive insulator CTCF to become hypermethylated; disruption of a CTCF boundary near the glioma oncogene PDGFRA allows a constitutive enhancer to contact and activate the oncogene aberrantly.

doi: 10.1038/nature16490

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