目次

Editorials

EUデータ保護指令の改定案は、プライバシー保護が過度なために、医学研究を妨げる恐れがある。

Data overprotection p.391

Draft European rules governing privacy threaten to hamper medical research.

doi: 10.1038/522391b

ローマ教皇が公文書で気候変動と環境問題を取り上げたことから、教皇の科学に対する敬意と理解が見て取れる。

Hope from the Pope p.391

The Vatican has produced a timely and valuable warning on the threat of climate change that will reach a wide audience.

doi: 10.1038/522391a

南極の氷の下には、豊かな生物の世界が隠れていることが明らかになってきた。

Life under the ice p.392

Antarctica’s apparent barrenness hides an abundance of living organisms.

doi: 10.1038/522392a

News

家や交通機関、下水管など、都会に棲む微生物の実態が、ゲノミクスで明らかに。

Urban microbes come out of the shadows p.399

Genomic sequences reveal cities’ teeming masses of bacteria and viruses.

doi: 10.1038/522399a

コウモリを激減させている真菌感染症「白い鼻症候群」の治療に、細菌が役立つ可能性が。

Bacteria may help bats to fight deadly fungus p.400

As white-nose syndrome spreads, researchers are trialling ways to stop colonies from collapsing.

doi: 10.1038/522400a

初期宇宙に生じた第一世代の星の光を、初めて捉えたとの報告が。

Astronomers claim first glimpse of primordial stars p.401

Bright galaxy thought to hold stars from generation that seeded rest of Universe.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.17802

民間の財団による地球近傍小惑星探査計画の、資金集めが難航。

Private asteroid hunt lacks cash to spy threats in orbit p.402

Foundation fails to raise funds it needs for a space telescope to catalogue near-Earth objects.

doi: 10.1038/522402a

地球科学分野で、利害の抵触に関する統一的な指針がないことが問題に。

Earth science wrestles with conflict-of-interest policies p.403

Industry-funding controversies highlight lack of standards among field’s journals.

doi: 10.1038/522403a

「ケネウィック人」が北米先住民であったことがゲノム研究で判明し、遺骨の返還問題が再燃へ。

Ancient American genome rekindles legal row p.404

'Kennewick Man' sequencing points to Native American ancestry.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.17797

News Features

スーパー研究室:ポール卿の大聖堂

Europe’s superlab: Sir Paul’s cathedral p.406

フランシス・クリック研究所の初代所長、Paul Nurseの賭けは成功するだろうか。

doi: 10.1038/522406a

神経科学:オキシトシンのハードサイエンス

Neuroscience: The hard science of oxytocin p.410

オキシトシンが脳に及ぼす作用の研究が進むにつれ、オキシトシンが単なる「抱擁ホルモン」ではないことが分かってきた。

doi: 10.1038/522410a

News & Views

宇宙物理学:初期に存在した塵の少ない銀河

Astrophysics: Dust-poor galaxies at early times p.422

宇宙の歴史の初期に形成された銀河の観測から、こうした銀河の塵の量は、それよりわずかに遅い時代の銀河で見られる量よりもずっと少ないことが分かった。銀河は比較的短期間に急速な変化を経るらしい。

doi: 10.1038/522422a

神経変性:ヒトプリオンに対して進化した防御

Neurodegeneration: Evolved protection against human prions p.423

プリオンを形成するタンパク質のPrPの遺伝的バリアントの1つが、ヒトのプリオン病であるクールー病に対して防御効果を持つことが分かった。これは機能を備えたアイソフォームが疾患を引き起こす異常なコンホメーションに変わるのを阻害することによっている。

doi: 10.1038/nature14534

植物科学:ペプチドを使う精密位置決め

Plant science: Precision positioning with peptides p.424

2種類の近縁のペプチドが同じ受容体への結合を競合することで、葉の裏面にある細胞の間隔が調節されていることが分かった。この知見は、植物での細胞シグナル伝達の複雑性をはっきり示している。

doi: 10.1038/nature14535

気候科学:極端な気温事象の動態

Climate science: The dynamics of temperature extremes p.425

大気循環パターンの発生における変化についてはよく分かっていない。今回、こうした変化は、最近数十年間に観測された地域的な極端な気温事象に見られる変化の大きな要因であることが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/522425a

生化学:ビタミンB2の予想外の役割

Biochemistry: Unexpected role for vitamin B2 p.427

ビタミンB2に存在する3つの環からなる系に4番目の環を付け足すことで、このビタミンの分子構造を変える酵素が見つかった。この酵素反応産物はいくつかの別の酵素と協働して、新種の化学反応を触媒する。

doi: 10.1038/nature14536

細胞での代謝:視覚に役立つ糖

Cell metabolism: Sugar for sight p.428

網膜色素変性症は錐体細胞の細胞死を引き起こし、これが失明につながる。この病気のマウスモデルでは、桿体細胞から分泌されるRdCVFと呼ばれる因子が錐体細胞の生存を促進する。RdCVFは錐体細胞でのグルコース取り込みを増強してこうした効果をもたらすことが、今回明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/522428a

Review

生態学:南極の生物多様性の変わりゆく姿

The changing form of Antarctic biodiversity p.431

Recent research has shown that while large fauna and flowering plants in the Antarctic are scarce, there are considerable levels of marine and terrestrial biodiversity, particularly the microbiota; what drives it, and how the Antarctic can meet conservation targets, are the subject of this review.

doi: 10.1038/nature14505

Articles

植物科学:拮抗関係にあるペプチドの競争的結合が気孔の分布パターン形成を微調整している

Competitive binding of antagonistic peptides fine-tunes stomatal patterning p.439

An investigation of the molecular mechanism of stomatal development and patterning finds an unexpected signalling mechanism: two signalling peptides (STOMAGEN, a positive regulator of stomatal development; and EPF2, a negative regulator of this process) use the same receptor kinase, ERECTA, to fine-tune stomatal development.

doi: 10.1038/nature14561

心血管疾患:HIF駆動によるSF3B1はKHK-Cを誘導しフルクトース分解と心疾患を引き起こす

HIF-driven SF3B1 induces KHK-C to enforce fructolysis and heart disease p.444

Myocardial hypoxia activates HIF1α, which activates the splicing factor SF3B1, which mediates a splice switch of the fructose-metabolising enzyme KHK, so that the C isoform that has superior affinity for fructose is expressed in the heart—pathological heart growth and contractile dysfunction can therefore be suppressed by depleting SF3B1 or deleting KHK.

doi: 10.1038/nature14508

細胞生物学:APC/Cの原子構造とそのタンパク質ユビキチン化機構

Atomic structure of the APC/C and its mechanism of protein ubiquitination p.450

A cryo-electron microscopy determination of the atomic structures of anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C)–coactivator complexes with either Emi1 or a UbcH10–ubiquitin conjugate.

doi: 10.1038/nature14471

Letters

宇宙物理学:系統的に低い塵含有量と強い[C II]放射を伴う赤方偏移5から6に位置する銀河

Galaxies at redshifts 5 to 6 with systematically low dust content and high [C ii] emission p.455

The rest-frame ultraviolet properties of galaxies during the first three billion years of cosmic time (redshift z > 4) indicate a rapid evolution in the dust obscuration of such galaxies. This evolution implies a change in the average properties of the interstellar medium, but the measurements are systematically uncertain owing to untested assumptions and the inability to detect heavily obscured regions of the galaxies. Previous attempts to measure the interstellar medium directly in normal galaxies at these redshifts have failed for a number of reasons, with two notable exceptions. Here we report measurements of the forbidden C ii emission (that is, [C ii]) from gas, and the far-infrared emission from dust, in nine typical star-forming galaxies about one billion years after the Big Bang (z ≈ 5–6). We find that these galaxies have thermal emission that is less than 1/12 that of similar systems about two billion years later, and enhanced [C ii] emission relative to the far-infrared continuum, confirming a strong evolution in the properties of the interstellar medium in the early Universe. The gas is distributed over scales of one to eight kiloparsecs, and shows diverse dynamics within the sample. These results are consistent with early galaxies having significantly less dust than typical galaxies seen at z < 3 and being comparable in dust content to local low-metallicity systems.

doi: 10.1038/nature14500

惑星科学:海王星質量程度の温かい系外惑星GJ 436bから散逸しつつある巨大な彗星様水素雲

A giant comet-like cloud of hydrogen escaping the warm Neptune-mass exoplanet GJ 436b p.459

In the ultraviolet spectrum, the Neptune-mass exoplanet GJ 436b is shown to have transit depths far greater than those seen in the optical spectrum, indicating that it is surrounded and trailed by a large cloud composed mainly of hydrogen atoms.

doi: 10.1038/nature14501

半導体:気体と固体からの高調波を関係付ける

Linking high harmonics from gases and solids p.462

High-harmonic generation in zinc oxide illuminated by an intense, pulsed, mid-infrared laser is found to involve a recollision effect in which electrons recollide with holes causing harmonics to be emitted, a process similar to that which occurs in atomic systems.

doi: 10.1038/nature14517

大気科学:大気循環パターンの変化の極端な気温傾向への寄与

Contribution of changes in atmospheric circulation patterns to extreme temperature trends p.465

This study identifies statistically significant trends in mid-atmospheric circulation patterns that partially explain observed changes in extreme temperature occurrence over Eurasia and North America; although the underlying cause of circulation pattern trends remains uncertain, most extreme temperature trends are shown to be consistent with thermodynamic warming.

doi: 10.1038/nature14550

進化学:性選択は絶滅を防ぐ

Sexual selection protects against extinction p.470

Populations of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum with histories of strong versus weak sexual selection purge mutation load and resist extinction differently.

doi: 10.1038/nature14419

幹細胞:PPAR-αおよびグルココルチコイド受容体は相乗的に赤芽球系前駆細胞の自己複製を促進する

PPAR-α and glucocorticoid receptor synergize to promote erythroid progenitor self-renewal p.474

Many acute and chronic anaemias, including haemolysis, sepsis and genetic bone marrow failure diseases such as Diamond–Blackfan anaemia, are not treatable with erythropoietin (Epo), because the colony-forming unit erythroid progenitors (CFU-Es) that respond to Epo are either too few in number or are not sensitive enough to Epo to maintain sufficient red blood cell production. Treatment of these anaemias requires a drug that acts at an earlier stage of red cell formation and enhances the formation of Epo-sensitive CFU-E progenitors. Recently, we showed that glucocorticoids specifically stimulate self-renewal of an early erythroid progenitor, burst-forming unit erythroid (BFU-E), and increase the production of terminally differentiated erythroid cells. Here we show that activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) by the PPAR-α agonists GW7647 and fenofibrate synergizes with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to promote BFU-E self-renewal. Over time these agonists greatly increase production of mature red blood cells in cultures of both mouse fetal liver BFU-Es and mobilized human adult CD34+ peripheral blood progenitors, with a new and effective culture system being used for the human cells that generates normal enucleated reticulocytes. Although Ppara−/− mice show no haematological difference from wild-type mice in both normal and phenylhydrazine (PHZ)-induced stress erythropoiesis, PPAR-α agonists facilitate recovery of wild-type but not Ppara−/− mice from PHZ-induced acute haemolytic anaemia. We also show that PPAR-α alleviates anaemia in a mouse model of chronic anaemia. Finally, both in control and corticosteroid-treated BFU-E cells, PPAR-α co-occupies many chromatin sites with GR; when activated by PPAR-α agonists, additional PPAR-α is recruited to GR-adjacent sites and presumably facilitates GR-dependent BFU-E self-renewal. Our discovery of the role of PPAR-α agonists in stimulating self-renewal of early erythroid progenitor cells suggests that the clinically tested PPAR-α agonists we used may improve the efficacy of corticosteroids in treating Epo-resistant anaemias.

doi: 10.1038/nature14326

神経変性:ヒトプリオンタンパク質の自然に生じるバリアントがプリオン病を完全に防ぐ

A naturally occurring variant of the human prion protein completely prevents prion disease p.478

This study looks at a polymorphism of the human prion protein gene, which results in a G-to-V substitution at residue 127, in transgenic mice expressing different human prion proteins, finding that mice heterozygous for the G127V polymorphism are resistant to both kuru and classical CJD prions, but there is some transmission of variant CJD prions; most remarkable, however, is that mice homozygous for V127 are completely resistant to all prion strains.

doi: 10.1038/nature14510

細胞生物学:ショウジョウバエTNF受容体Grindelwaldは細胞極性の消失と腫瘍性増殖をつなぐ

The Drosophila TNF receptor Grindelwald couples loss of cell polarity and neoplastic growth p.482

Cell polarity is an important feature of many tissues and is often disrupted in cancer; the TNF receptor Grindelwald is now shown to have an important role in coordinating cell polarity and neoplastic growth in a Drosophila model.

doi: 10.1038/nature14298

免疫学:HIV-1感染者で広範囲中和抗体3BNC117によって抑制されたウイルス血症

Viraemia suppressed in HIV-1-infected humans by broadly neutralizing antibody 3BNC117 p.487

A phase I study of passive immunization with a CD4 binding-site-directed broadly neutralizing antibody shows that it transiently reduces HIV-1 viral loads in humans.

doi: 10.1038/nature14411

細胞生物学:クライシスにおける細胞死は有糸分裂停止時のテロメアの脱保護によって仲介される

Cell death during crisis is mediated by mitotic telomere deprotection p.492

Cells that bypass senescence in the absence of the p53 tumour suppressor protein have shortened telomeres that undergo fusion, and these fusions trigger mitotic arrest and cell death in crisis.

doi: 10.1038/nature14513

生化学:1,3-双極子付加環化反応を介するα,β-不飽和酸の脱炭酸を助ける新規補因子

New cofactor supports α,β-unsaturated acid decarboxylation via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition p.497

The bacterial ubiD and ubiX or the homologous fungal fdc1 and pad1 genes have been implicated in the non-oxidative reversible decarboxylation of aromatic substrates, and play a pivotal role in bacterial ubiquinone (also known as coenzyme Q) biosynthesis or microbial biodegradation of aromatic compounds, respectively. Despite biochemical studies on individual gene products, the composition and cofactor requirement of the enzyme responsible for in vivo decarboxylase activity remained unclear. Here we show that Fdc1 is solely responsible for the reversible decarboxylase activity, and that it requires a new type of cofactor: a prenylated flavin synthesized by the associated UbiX/Pad1. Atomic resolution crystal structures reveal that two distinct isomers of the oxidized cofactor can be observed, an isoalloxazine N5-iminium adduct and a N5 secondary ketimine species with markedly altered ring structure, both having azomethine ylide character. Substrate binding positions the dipolarophile enoic acid group directly above the azomethine ylide group. The structure of a covalent inhibitor–cofactor adduct suggests that 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition chemistry supports reversible decarboxylation in these enzymes. Although 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition is commonly used in organic chemistry, we propose that this presents the first example, to our knowledge, of an enzymatic 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. Our model for Fdc1/UbiD catalysis offers new routes in alkene hydrocarbon production or aryl (de)carboxylation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14560

生化学:UbiXは細菌のユビキノン生合成に必要なフラビンプレニルトランスフェラーゼである

UbiX is a flavin prenyltransferase required for bacterial ubiquinone biosynthesis p.502

Ubiquinone is an essential component of electron transfer chains found both in bacteria and in mitochondria; the bacterial enzyme UbiX involved in ubiquinone biosynthesis is a flavin prenyltransferase, and the flavin-derived cofactor synthesized by UbiX is used by the UbiD decarboxylase in the ubiquinone biosynthetic pathway.

doi: 10.1038/nature14559

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