Mystery funders of Arecibo radio telescope can celebrate an early success p.127

Dish saved from demolition gets best look yet at fast radio bursts.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00100-x

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Protect the high seas from harm p.127

Discussions on a United Nations treaty to safeguard the open ocean offer an opportunity for scientists.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00102-9

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Chemists go green to make better blue jeans p.128

An environmentally friendly way to dye denim could usher in a long-overdue new fashion.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00103-8

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Scientific ballooning takes off p.135

Commercial providers open the market for new types of research flight.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00017-5

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Silicon gains ground in quantum-computing race p.136

The manufacturing techniques behind classical computing are making their way into quantum devices.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00213-3

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Germany vs Elsevier: universities win temporary journal access after refusing to pay fees p.137

Scientists in Germany can still read journals even though institutions there have not renewed their subscriptions.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00093-7

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Tooth scratches reveal new clues to pterosaur diets p.138

Analysis puts paid to theory that most prehistoric flying reptiles ate fish.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00080-y

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Indonesian scientists embrace preprint server p.139

The site’s creators want to open up the country's science to a wider audience.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08838-6

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Climate scientists unlock secrets of ‘blue carbon’ p.139

Survey results could bolster efforts to monitor and protect marine ecosystems around the globe.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00018-4

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News Features

標準模型を超えて: 限界に挑むテーブルトップ物理学

Step aside CERN: There’s a cheaper way to break open physics p.142

ノースウェスタン大学(米国)のGerald Gabrielseたちは、低エネルギーの原子物理学的手法を活用し、新しい粒子の証拠を探している。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00106-5

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神経科学: 記憶の肖像

How to see a memory p.146


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00107-4

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News & Views

惑星科学: 彗星の自転の減速

Planetary science: Cometary spin-down p.158


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00008-6

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神経科学: 線虫のニューロン可塑性

Neuroscience: Neuronal plasticity in nematode worms p.159


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-09031-5

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有機金属化学: 定説を破る触媒反応

Organometallic chemistry: Dogma-breaking catalysis p.160


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-09006-6

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生物工学: 難聴を防ぐ遺伝子編集への頌歌

Biotechnology: An ode to gene edits that prevent deafness p.162


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08645-z

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材料科学: 規則破りのペロブスカイト

Materials science: Rule-breaking perovskites p.163


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00012-w

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神経科学: ニューレキシンは成熟した性的二型ニューロンの可塑性を制御する

Neurexin controls plasticity of a mature, sexually dimorphic neuron p.165

The DVB neuron in Caenorhabditis elegans shows male-specific morphological plasticity that is controlled by neurexin and influences mating behaviour.

doi: 10.1038/nature25192

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幹細胞: アルコール由来および内因性のアルデヒドは染色体に損傷を与えて幹細胞に変異を引き起こす

Alcohol and endogenous aldehydes damage chromosomes and mutate stem cells p.171

Endogenous and alcohol-derived acetaldehyde causes a specific pattern of DNA damage in haemopoietic stem cells; the effects are mitigated by detoxification, specific DNA repair mechanisms and a p53 response.

doi: 10.1038/nature25154

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天文学: 赤方偏移6.8の位置にある2つの銀河に観測される[C II]輝線ガスの回転

Rotation in [C ii]-emitting gas in two galaxies at a redshift of 6.8 p.178

The emission of singly ionized carbon is used to identify two galaxies with redshifts of nearly 7—corresponding to the Universe’s first billion years—and with velocity structures suggestive of rotation.

doi: 10.1038/nature24631

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宇宙物理学: 高速電波バースト源FRB 121102に伴う極端な磁気イオン環境

An extreme magneto-ionic environment associated with the fast radio burst source FRB 121102 p.182

Polarimetric observations of the repeating fast radio burst source FRB 121102 suggest that the bursts may originate from a neutron star in the extreme magneto-ionic environment of an accreting massive black hole or supernova remnant.

doi: 10.1038/nature25149

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惑星科学: 41P/タットル・ジャコビニ・クレサーク彗星の自転速度の急減

A rapid decrease in the rotation rate of comet 41P/Tuttle–Giacobini–Kresák p.186

The rotation rate of comet 41P/Tuttle–Giacobini–Kresák decreased rapidly between March and May 2017, owing to gas emission from the comet aligning to produce an anomalously strong torque.

doi: 10.1038/nature25150

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材料科学: ハロゲン化セシウム鉛ペロブスカイトにおけるブライト三重項励起子

Bright triplet excitons in caesium lead halide perovskites p.189

The lowest-energy exciton state in caesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals is shown to be a bright triplet state, contrary to expectations that lowest-energy excitons should always be dark.

doi: 10.1038/nature25147

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生物地球科学: 火事の頻度が駆動する土壌中の炭素、窒素、生態系生産力の十年規模の変化

Fire frequency drives decadal changes in soil carbon and nitrogen and ecosystem productivity p.194

A meta-analysis and field data show that frequent fires in savannas and broadleaf forests decrease soil carbon and nitrogen over many decades; modelling shows that nitrogen loss drives carbon loss by reducing net primary productivity.

doi: 10.1038/nature24668

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保全生物学: 世界の水鳥個体群の保全の成功は統治の有効性に依存する

Successful conservation of global waterbird populations depends on effective governance p.199

Statistical modelling of global survey datasets of waterbirds as an indicator taxon for biodiversity changes in wetland ecosystems demonstrates that effective governance is the strongest predictor of species abundance increases and conservation benefits.

doi: 10.1038/nature25139

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進化学: 更新世末期のアラスカ人ゲノムから明らかになったアメリカ先住民の最初の創始者集団

Terminal Pleistocene Alaskan genome reveals first founding population of Native Americans p.203

An Ancient Beringian population from Late Pleistocene Alaska and the ancestors of other Native American groups descended from a single founding population that diversified around twenty thousand years ago.

doi: 10.1038/nature25173

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微生物学: 腸内微生物相の精密な編集により大腸炎を緩和する

Precision editing of the gut microbiota ameliorates colitis p.208

Tungstate inhibits molybdenum-cofactor-dependent microbial respiratory pathways and shows potential as a selective treatment for microbial imbalances that occur during inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract.

doi: 10.1038/nature25172

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幹細胞: 生体の造血における細胞系譜運命のクローン解析

Clonal analysis of lineage fate in native haematopoiesis p.212

Transposon tagging to clonally trace progenitors and stem cells provides evidence for a substantially revised roadmap for unperturbed haematopoiesis, and highlights unique properties of multipotent progenitors and haematopoietic stem cells in situ.

doi: 10.1038/nature25168

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生物工学: ゲノム編集複合体のin vivo送達による常染色体優性遺伝性難聴の治療

Treatment of autosomal dominant hearing loss by in vivo delivery of genome editing agents p.217

CRISPR–Cas9 genome editing is used to correct a dominant-negative mutation in a mouse model of inherited deafness, resulting in improvements in cochlear function and hearing.

doi: 10.1038/nature25164

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がん: がんに見られるFGFR3-TACC3遺伝子融合の代謝機能

A metabolic function of FGFR3-TACC3 gene fusions in cancer p.222

Oncogenic FGFR3–TACC3 gene fusions signal through phosphorylated PIN4 to trigger biogenesis of peroxisomes and synthesis of new proteins, enabling mitochondrial respiration and tumour growth.

doi: 10.1038/nature25171

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分子生物学: L1調節因子のゲノム規模のスクリーニングで明らかにされたユークロマチンに存在するL1の選択的サイレンシング

Selective silencing of euchromatic L1s revealed by genome-wide screens for L1 regulators p.228

The retrotransposition of L1 is controlled by functionally diverse genes at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional levels, and its silencing can lead to the downregulation of host gene expression.

doi: 10.1038/nature25179

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構造生物学: ヒト上皮に存在するカルシウムチャネルTRPV6の開口

Opening of the human epithelial calcium channel TRPV6 p.233

The cryo-electron microscopy structure of the calcium channel TRPV6 in its open and closed states demonstrates a novel gating mechanism involving an alanine hinge.

doi: 10.1038/nature25182

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