Volume 556 Number 7701



Military work threatens science and security p.273

In an uncertain world, more governments are asking universities to help develop weapons. That’s a threat to the culture and conscience of researchers.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04588-1


Checklists work to improve science p.273

Nature authors say a reproducibility checklist is a step in the right direction, but more needs to be done.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04590-7


A welcome framework for research in Africa p.274

A new set of ethics principles should help researchers and funders do justice to the interests of those involved with Africa’s genomics research.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04589-0



Great Barrier Reef saw huge losses from 2016 heatwave p.281

One-third of reefs in the world’s largest coral system were transformed by warmed waters, finds comprehensive underwater and aerial survey.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04660-w


East Asia braces for surge in deadly tick-borne virus p.282

Rapid rise in number of infections and high fatality rate concern researchers.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04486-6


US environmental group wins millions to develop methane-monitoring satellite p.283

The Environmental Defense Fund is working with researchers at Harvard University on the probe.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04478-6


Air-pollution trackers seek to fill Africa’s data gap p.284

Low-income sub-Saharan countries bear a high burden of air pollution, but are nearly unrepresented in the research on its health impacts.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04330-x


Spain’s biggest-ever science petition decries ‘abandonment’ of research p.285

Researchers deliver 280,000-signature campaign to parliament protesting decade of drastic cuts — but a budget hike might be in their sights.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04523-4


Attacks in UK and Syria highlight growing need for chemical-forensics expertise p.285

Nations seek to better address future chemical-weapons threats.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04533-2

News Features


How to blow up a star p.287


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04601-7


Medicine’s secret ingredient — it’s in the timing p.290


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04600-8

News & Views


Neuroscience: Immune memory in the brain p.312


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-03800-6


Nanoscience: Peptides used to make light-twisting nanoparticles p.313


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04205-1


Evolution: When sex differences lead to extinction p.315


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04059-7


Engineering: Electronics and photonics united p.316


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04443-3


Microbiology: A stockpile of antiviral defences p.318


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04367-y


Astrophysics: Bounteous black holes at the Galactic Centre p.319


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-04341-8



Laser spectroscopic characterization of the nuclear-clock isomer 229mTh p.321

Laser spectroscopy is used to investigate the hyperfine structure and determine the fundamental nuclear properties of the isomer 229mTh, the strongest candidate for the realization of a nuclear clock.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0011-8


Functional circuit architecture underlying parental behaviour p.326

Galanin-expressing neurons in the medial preoptic area coordinate different aspects of motor, motivational, hormonal and social behaviour associated with parenting by projecting to different brain regions depending on the type of behaviour and sex and reproductive state of mice.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0027-0


Innate immune memory in the brain shapes neurological disease hallmarks p.332

Peripheral stimuli can induce acute immune training and tolerance in the brain and lead to long-lasting epigenetic reprogramming of microglia; these changes alter pathology in mouse models of stroke and Alzheimer’s pathology .

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0023-4


Genome evolution across 1,011 Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates OPEN p.339

Whole-genome sequencing of 1,011 natural isolates of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals its evolutionary history, including a single out-of-China origin and multiple domestication events, and provides a framework for genotype–phenotype studies in this model organism.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0030-5


天文学:二重の超大質量ブラックホールを持つNGC 6240における2つの分離したアウトフロー

Two separate outflows in the dual supermassive black hole system NGC 6240 p.345

Observations of NGC 6240 show two differently driven outflows of different gases with a combined outflow rate comparable to the star formation rate, suggesting possible negative feedback on star formation.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0033-2


Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip p.349

A way of integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics is described, using polycrystalline silicon on glass islands alongside transistors on bulk silicon complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor chips.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0028-z


A library of atomically thin metal chalcogenides p.355

Molten-salt-assisted chemical vapour deposition is used to synthesize a wide variety of two-dimensional transition-metal chalcogenides.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0008-3


Amino-acid- and peptide-directed synthesis of chiral plasmonic gold nanoparticles p.360

Chirality can be ‘encoded’ into gold nanoparticles by introducing chiral amino acids or peptides during the growth process, leading to the formation of helicoid morphologies.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0034-1


High male sexual investment as a driver of extinction in fossil ostracods p.366

Ostracod species (small, bivalved crustaceans) with high sexual dimorphism, and therefore high male investment, had markedly higher extinction rates than low-investment species, indicating that sexual selection can be a substantial risk factor for extinction.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0020-7


Aspm knockout ferret reveals an evolutionary mechanism governing cerebral cortical size p.370

In a ferret model, the microcephaly-associated gene Aspm regulates cortical expansion by controlling the transition of ventricular radial glial cells to more differentiated cell types.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0035-0


An evolutionarily conserved ribosome-rescue pathway maintains epidermal homeostasis p.376

Loss of the ribosome-rescue factor Pelo in a subset of mouse epidermal stem cells results in hyperproliferation and altered differentiation of these cells.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0032-3


Activity-based E3 ligase profiling uncovers an E3 ligase with esterification activity p.381

Non-lysine ubiquitination activity of the E3 ubiquitin ligase MYCBP2 is identified by activity-based profiling; biochemical and structural analysis of MYCBP2 suggests the basis for its mechanism and specificity.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0026-1


Structural basis for ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling by the INO80 complex p.386

Cryo-electron microscopy structures of the evolutionarily conserved core of a fungal INO80 complex bound to the nucleosomal substrate reveal the mechanism underlying nucleosome sliding and histone editing used by this ATP-dependent chromatin remodeller.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0029-y


Structure and regulation of the human INO80–nucleosome complex p.391

Cryo-electron microscopy structure of the human INO80 chromatin remodeller in complex with a bound nucleosome reveals that its motor domains are located at the DNA wrap around the histone core.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0021-6

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