Volume 542 Number 7639



Private weather data should not replace basic research p.5

Earth-monitoring research missions should go on, despite commercial ventures

doi: 10.1038/542005b


Demand decisions based on evidence, not ideology p.5

Psychology can moderate our response to unsavoury actions such as the US ban on immigrants, but we should not let our appetite for dissent diminish.

doi: 10.1038/542005a


The time is ripe to reform the World Health Organization p.6

As the public-health agency chooses a new leader, the media and politicians must be more realistic about what it can do.

doi: 10.1038/542006a



Meet the scientists affected by Trump’s immigration ban p.13

Order barring citizens of seven countries from entering the United States has left many confused and afraid.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21389


Gene drives thwarted by emergence of resistant organisms p.15

Until this obstacle is overcome, the technology is unlikely to succeed in the wild.

doi: 10.1038/542015a


Astronomers explore uses for AI-generated images p.16

Neural networks produce pictures to train image-recognition programs and scientific software.

doi: 10.1038/542016a


Physicists doubt bold report of metallic hydrogen p.17

Many researchers are sceptical of a paper claiming to have compressed hydrogen to a metallic state.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21379


Race to provide commercial weather data heats up p.18

A movement to privatize Earth-observing satellites is gaining ground.

doi: 10.1038/542018a


World’s foremost institute on death and disease metrics gets massive cash boost p.19

Centre evaluates how public-health spending can improve mortality rates and disease burden, but many countries still do not record how people die.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21373

News Features


What it would take to reach the stars p.20


doi: 10.1038/542020a


How heat from the Sun can keep us all cool p.23


doi: 10.1038/542023a

News & Views


Cancer: Double trouble for tumours p.34


doi: 10.1038/nature21117


Imaging techniques: Nanoparticle atoms pinpointed p.35


doi: 10.1038/542035a


Medicine: The final frontier in cancer diagnosis p.36


doi: 10.1038/nature21492


Ecology: Vast peatlands found in the Congo Basin p.38


doi: 10.1038/542038b


Structural biology: Growth factor rattled out of its cage p.40


doi: 10.1038/nature21119


Earth science: Making a mountain out of a plateau p.41


doi: 10.1038/542041a



IL-17 is a neuromodulator of Caenorhabditis elegans sensory responses p.43

Interleukin-17 functions as a neuromodulator in the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, acting directly on RMG hub interneurons to alter their response properties and contribution to behaviour.

doi: 10.1038/nature20818


The role of fatty acid β-oxidation in lymphangiogenesis p.49

The lymphangiogenic factor PROX1 transcriptionally upregulates CPT1A, a rate-controlling enzyme in fatty acid β-oxidation, and this co-regulates lymphatic endothelial cell differentiation by epigenetic control of lymphatic gene expression, demonstrating a role for metabolism in developmental biology.

doi: 10.1038/nature21028


Force interacts with macromolecular structure in activation of TGF-β p.55

Integrin αVβ6 binds the transforming growth factor-β1 precursor (pro-TGF-β1) in an orientation that is biologically relevant for force-dependent release of TGF-β from its latent form.

doi: 10.1038/nature21035


Structure of a eukaryotic cyclic-nucleotide-gated channel p.60

The first high-resolution (3.5 Å) structure of a full-length cyclic-nucleotide-gated channel, revealing an unconventional, voltage-insensitive voltage-sensor domain and a unique coupling mechanism between cyclic-nucleotide-binding and pore-opening.

doi: 10.1038/nature20819



Spin–orbit-coupled fermions in an optical lattice clock p.66

Spin–orbit coupling is implemented in an optical lattice clock using a narrow optical transition in fermionic 87Sr atoms, thus mitigating the heating problems of previous experiments with alkali atoms and offering new prospects for future investigations.

doi: 10.1038/nature20811


Ultrafast nonthermal photo-magnetic recording in a transparent medium p.71

Ultrafast photo-magnetic recording in transparent films of the dielectric cobalt-substituted garnet has very low heat load and is much faster than existing alternatives.

doi: 10.1038/nature20807


Deciphering chemical order/disorder and material properties at the single-atom level p.75

The three-dimensional coordinates of more than 23,000 atoms in an iron-platinum nanoparticle are determined with 22 picometre precision to correlate chemical order/disorder and crystal defects with magnetic properties.

doi: 10.1038/nature21042


Molybdenum chloride catalysts for Z-selective olefin metathesis reactions p.80

Substitution of a ligand in molybdenum-based complexes enables typically inert hexafluorobutene to participate in Z-selective olefin cross-metathesis reactions.

doi: 10.1038/nature21043


Age, extent and carbon storage of the central Congo Basin peatland complex p.86

Field measurements combined with remotely sensed data reveal the Cuvette Centrale in the central Congo Basin to contain the most extensive peatland complex in the tropics, increasing the best estimate of global tropical peatland carbon stocks by approximately one-third.

doi: 10.1038/nature21048


Elevation alters ecosystem properties across temperate treelines globally p.91

Examination of the ecosystem properties of treeline ecotones in seven temperate regions of the world shows that the reduction in temperature with increasing elevation does not affect tree leaf nutrient concentrations, but does reduce ground-layer community-weighted plant nitrogen levels, leading to a strong stoichiometric convergence of ground-layer plant community nitrogen to phosphorus ratios across all regions.

doi: 10.1038/nature21027


A competitive inhibitory circuit for selection of active and passive fear responses p.96

Competitive circuits in the amygdala of mice drive either freezing or flight behaviour in response to threat, and involve distinct neuronal subtypes.

doi: 10.1038/nature21047


Plasmodium malariae and P. ovale genomes provide insights into malaria parasite evolution OPEN p.101

The genome sequences of the neglected human-infective malaria species Plasmodium malariae and P. ovale provide new insights into their biology that are pertinent to understanding their epidemiology and to the broader agenda of malaria elimination.

doi: 10.1038/nature21038


MATRILINEAL, a sperm-specific phospholipase, triggers maize haploid induction p.105

A frame-shift mutation in MATRILINEAL, a pollen-specific phospholipase, triggers haploid induction in maize, which may be useful in developing improved haploid induction systems for crop breeding.

doi: 10.1038/nature20827


Pathologically expanded peripheral T helper cell subset drives B cells in rheumatoid arthritis p.110

The authors identify in patients with rheumatoid arthritis a pathogenic subset of CD4+ T cells that augments B cell responses within inflamed tissues.

doi: 10.1038/nature20810


Dermatologist-level classification of skin cancer with deep neural networks p.115

An artificial intelligence trained to classify images of skin lesions as benign lesions or malignant skin cancers achieves the accuracy of board-certified dermatologists.

doi: 10.1038/nature21056


Genomic deletion of malic enzyme 2 confers collateral lethality in pancreatic cancer p.119

Depletion of malic enzyme 3 in pancreatic cancer cells that have a deletion of the gene for malic enzyme 2 selectively kills the cells, suggesting that the enzyme might represent a therapeutic target for this subset of cancers.

doi: 10.1038/nature21052

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