目次

Editorials

量子重ね合わせが、日常生活の距離と時間スケールでも実現可能と実証されたことは、驚くべき進展だ。

Quantum leap p.435

Physicists can better study the quantum behaviour of objects on the atomic scale.

doi: 10.1038/528435b

ヨーロッパは、科学的助言を軽視せず、目先の政治的利益よりも長期の持続可能性を重視した漁獲削減計画を立てるべきだ。

Fishy limits p.435

The European Union has set a worrying trend by ignoring scientific advice on overfishing. It must put long-term sustainability plans ahead of short-term political gains.

doi: 10.1038/528435a

Natureは、クリスマスのイルミネーションが、Wi-Fiの接続を妨げるといううわさを検証した。

Light relief p.436

Nature digs into the rumours about the effect of festive illuminations on wireless fidelity.

doi: 10.1038/528436a

News

中国は、一連の宇宙探査計画の皮切りとして、暗黒物質探査機「悟空」の打ち上げに成功。

China’s dark-matter satellite launches era of space science p.443

Monkey King is first in a line of Chinese space missions focused on scientific discovery.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.19059

カナダの新しい科学大臣は、どれだけ期待に応えられるのか、科学者たちが注目を。

Canada’s top scientist faces tough challenge p.445

Researchers have big hopes for Kirsty Duncan, the country’s newly appointed scientist-turned-science minister.

doi: 10.1038/528445a

物理学界でのひも理論をめぐる論争に、科学哲学的観点からの助言を求める動きが。

Feuding physicists turn to philosophy for help p.446

String theory is at the heart of a debate over the integrity of the scientific method itself.

doi: 10.1038/528446a

米国の2016年度予算案が成立し、NIHの予算は2003年度以来の大幅増に。

Biomedicine wins big in US budget deal p.446

Late spending bill gives the NIH and several other research agencies healthy increases.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.19057

365 days:気候変動から遺伝子編集の倫理問題まで、困難な問題も多かったが、量子力学の奇妙さの証拠や冥王星の氷の発見、細胞内の分子機械の解明など、重要な成果も多かった。

365 days: The science events that shaped 2015 p.448

Gene-editing, climate change and Pluto are among the year’s top stories.

doi: 10.1038/528448a

365 days:写真で見る2015年

365 days: The best science images of 2015 p.452

From Pluto to viral structures, this year produced an array of dazzling pictures.

doi: 10.1038/528452a

News Features

365 days:Natureが選ぶ今年の10人

365 days: Nature’s 10 p.459

今年の科学を大きく動かしたのはどのような人たちだろうか。

doi: 10.1038/528459a

News & Views

結核:オートファジーが正解というわけじゃない

Tuberculosis: Autophagy is not the answer p.482

オートファジーという細胞過程は結核菌(Mycobacterium tuberculosis)を殺すのに役立つと考えられてきた。だが今回、オートファジー関連遺伝子のAtg5は宿主免疫にとって重要だが、これ以外のオートファジー遺伝子は結核の転帰に影響しないことが明らかにされた。

doi: 10.1038/nature16324

コンピューター技術:将来を明るく照らすシリコンチップ

Computer technology: Silicon chips lighten up p.483

マイクロプロセッサーによる情報交換は今回、シリコンでのエレクトロニクスとフォトニクスの集積に成功したことで大きく進展した。これは、電力消費が少なく、効率の良いコンピューターシステムへの第一歩である。

doi: 10.1038/528483a

栄養:個人別お勧めメニューを予測するコンピューター

Nutrition: A personal forecast p.484

複雑な多次元データに機械学習を適用することで、血糖値を制御するために推奨されるお勧め食品を個人ごとに予測できることが今回示された。これは、腸のマイクロバイオームを個別化医療に組み込む第一歩となる。

doi: 10.1038/528484a

材料科学:軽金属の強度の限界を破る

Materials science: Strength ceiling smashed for light metals p.486

マグネシウム合金中にナノスケール粒子を均一に分散させると、記録破りの強度を持つ複合材料が得られることが分かった。このことから、マグネシウムを構造用の軽量金属として使用できる見込みが出てきた。

doi: 10.1038/528486a

微生物学:統合された分業

Microbiology: A division of labour combined p.487

アンモニアを完全に酸化して硝酸にすることができる微生物が見つかった。この結果は、硝化過程には2種類の微生物の活性を必要とするという、100年も前からの説を否定するものだ。

doi: 10.1038/528487a

再生生物学:自然免疫は腸内表面の修理に関わっている

Regenerative biology: Innate immunity repairs gut lining p.488

3型自然リンパ球と呼ばれる自然免疫細胞は腸幹細胞に直接シグナルを送って、腸内表面を覆う上皮細胞が損傷を受けた場合に他の細胞で置換するのを助けていることが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/nature16325

エディターが選んだ2015年N&Vの「逸品」

2015 Editors' choice p.490

今年度掲載されたNews & Viewsの中から編集部が精選した記事の抜粋。

doi: 10.1038/528490a

Articles

化学:ネットワーク解析から指針を得たワイサコニチンDとリルジェストランジニンの合成

Network-analysis-guided synthesis of weisaconitine D and liljestrandinine p.493

Network analysis to determine the maximally bridged ring (or rings) of molecules is used as part of a strategy for the syntheses of architecturally complex natural chemicals; this strategy is demonstrated via the synthesis of the diterpenoid alkaloids weisaconitine D and liljestrandinine.

doi: 10.1038/nature16440

集団遺伝学:230人の古代ユーラシア人に見られるゲノム規模の選択パターン

Genome-wide patterns of selection in 230 ancient Eurasians p.499

The first genome-wide scan for selection using ancient DNA, based on data from 230 West Eurasians dating between to 6500 and 300 BC and including new data from 163 individuals among which are 26 Neolithic Anatolians, provides a direct view of selection on loci associated with diet, pigmentation and immunity.

doi: 10.1038/nature16152

環境微生物学:ニトロスピラ属細菌による完全な硝化

Complete nitrification by Nitrospira bacteria p.504

Until now, the oxidation steps necessary for complete nitrification have always been observed to occur in two separate microorganisms in a cross-feeding interaction; here, together with the study by van Kessel et al., Daims et al. report the enrichment and characterization of Nitrospira species that encode all of the enzymes necessary to catalyse complete nitrification, a phenotype referred to as 'comammox' (for complete ammonia oxidation).

doi: 10.1038/nature16461

発症機序:ΔF508 CFTRインタラクトーム再構築が嚢胞性繊維症の救済を促進する

∆F508 CFTR interactome remodelling promotes rescue of cystic fibrosis p.510

A new deep proteomic analysis method is used to identify proteins that interact with wild-type cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and its mutant version that is the major cause of cystic fibrosis.

doi: 10.1038/nature15729

免疫学:DDX5とそれに結合するlncRNA RmrpはTH17細胞のエフェクター機能を調整する

DDX5 and its associated lncRNA Rmrp modulate TH17 cell effector functions p.517

The ability of the DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX5 to interact with master transcription factor RORγt is dependent on binding of the long noncoding RNA Rmrp; the DDX5–RORγt complex coordinates transcription of selective TH17 genes and is required for the pathogenicity of TH17 cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature16193

Letters

高エネルギー宇宙物理学:高速電波バーストを伴う磁化した高密度プラズマ

Dense magnetized plasma associated with a fast radio burst p.523

Fast radio burst FRB 110523, discovered in archival data, reveals Faraday rotation and scattering that suggests dense magnetized plasma near the source; this means that to infer the source of the burst, models should involve young stellar populations such as magnetars.

doi: 10.1038/nature15769

太陽物理学:太陽が爆発し損ねる原因としての動的な磁場張力

A dynamic magnetic tension force as the cause of failed solar eruptions p.526

Coronal mass ejections are driven by a sudden release of magnetic energy stored in flux ropes in the Sun’s corona, but when the ambient magnetic field that runs toroidally along an unstable flux rope is strong enough to prevent the flux rope from kinking, a dynamic magnetic tension force halts the eruption.

doi: 10.1038/nature16188

量子物理学:0.5 mスケールでの量子重ね合わせ

Quantum superposition at the half-metre scale p.530

Matter-wave interferometers provide an opportunity to measure whether quantum superpositions exist at macroscopic length scales or only at microscopically small scales; now such instruments have demonstrated quantum interference of wave packets separated by 54 cm.

doi: 10.1038/nature16155

工学:光を使って直接通信する単一チップマイクロプロセッサー

Single-chip microprocessor communicating directly using light p.534

An electronic–photonic microprocessor chip manufactured using a conventional microelectronics foundry process is demonstrated; the chip contains 70 million transistors and 850 photonic components and directly uses light to communicate to other chips.

doi: 10.1038/nature16454

材料科学:高い密度で均一にナノ粒子を分散させたマグネシウムの加工と特性

Processing and properties of magnesium containing a dense uniform dispersion of nanoparticles p.539

Magnesium is light but not very strong; here the addition of silicon carbide nanoparticles uniformly dispersed to 14 per cent by volume, achieved through a nanoparticle self-stabilization mechanism in a molten metal alloy, yields improved strength, stiffness, plasticity and high-temperature stability.

doi: 10.1038/nature16445

地球:火山噴火時の熱的発泡

Thermal vesiculation during volcanic eruptions p.544

A textural examination of volcanic ash erupted from Santiaguito volcano in Guatemala coupled with an analysis of the geophysical signals indicates that rapid heating during fault friction can cause melting and vesiculation (development of bubbles) of hydrated silicic magma, thus strongly affecting magma strength and eruptive behaviour.

doi: 10.1038/nature16153

生態学:ネオニコチノイド系農薬への曝露でマルハナバチによる作物の花粉媒介サービスが低下する

Neonicotinoid pesticide exposure impairs crop pollination services provided by bumblebees p.548

Despite substantial evidence that neonicotinoid pesticides can have negative effects on bees, there have been no reports that this leads to problems with pollination; here bumblebee colonies exposed to a neonicotinoid are shown to provide reduced pollination services to apple trees, leading to a reduction in seed number.

doi: 10.1038/nature16167

進化学:保存状態が極めて良好な極小の胚化石から初期被子植物の種子の休眠が明らかになる

Exceptional preservation of tiny embryos documents seed dormancy in early angiosperms p.551

The discovery of embryos and their associated nutrient storage tissues in exceptionally well-preserved angiosperm seeds from the Early Cretaceous period.

doi: 10.1038/nature16441

環境微生物学:単一の微生物による完全な硝化

Complete nitrification by a single microorganism p.555

Until now, the oxidation steps necessary for complete nitrification had always been observed to occur in two separate microorganisms in a cross-feeding interaction; here, together with the study by Daims et al., van Kessel et al. report the enrichment and characterization of Nitrospira species that encode all of the enzymes necessary to catalyse complete nitrification, a phenotype referred to as ‘comammox’ (for complete ammonia oxidation).

doi: 10.1038/nature16459

免疫学:インターロイキン22は腸幹細胞が仲介する上皮再生を促進する

Interleukin-22 promotes intestinal-stem-cell-mediated epithelial regeneration p.560

Innate lymphoid cells increase the growth of mouse intestinal organoids via IL-22 production; recombinant IL-22 promotes growth of both mouse and human organoids, and promotes mouse intestinal stem cell (ISC) expansion and ISC-driven organoid growth via a STAT3-dependent pathway and independently of Paneth cells; IL-22 treatment in vivo enhances the recovery of ISCs from intestinal injury.

doi: 10.1038/nature16460

結核:結核菌感染の間に好中球が仲介する免疫病変におけるATG5の独自の役割

Unique role for ATG5 in neutrophil-mediated immunopathology during M. tuberculosis infection p.565

Genetic engineering in mice reveals that autophagy is not an essential mechanism in myeloid cells for controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and that autophagy factor ATG5 protects organisms by regulating neutrophil influx and tissue damage.

doi: 10.1038/nature16451

がんゲノミクス:生殖系列バリアントFGFR4 p.G388Rは膜近傍のSTAT3結合部位を露出させる

Germline variant FGFR4  p.G388R exposes a membrane-proximal STAT3 binding site p.570

Variant rs351855-G/A is a commonly occurring single-nucleotide polymorphism of coding regions in exon 9 of the fibroblast growth factor receptor FGFR4 (CD334) gene (c.1162G>A). It results in an amino-acid change at codon 388 from glycine to arginine (p.Gly388Arg) in the transmembrane domain of the receptor. Despite compelling genetic evidence for the association of this common variant with cancers of the bone, breast, colon, prostate, skin, lung, head and neck, as well as soft-tissue sarcomas and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, the underlying biological mechanism has remained elusive. Here we show that substitution of the conserved glycine 388 residue to a charged arginine residue alters the transmembrane spanning segment and exposes a membrane-proximal cytoplasmic signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) binding site Y390-(P)XXQ393. We demonstrate that such membrane-proximal STAT3 binding motifs in the germline of type I membrane receptors enhance STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation by recruiting STAT3 proteins to the inner cell membrane. Remarkably, such germline variants frequently co-localize with somatic mutations in the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) database. Using Fgfr4 single nucleotide polymorphism knock-in mice and transgenic mouse models for breast and lung cancers, we validate the enhanced STAT3 signalling induced by the FGFR4 Arg388-variant in vivo. Thus, our findings elucidate the molecular mechanism behind the genetic association of rs351855 with accelerated cancer progression and suggest that germline variants of cell-surface molecules that recruit STAT3 to the inner cell membrane are a significant risk for cancer prognosis and disease progression.

doi: 10.1038/nature16449

分子生物学:DNAメチル化と転写因子の間の競合がNRF1の結合を決定する

Competition between DNA methylation and transcription factors determines binding of NRF1 p.575

The relationship between DNA methylation and transcription factor binding was studied across the genome in mouse embryonic stem cells—the study reveals that the transcription factor NRF1 is methylation-sensitive and how physiological binding of NRF1 relies on local removal of DNA methylation.

doi: 10.1038/nature16462

タンパク質設計:計算機を使うタンパク質設計により反復構造型タンパク質集合空間を探る

Exploring the repeat protein universe through computational protein design p.580

In this study, 83 proteins containing helix–loop–helix–loop repeats were designed—with sequences unrelated to known repeat proteins—and experimentally characterized; 43 solution X-ray scattering spectra and 15 structures of the designed proteins show that these non-natural repeat proteins have a broad range of curvatures and that their overall structures are in close agreement with design models.

doi: 10.1038/nature16162

タンパク質設計:閉じた構造を持つαヘリックス縦列反復構造型タンパク質の合理的設計

Rational design of α-helical tandem repeat proteins with closed architectures p.585

Tandem repeat proteins, which are formed by repetition of modular units of protein sequence and structure, play important biological roles as macromolecular binding and scaffolding domains, enzymes, and building blocks for the assembly of fibrous materials. The modular nature of repeat proteins enables the rapid construction and diversification of extended binding surfaces by duplication and recombination of simple building blocks. The overall architecture of tandem repeat protein structures—which is dictated by the internal geometry and local packing of the repeat building blocks—is highly diverse, ranging from extended, super-helical folds that bind peptide, DNA, and RNA partners, to closed and compact conformations with internal cavities suitable for small molecule binding and catalysis. Here we report the development and validation of computational methods for de novo design of tandem repeat protein architectures driven purely by geometric criteria defining the inter-repeat geometry, without reference to the sequences and structures of existing repeat protein families. We have applied these methods to design a series of closed α-solenoid repeat structures (α-toroids) in which the inter-repeat packing geometry is constrained so as to juxtapose the amino (N) and carboxy (C) termini; several of these designed structures have been validated by X-ray crystallography. Unlike previous approaches to tandem repeat protein engineering, our design procedure does not rely on template sequence or structural information taken from natural repeat proteins and hence can produce structures unlike those seen in nature. As an example, we have successfully designed and validated closed α-solenoid repeats with a left-handed helical architecture that—to our knowledge—is not yet present in the protein structure database.

doi: 10.1038/nature16191

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