Volume 528 Number 7582



Crop conundrum p.307

The EU should decide definitively whether gene-edited plants are covered by GM laws.

doi: 10.1038/528307b


A seismic shift p.307

After 25 years of divisive debate, the governments of the world unite in Paris to fight global warming. But the hard work must start now.

doi: 10.1038/528307a


Science for peace p.308

The German research community can benefit from the influx of migrants.

doi: 10.1038/528308a



Nations approve historic global climate accord p.315

Agreement forged in Paris aims to hold warming ‘well below’ 2 °C.

doi: 10.1038/528315a


Cancer studies clash over mechanisms of malignancy p.317

Debate surrounds relative importance of environmental and intrinsic factors.

doi: 10.1038/528317a


Yellow Sea talks raise hopes for marine science p.318

Negotiations between South Korea and China to demarcate boundary could aid research.

doi: 10.1038/528318a


Europe’s genetically edited plants stuck in legal limbo p.319

Scientists frustrated at delay in deciding if GM regulations apply to precision gene editing.

doi: 10.1038/528319a


German researchers pledge help in refugee crisis p.320

Social scientists launch integration studies and warn of need to counter rising xenophobia.

doi: 10.1038/528320a

News Features


The science myths that will not die p.322


doi: 10.1038/528322a

News & Views


Biodiversity: Recovery as nitrogen declines p.336


doi: 10.1038/nature16320


Quantum physics: Entanglement beyond identical ions p.337


doi: 10.1038/528337a


Reproducibility: Experimental mismatch in neural circuits p.338


doi: 10.1038/nature16323


Microbiomes: Curating communities from plants p.340


doi: 10.1038/nature16319


Climate science: A history of Greenland's ice loss p.341


doi: 10.1038/528341a


In retrospect: Twenty-five years of thesex-determining gene p.343


doi: 10.1038/528343a



Rarity in mass extinctions and the future of ecosystems p.345

The fossil record provides a nuanced view of ecosystem collapse over intervals of mass extinction, with abundant, biomineralizing and widespread species preferentially preserved; here the authors collate evidence for ‘mass rarity’ during these intervals, and suggest that the increasing rarity of modern species, rather than their outright extinction, may be a better metric for comparing the current biodiversity crisis to the ‘Big Five’ mass extinctions in the Earth’s history.

doi: 10.1038/nature16160



Growth and splitting of neural sequences in songbird vocal development p.352

Neural sequences recorded from the vocal premotor area HVC in juvenile birds learning song ‘syllables’ show ‘prototype’ syllables forming early, with multiple new highly divergent neural sequences emerging from this precursor syllable as learning progresses.

doi: 10.1038/nature15741


Acute off-target effects of neural circuit manipulations p.358

Transient manipulation of neural activity is widely used to probe the function of specific circuits, yet such targeted perturbations could also have indirect effects on downstream circuits that implement separate and independent functions; a study to test this reveals that transient perturbations of specific circuits in mammals and songbirds severely impair learned skills that recover spontaneously after permanent lesions of the same brain areas.

doi: 10.1038/nature16442


Functional overlap of the Arabidopsis leaf and root microbiota p.364

The microbiota of the rhizosphere (roots) and phyllosphere (leaves) of healthy plants consist of taxonomically structured bacterial communities; here the majority of species representing the main bacterial phyla from these two organs were isolated and genomes of about 400 representative bacteria were sequenced; the resources of cultured bacteria, corresponding genomes and a gnotobiotic plant system enabled an examination of the taxonomic overlap and functional specialization between the rhizosphere and phyllosphere bacterial microbiota.

doi: 10.1038/nature16192


Phosphorylation and linear ubiquitin direct A20 inhibition of inflammation p.370

The authors define molecular mechanisms by which distinct domains of the ubiquitin editing enzyme A20 contribute to the regulation of inflammation and cell death.

doi: 10.1038/nature16165



A large-scale dynamo and magnetoturbulence in rapidly rotating core-collapse supernovae p.376

Global, three-dimensional simulations of rapidly rotating massive stars show that turbulence driven by magnetohydrodynamic instability is a promising mechanism for the formation of pulsars and magnetars, the latter potentially powering hyperenergetic and superluminous supernovae.

doi: 10.1038/nature15755


Multi-element logic gates for trapped-ion qubits p.380

Harnessing the entanglement of different ionic species could bring new flexibility in quantum computing, and now two groups independently demonstrate entanglement between different atomic species; Tan et al. achieve entanglement between different elements, whereas the related paper by Ballance et al. shows entanglement between different atomic isotopes, together demonstrating a first step towards mixed-species quantum logic.

doi: 10.1038/nature16186


Hybrid quantum logic and a test of Bell’s inequality using two different atomic isotopes p.384

Harnessing the entanglement of different ionic species could bring new flexibility in quantum computing, and now two groups independently demonstrate entanglement between different atomic species; Ballance et al. achieve entanglement between different atomic isotopes, whereas the related paper by Tan et al. shows entanglement between different elements, together demonstrating a first step towards mixed-species quantum logic.

doi: 10.1038/nature16184


Radiative heat transfer in the extreme near field p.387

Nanoscale radiative heat transfer between both dielectric and metal surfaces separated by gaps as small as two nanometres is characterized by large gap-dependent heat transfer enhancements that are accurately modelled by the theoretical framework of fluctuational electrodynamics and has important implications for technological design.

doi: 10.1038/nature16070


Self-shaping of oil droplets via the formation of intermediate rotator phases upon cooling p.392

A mechanism for the repression of homologous recombination in G1, the stage of the cell cycle preceding replication, is determined; the critical aspects are the interaction between BRCA1 and PALB2–BRCA2, and suppression of DNA-end resection.

doi: 10.1038/nature16189


Spatial and temporal distribution of mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet since AD 1900 p.396

The response of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) to changes in temperature during the twentieth century remains contentious, largely owing to difficulties in estimating the spatial and temporal distribution of ice mass changes before 1992, when Greenland-wide observations first became available. The only previous estimates of change during the twentieth century are based on empirical modelling and energy balance modelling. Consequently, no observation-based estimates of the contribution from the GIS to the global-mean sea level budget before 1990 are included in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Here we calculate spatial ice mass loss around the entire GIS from 1900 to the present using aerial imagery from the 1980s. This allows accurate high-resolution mapping of geomorphic features related to the maximum extent of the GIS during the Little Ice Age at the end of the nineteenth century. We estimate the total ice mass loss and its spatial distribution for three periods: 1900–1983 (75.1 ± 29.4 gigatonnes per year), 1983–2003 (73.8 ± 40.5 gigatonnes per year), and 2003–2010 (186.4 ± 18.9 gigatonnes per year). Furthermore, using two surface mass balance models we partition the mass balance into a term for surface mass balance (that is, total precipitation minus total sublimation minus runoff) and a dynamic term. We find that many areas currently undergoing change are identical to those that experienced considerable thinning throughout the twentieth century. We also reveal that the surface mass balance term shows a considerable decrease since 2003, whereas the dynamic term is constant over the past 110 years. Overall, our observation-based findings show that during the twentieth century the GIS contributed at least 25.0 ± 9.4 millimetres of global-mean sea level rise. Our result will help to close the twentieth-century sea level budget, which remains crucial for evaluating the reliability of models used to predict global sea level rise.

doi: 10.1038/nature16183


Grassland biodiversity bounces back from long-term nitrogen addition p.401

Data from the long-running Park Grass Experiment is used to show that grassland biodiversity is recovering since UK atmospheric nitrogen levels started to decline 25 years ago in all but the most acidic soils.

doi: 10.1038/nature16444


Sex-dependent dominance at a single locus maintains variation in age at maturity in salmon p.405

Age at maturity in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is governed to a substantial extent by a locus showing dominance reversal, providing a resolution for sexual conflict in this trait, for which selection favours different ages in the two sexes.

doi: 10.1038/nature16062


Repairing oxidized proteins in the bacterial envelope using respiratory chain electrons p.409

The identification of an enzymatic system repairing proteins containing oxidized methionine in the bacterial cell envelope, a compartment particularly susceptible to oxidative damage by host defence mechanisms.

doi: 10.1038/nature15764


Neutrophils support lung colonization of metastasis-initiating breast cancer cells p.413

Despite progress in the development of drugs that efficiently target cancer cells, treatments for metastatic tumours are often ineffective. The now well-established dependency of cancer cells on their microenvironment suggests that targeting the non-cancer-cell component of the tumour might form a basis for the development of novel therapeutic approaches. However, the as-yet poorly characterized contribution of host responses during tumour growth and metastatic progression represents a limitation to exploiting this approach. Here we identify neutrophils as the main component and driver of metastatic establishment within the (pre-)metastatic lung microenvironment in mouse breast cancer models. Neutrophils have a fundamental role in inflammatory responses and their contribution to tumorigenesis is still controversial. Using various strategies to block neutrophil recruitment to the pre-metastatic site, we demonstrate that neutrophils specifically support metastatic initiation. Importantly, we find that neutrophil-derived leukotrienes aid the colonization of distant tissues by selectively expanding the sub-pool of cancer cells that retain high tumorigenic potential. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of the leukotriene-generating enzyme arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (Alox5) abrogates neutrophil pro-metastatic activity and consequently reduces metastasis. Our results reveal the efficacy of using targeted therapy against a specific tumour microenvironment component and indicate that neutrophil Alox5 inhibition may limit metastatic progression.

doi: 10.1038/nature16140


Genetic predisposition to neuroblastoma mediated by a LMO1 super-enhancer polymorphism p.418

A causal variant is identified at the LMO1 oncogene locus that drives the genetic association of LMO1 with neuroblastoma susceptibility; the causal SNP disrupts a GATA transcription factor binding site within a tissue-specific super-enhancer element in the first intron of LMO1, thereby affecting LMO1 expression.

doi: 10.1038/nature15540


A mechanism for the suppression of homologous recombination in G1 cells p.422

A mechanism for the repression of homologous recombination in G1, the stage of the cell cycle preceding replication, is determined; the critical aspects are the interaction between BRCA1 and PALB2–BRCA2, and suppression of DNA-end resection.

doi: 10.1038/nature16142

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