目次

Editorials

ヒトゲノム編集技術をめぐる倫理問題の議論は、科学界だけでなく、社会全体に広がるだろう。

Gene politics p.5

US lawmakers are asserting their place in the human genetic-modification debate.

doi: 10.1038/523005b

GMコムギの野外試験が失敗に終わったが、持続可能な食物供給のためには貴重な知見であり、今後の研究を止めるべきではない。

Success in failure p.5

A failed crop trial of genetically modified wheat stil provides crucial lessons for those battling to provide the planet's growing population with a sustainable food supply.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.17855

スマートフォンのカメラへの応用も期待できる小型で高性能な分光光度計が開発された。

Light detective p.6

Smartphone camera set to come to the aid of sleuths, scientists and wine lovers.

doi: 10.1038/523006a

News

生産効率の高い筋肉肥大ブタが遺伝子編集によって作製され、食用目的でのこうした手法の認可に期待も。

Super-muscly pigs created by small genetic tweak p.13

Researchers hope the genetically engineered animals will speed past regulators.

doi: 10.1038/523013a

米国オレゴン健康科学大学が、がん研究の巨額の資金調達に成功。

How an Oregon cancer institute raised a billion dollars p.14

Gains from two-year fund-raising frenzy will aid the early detection of tumours.

doi: 10.1038/523014a

米国の大学などの多くの植物標本室が、資金難によって続々と閉鎖。

Plant collections left in the cold by cuts p.16

North America’s herbaria wilt under pressure for space and cash.

doi: 10.1038/523016a

放射線業務従事者を対象とした大規模研究で、低用量放射線が白血病のリスクをわずかながら高めるという結果が。

Researchers pin down risks of low-dose radiation p.17

Large study of nuclear workers shows that even tiny doses slightly boost risk of leukaemia.

doi: 10.1038/523017a

市民の訴えによって、オランダの裁判所が、国に温室効果ガスの厳しい削減を課す判決を。

Europe braces for more climate litigation p.18

Dutch order to cut emissions opens door for citizens' lawsuits elsewhere.

doi: 10.1038/523018a

News Features

林学:世界の樹木の能力調査

The hunt for the world’s missing carbon p.20

森林に、今まで以上に炭素を吸収して気候変動を抑制する力があるかを見極めようと、研究が続いている。

doi: 10.1038/523020a

ロボット倫理:ロボットのジレンマ

Machine ethics: The robot’s dilemma p.24

どうすれば「倫理的な」ロボットが作れるかは、人工知能分野の最も難しい課題の1つである。

doi: 10.1038/523024a

News & Views

古生物学:ハルキゲニアの頭部の構造

Palaeontology: Hallucigenia's head p.38

カンブリア紀に生息していた葉足動物であるハルキゲニアの一種Hallucigenia sparsaの化石で、咽頭歯と放射状の口器様構造が見つかったことは、脱皮動物の間の進化上のつながりをさかのぼり、祖先の解明を進めるのに役立つ。

doi: 10.1038/nature14627

ナノテクノロジー:分光測定用の色とりどりの粒子

Nanotechnology: Colourful particles for spectrometry p.39

着色粒子のコロイド懸濁液から作られた一連のフィルターのアレイでスマートフォンのカメラを改造すると、分光分析用の強力なツールができた。

doi: 10.1038/523039a

公衆衛生:ボーナスという禁煙促進策

Public health: The case for pay to quit p.40

禁煙のための4通りの報奨金プログラムの無作為化比較試験が行われ、報酬を使用する方式が持続的な禁煙につながることが分かった。しかし、このような方式が一般社会に容認される可能性は低く、それがこうした方法の採択を妨げている。

doi: 10.1038/523040a

惑星科学:彗星67Pの陥没穴と塵のジェット

Planetary science: Sink holes and dust jets on comet 67P p.42

ロゼッタ探査機が撮影した画像の解析から、彗星の複雑な地形の細部が明らかになった。表面のクローズアップ画像では、昇華が起こっている活動中のピットから塵のジェットが放出されている様子が複数認められた。

doi: 10.1038/523042a

進化:揺れ動く爬虫類の性決定機構

Evolution: Reptile sex determination goes wild p.43

オーストラリアに生息するトカゲの一種の野生集団は性染色体を持っているが、温度によって制御される性分化も見られるため、進化の過程でこのような2つの性決定機構を行ったり来たりする仕組みについての手掛かりが得られる。

doi: 10.1038/523043a

神経生物学:線虫での入れ替え戦略

Neurobiology: Inversion in the worm p.44

線虫では、空間的および時間的に活性が制限されている転写因子の組み合わせが、運動神経に向かう、あるいは運動神経からのシナプス結合形成の制御を介して運動を協調させていることが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/523044a

Articles

構造生物学:スプライソソームのU4/U6.U5 tri-snRNPの構造

The architecture of the spliceosomal U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP p.47

This study determines the structure of the spliceosomal tri-snRNP complex (containing three small nuclear RNAs and more than 30 proteins) by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy; the resolution is sufficient to discern the organization of RNA and protein components involved in spliceosome activation, exon alignment and catalysis.

doi: 10.1038/nature14548

分子生物学:非カノニカルATMシグナル伝達の標的およびエフェクターとしてのコアスプライソソーム

The core spliceosome as target and effector of non-canonical ATM signalling p.53

Transcription-blocking DNA lesions result in chromatin displacement of core spliceosomes containing U2 and U5 snRNPs; consequently, R-loops containing the nascent transcript are formed, which activate ATM in a feed-forward fashion to influence spliceosome dynamics and alternative splicing.

doi: 10.1038/nature14512

Letters

宇宙物理学:大規模な銀河団における自己相似的なエネルギー収支論

Self-similar energetics in large clusters of galaxies p.59

Massive galaxy clusters are filled with a hot, turbulent and magnetized intra-cluster medium, whose energy is derived from gravitational energy; the energy components of this medium are now shown to be ordered according to a permanent hierarchy, in which the ratio of thermal to turbulent to magnetic energy densities remains virtually unaltered over time.

doi: 10.1038/nature14552

惑星科学:陥没穴崩壊によって作られる活動的なピットから明らかになった67P彗星の大きな不均一性

Large heterogeneities in comet 67P as revealed by active pits from sinkhole collapse p.63

The size and spatial distribution of pits on comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, which are active and probably created by a sinkhole process, imply that large heterogeneities exist in the physical, structural or compositional properties of the first few hundred metres below the current cometary surface.

doi: 10.1038/nature14564

量子ドット:コロイド量子ドット分光計

A colloidal quantum dot spectrometer p.67

An efficient, cost effective microspectrometer that consists of a two-dimensional absorptive filter array of 195 different colloidal quantum dots is presented, and its performance demonstrated by measuring shifts in spectral peak positions as small as one nanometre.

doi: 10.1038/nature14576

気候科学:モデルによって検証された過去1000年間の北大西洋振動の再構築

A model-tested North Atlantic Oscillation reconstruction for the past millennium p.71

The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is an important source of climate variability in the Northern Hemisphere; here, a model-tested reconstruction of the NAO for the past millennium reveals that positive NAO phases were predominant during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, but not during the whole medieval period.

doi: 10.1038/nature14518

進化学:ハルキゲニアの頭部と初期脱皮動物の咽頭防護構造

Hallucigenia’s head and the pharyngeal armature of early ecdysozoans p.75

A re-analysis of the 508-million-year-old stem-group onychophoran Hallucigenia sparsa from the Burgess Shale shows that its anterior gut has structures that indicate evolutionary links with more disparate phyla such as nematodes and kinorhynchs; Hallucigenia now provides concrete evidence of structures that might have existed in the last common ancestor of the Ecdysozoa, previously a matter of conjecture.

doi: 10.1038/nature14573

進化学:性転換は遺伝的性決定から温度依存的性決定への迅速な移行の引き金となる

Sex reversal triggers the rapid transition from genetic to temperature-dependent sex p.79

The first report of reptile sex reversal in the wild and rapid transition between genetic and environmental sex determination in the Australian bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps)

doi: 10.1038/nature14574

神経科学:新規シナプス組織化分子の時空間的制御

Spatiotemporal control of a novel synaptic organizer molecule p.83

Neuronal synapses need to be formed at the right time and the right place during nervous system development; here, three gene-regulatory factors (the UNC-30, LIN-14 and UNC-55 DNA-binding proteins) are shown to operate in an intersectional manner to control the expression of a novel synaptic organizer molecule, OIG-1.

doi: 10.1038/nature14545

システム生物学:局所的な混み合いに対する細胞内因性の脂質構成の順応は細胞の社会的挙動を促進させる

Cell-intrinsic adaptation of lipid composition to local crowding drives social behaviour p.88

Little is known about how individual cells within a group of cells exposed to the same external signals can produce a specific individual response to their local microenvironment; a quantitative analysis of cell crowding reveals that single cells can autonomously sense local crowding though their ability to spread and activate focal adhesion kinase (FAK), which ultimately results in changes in cellular lipid composition.

doi: 10.1038/nature14429

がん:腫瘍増殖圧による腫瘍発生性βカテニン経路の機械刺激誘導

Mechanical induction of the tumorigenic β-catenin pathway by tumour growth pressure p.92

The tumour microenvironment may contribute to tumorigenesis owing to mechanical forces such as fibrotic stiffness or mechanical pressure caused by the expansion of hyper-proliferative cells. Here we explore the contribution of the mechanical pressure exerted by tumour growth onto non-tumorous adjacent epithelium. In the early stage of mouse colon tumour development in the Notch+Apc+/1638N mouse model, we observed mechanistic pressure stress in the non-tumorous epithelial cells caused by hyper-proliferative adjacent crypts overexpressing active Notch, which is associated with increased Ret and β-catenin signalling. We thus developed a method that allows the delivery of a defined mechanical pressure in vivo, by subcutaneously inserting a magnet close to the mouse colon. The implanted magnet generated a magnetic force on ultra-magnetic liposomes, stabilized in the mesenchymal cells of the connective tissue surrounding colonic crypts after intravenous injection. The magnetically induced pressure quantitatively mimicked the endogenous early tumour growth stress in the order of 1,200 Pa, without affecting tissue stiffness, as monitored by ultrasound strain imaging and shear wave elastography. The exertion of pressure mimicking that of tumour growth led to rapid Ret activation and downstream phosphorylation of β-catenin on Tyr654, imparing its interaction with the E-cadherin in adherens junctions, and which was followed by β-catenin nuclear translocation after 15 days. As a consequence, increased expression of β-catenin-target genes was observed at 1 month, together with crypt enlargement accompanying the formation of early tumorous aberrant crypt foci. Mechanical activation of the tumorigenic β-catenin pathway suggests unexplored modes of tumour propagation based on mechanical signalling pathways in healthy epithelial cells surrounding the tumour, which may contribute to tumour heterogeneity.

doi: 10.1038/nature14329

がん:MYCはリンパ腫発生の必須段階としてmRNA前駆体スプライシングの中核装置を調節する

MYC regulates the core pre-mRNA splicing machinery as an essential step in lymphomagenesis p.96

The critical effectors of MYC overexpression during lymphomagenesis in transgenic mice are defined.

doi: 10.1038/nature14351

化学生物学:ロンボイドプロテアーゼの細胞質内に伸びている領域は、基質の接近度の調整により酵素活性を直接調節している

Cytosolic extensions directly regulate a rhomboid protease by modulating substrate gating p.101

Calcium potently stimulates proteolysis by endogenous rhomboid-4, an intramembrane protease that contains a cytoplasmic calcium-binding EF-hand domain.

doi: 10.1038/nature14357

構造生物学:アクチン様ParMフィラメントの構造から明らかになった、プラスミド分離紡錘体の構成

Structures of actin-like ParM filaments show architecture of plasmid-segregating spindles p.106

Structures of actin-like ParM filaments at near-atomic resolution and their arrangements into doublets reveal how subunits and filaments come together to segregate low-copy-number plasmid R1 in Escherichia coli, producing the simplest known mitotic machinery.

doi: 10.1038/nature14356

構造生物学:ヒトのホスホフルクトキナーゼ1の構造およびがん関連変異の原子レベルでの基盤

Structures of human phosphofructokinase-1 and atomic basis of cancer-associated mutations p.111

The first structures of the mammalian phosphofructokinase-1 tetramer are reported, for the human platelet isoform, in complex with ATP–Mg2+ and ADP.

doi: 10.1038/nature14405

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