Volume 523 Number 7559



The HIV epidemic can be stopped p.127

Mounting evidence that rapid treatment with antiretroviral drugs dramatically reduces HIV transmission must be acted on fast if a target date for curbing the epidemic is to be met.

doi: 10.1038/523127a


A numbers game p.127

Institutions must be plain about research metrics if academics are to engage with them.

doi: 10.1038/523127b


Cloud cover p.128

Opposition to storing vast scientific data sets on cloud-computing platforms is weakening.

doi: 10.1038/523128a



Night-time storm chasers stalk their prey on US Plains p.135

Violent nocturnal thunderstorms are hard to explain and even harder to forecast.

doi: 10.1038/523135a


European labs set sights on continent-wide computing cloud p.136

Giant public–private computing network would fulfil the European Commission’s vision of an open-research platform.

doi: 10.1038/523136a


Plant denizens get the big-science treatment p.137

Researchers seek holistic view of botanic ecosystems.

doi: 10.1038/523137a


US vaccine researcher sentenced to prison for fraud p.138

The case of Dong-Pyou Han illustrates the uneven nature of penalties for scientific misconduct.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.17660


Pluto fly-by: a graphical guide to the historic mission p.140

New Horizons mission is set to speed past an ice world at the fringes of the Solar System.

doi: 10.1038/523140a

News Features


The 24/7 search for killer quakes p.142

米国地震情報センター(NEIC)のPaul Earleたちは、大地震が地球のどこで起ころうと、24時間体制で目を光らせている。

doi: 10.1038/523142a


How to beat HIV p.146


doi: 10.1038/523146a

News & Views


Biogeochemistry: Iron's voyage from the abyss p.160

熱水噴出孔からの鉄を大量に含む噴出水は、大洋全体に4000 km以上にわたって広がっていくことが分かった。この知見は海生藻類の生産性に関係があり、従って気候にも関わってくると考えられる。

doi: 10.1038/523160a


Cancer: Diagnosis by extracellular vesicles p.161


doi: 10.1038/nature14626


Biodiversity: Hidden impacts of logging p.163


doi: 10.1038/523163a


Astrophysics: A twist in the tale of γ-ray bursts p.164


doi: 10.1038/523164b


Protistology: How to build a microbial eye p.166


doi: 10.1038/nature14630


Myeloid disease: Another action of a thalidomide derivative p.167


doi: 10.1038/nature14628



Feedback in low-mass galaxies in the early Universe p.169

Feedback in the form of galactic-scale outflows of gas from star-forming, low-mass galaxies allowed ionizing radiation to escape from galaxies when the Universe was about 500 million years old, changing the hydrogen between galaxies from neutral to ionized.

doi: 10.1038/nature14454



Glypican-1 identifies cancer exosomes and detects early pancreatic cancer p.177

Glypican-1 identifies cancer exosomes and serves as a biomarker for detection of early pancreatic cancer in patients and mouse models of the disease; the findings may enable early and non-invasive identification, and prevention of malignant cancer.

doi: 10.1038/nature14581

がん:レナリドマイドはdel(5q) MDSにおいてCK1αのユビキチン化と分解を引き起こす

Lenalidomide induces ubiquitination and degradation of CK1α in del(5q) MDS p.183

Lenalidomide, a derivative of thalidomide, is an effective drug for myelodysplastic syndrome; lenalidomide binds the CRL4CRBN E3 ubiquitin ligase and promotes degradation of casein kinase 1a, on which the malignant cells rely for survival.

doi: 10.1038/nature14610



A very luminous magnetar-powered supernova associated with an ultra-long γ-ray burst p.189

A new class of ultra-long-duration (more than 10,000 seconds) γ-ray bursts has recently been suggested. They may originate in the explosion of stars with much larger radii than those producing normal long-duration γ-ray bursts or in the tidal disruption of a star. No clear supernova has yet been associated with an ultra-long-duration γ-ray burst. Here we report that a supernova (SN 2011kl) was associated with the ultra-long-duration γ-ray burst GRB 111209A, at a redshift z of 0.677. This supernova is more than three times more luminous than type Ic supernovae associated with long-duration γ-ray bursts, and its spectrum is distinctly different. The slope of the continuum resembles those of super-luminous supernovae, but extends further down into the rest-frame ultraviolet implying a low metal content. The light curve evolves much more rapidly than those of super-luminous supernovae. This combination of high luminosity and low metal-line opacity cannot be reconciled with typical type Ic supernovae, but can be reproduced by a model where extra energy is injected by a strongly magnetized neutron star (a magnetar), which has also been proposed as the explanation for super-luminous supernovae.

doi: 10.1038/nature14579


Global-scale coherence modulation of radiation-belt electron loss from plasmaspheric hiss p.193

Simultaneous measurements of structured radiation-belt electron losses (in the form of bremsstrahlung X-rays) and plasmaspheric hiss (which causes the losses) reveal that the loss dynamics is coherent with the hiss dynamics on spatial scales comparable to the size of the plasmasphere.

doi: 10.1038/nature14515


Long-range energy transport in single supramolecular nanofibres at room temperature p.196

Coherent energy transport is key to the operation of the photosynthetic machinery and the successful implementation of molecular electronics; self-assembled supramolecular nanofibres based on carbonyl-bridged triarylamines are now shown to transport singlet excitons over micrometre-scale distances at room temperature.

doi: 10.1038/nature14570


Basin-scale transport of hydrothermal dissolved metals across the South Pacific Ocean p.200

Hydrothermal dissolved iron, manganese, and aluminium from the southern East Pacific Rise is transported several thousand kilometres westward across the South Pacific Ocean; global hydrothermal dissolved iron input is estimated to be more than four times what was previously thought and modelling suggests it must be physically or chemically stabilized in solution.

doi: 10.1038/nature14577


Eye-like ocelloids are built from different endosymbiotically acquired components p.204

Dinoflagellate eye-like ocelloids are built from pre-existing organelles of disparate origin, including a cornea-like layer made of mitochondria and a retinal body made of anastomosing plastids.

doi: 10.1038/nature14593


Unusual biology across a group comprising more than 15% of domain Bacteria p.208

More than 15% of the bacterial domain consists of a radiation of phyla about which very little is known; here, metagenomics is used to reconstruct 8 complete and 789 draft genomes from more than 35 of these phyla, revealing a shared evolutionary history, metabolic limitations, and unusual ribosome compositions.

doi: 10.1038/nature14486


Human body epigenome maps reveal noncanonical DNA methylation variation OPEN p.212

As part of the Epigenome Roadmap Project, genome-wide maps of DNA methylation and transcriptomes together with genomic DNA sequencing of 18 different primary human tissue types from 4 individuals are presented; analysis reveals widespread differential methylation of CG sites between tissues, and the presence of non-CG methylation in adult tissues.

doi: 10.1038/nature14465


Global circulation patterns of seasonal influenza viruses vary with antigenic drift p.217

The analysis of more than 9,000 haemagglutinin sequences of human seasonal influenza viruses over a 12-year time period shows that the global circulation patterns of A/H1N1 and B viruses are different from those of the well characterised A/H3N2 viruses; in particular the A/H1N1 and B viruses are shown to persist locally across several seasons and do not display the same degree of global movement as the H3N2 viruses.

doi: 10.1038/nature14460


Th17 cells transdifferentiate into regulatory T cells during resolution of inflammation p.221

Analysis of a mouse model shows that during the course of an immune response, helper T cells undergo functional reprogramming to transdifferentiate into regulatory T cells; this T cell plasticity could possibly be exploited to develop better therapies for restoring immune tolerance in autoimmune diseases.

doi: 10.1038/nature14452


Hypoxia fate mapping identifies cycling cardiomyocytes in the adult heart p.226

Fate-mapping hypoxic cells in the mouse heart identifies a rare population of cycling cardiomyocytes, which show characteristics of neonatal cardiomyocytes, including smaller size and mononucleation, and contribute to new cardiomyocyte formation in the adult heart.

doi: 10.1038/nature14582


Melanoma-intrinsic β-catenin signalling prevents anti-tumour immunity p.231

Melanoma treatment is being revolutionized by the development of effective immunotherapeutic approaches. These strategies include blockade of immune-inhibitory receptors on activated T cells; for example, using monoclonal antibodies against CTLA-4, PD-1, and PD-L1 (refs 3, 4, 5). However, only a subset of patients responds to these treatments, and data suggest that therapeutic benefit is preferentially achieved in patients with a pre-existing T-cell response against their tumour, as evidenced by a baseline CD8+ T-cell infiltration within the tumour microenvironment. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie the presence or absence of a spontaneous anti-tumour T-cell response in subsets of cases, therefore, should enable the development of therapeutic solutions for patients lacking a T-cell infiltrate. Here we identify a melanoma-cell-intrinsic oncogenic pathway that contributes to a lack of T-cell infiltration in melanoma. Molecular analysis of human metastatic melanoma samples revealed a correlation between activation of the WNT/β-catenin signalling pathway and absence of a T-cell gene expression signature. Using autochthonous mouse melanoma models we identified the mechanism by which tumour-intrinsic active β-catenin signalling results in T-cell exclusion and resistance to anti-PD-L1/anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody therapy. Specific oncogenic signals, therefore, can mediate cancer immune evasion and resistance to immunotherapies, pointing to new candidate targets for immune potentiation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14404


Cyclic di-GMP acts as a cell cycle oscillator to drive chromosome replication p.236

In Caulobacter crescentus, oscillating levels of the second messenger cyclic-di-GMP drive the cell cycle through regulation of the essential cell cycle kinase CckA; as its levels increase during the G1–S transition, cyclic-di-GMP binds to CckA to inhibit kinase and stimulate phosphatase activity, thereby enabling replication initiation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14473


Condensin-driven remodelling of X chromosome topology during dosage compensation p.240

Genome-wide chromosome conformation capture analysis in C. elegans reveals that the dosage compensation complex, a condensin complex, remodels the X chromosomes of hermaphrodites into a sex-specific topology distinct from autosomes while regulating gene expression chromosome-wide.

doi: 10.1038/nature14450

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