Volume 523 Number 7558



Gene politics p.5

US lawmakers are asserting their place in the human genetic-modification debate.

doi: 10.1038/523005b


Success in failure p.5

A failed crop trial of genetically modified wheat stil provides crucial lessons for those battling to provide the planet's growing population with a sustainable food supply.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.17855


Light detective p.6

Smartphone camera set to come to the aid of sleuths, scientists and wine lovers.

doi: 10.1038/523006a



Super-muscly pigs created by small genetic tweak p.13

Researchers hope the genetically engineered animals will speed past regulators.

doi: 10.1038/523013a


How an Oregon cancer institute raised a billion dollars p.14

Gains from two-year fund-raising frenzy will aid the early detection of tumours.

doi: 10.1038/523014a


Plant collections left in the cold by cuts p.16

North America’s herbaria wilt under pressure for space and cash.

doi: 10.1038/523016a


Researchers pin down risks of low-dose radiation p.17

Large study of nuclear workers shows that even tiny doses slightly boost risk of leukaemia.

doi: 10.1038/523017a


Europe braces for more climate litigation p.18

Dutch order to cut emissions opens door for citizens' lawsuits elsewhere.

doi: 10.1038/523018a

News Features


The hunt for the world’s missing carbon p.20


doi: 10.1038/523020a


Machine ethics: The robot’s dilemma p.24


doi: 10.1038/523024a

News & Views


Palaeontology: Hallucigenia's head p.38

カンブリア紀に生息していた葉足動物であるハルキゲニアの一種Hallucigenia sparsaの化石で、咽頭歯と放射状の口器様構造が見つかったことは、脱皮動物の間の進化上のつながりをさかのぼり、祖先の解明を進めるのに役立つ。

doi: 10.1038/nature14627


Nanotechnology: Colourful particles for spectrometry p.39


doi: 10.1038/523039a


Public health: The case for pay to quit p.40


doi: 10.1038/523040a


Planetary science: Sink holes and dust jets on comet 67P p.42


doi: 10.1038/523042a


Evolution: Reptile sex determination goes wild p.43


doi: 10.1038/523043a


Neurobiology: Inversion in the worm p.44


doi: 10.1038/523044a


構造生物学:スプライソソームのU4/U6.U5 tri-snRNPの構造

The architecture of the spliceosomal U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP p.47

This study determines the structure of the spliceosomal tri-snRNP complex (containing three small nuclear RNAs and more than 30 proteins) by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy; the resolution is sufficient to discern the organization of RNA and protein components involved in spliceosome activation, exon alignment and catalysis.

doi: 10.1038/nature14548


The core spliceosome as target and effector of non-canonical ATM signalling p.53

Transcription-blocking DNA lesions result in chromatin displacement of core spliceosomes containing U2 and U5 snRNPs; consequently, R-loops containing the nascent transcript are formed, which activate ATM in a feed-forward fashion to influence spliceosome dynamics and alternative splicing.

doi: 10.1038/nature14512



Self-similar energetics in large clusters of galaxies p.59

Massive galaxy clusters are filled with a hot, turbulent and magnetized intra-cluster medium, whose energy is derived from gravitational energy; the energy components of this medium are now shown to be ordered according to a permanent hierarchy, in which the ratio of thermal to turbulent to magnetic energy densities remains virtually unaltered over time.

doi: 10.1038/nature14552


Large heterogeneities in comet 67P as revealed by active pits from sinkhole collapse p.63

The size and spatial distribution of pits on comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, which are active and probably created by a sinkhole process, imply that large heterogeneities exist in the physical, structural or compositional properties of the first few hundred metres below the current cometary surface.

doi: 10.1038/nature14564


A colloidal quantum dot spectrometer p.67

An efficient, cost effective microspectrometer that consists of a two-dimensional absorptive filter array of 195 different colloidal quantum dots is presented, and its performance demonstrated by measuring shifts in spectral peak positions as small as one nanometre.

doi: 10.1038/nature14576


A model-tested North Atlantic Oscillation reconstruction for the past millennium p.71

The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is an important source of climate variability in the Northern Hemisphere; here, a model-tested reconstruction of the NAO for the past millennium reveals that positive NAO phases were predominant during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, but not during the whole medieval period.

doi: 10.1038/nature14518


Hallucigenia’s head and the pharyngeal armature of early ecdysozoans p.75

A re-analysis of the 508-million-year-old stem-group onychophoran Hallucigenia sparsa from the Burgess Shale shows that its anterior gut has structures that indicate evolutionary links with more disparate phyla such as nematodes and kinorhynchs; Hallucigenia now provides concrete evidence of structures that might have existed in the last common ancestor of the Ecdysozoa, previously a matter of conjecture.

doi: 10.1038/nature14573


Sex reversal triggers the rapid transition from genetic to temperature-dependent sex p.79

The first report of reptile sex reversal in the wild and rapid transition between genetic and environmental sex determination in the Australian bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps)

doi: 10.1038/nature14574


Spatiotemporal control of a novel synaptic organizer molecule p.83

Neuronal synapses need to be formed at the right time and the right place during nervous system development; here, three gene-regulatory factors (the UNC-30, LIN-14 and UNC-55 DNA-binding proteins) are shown to operate in an intersectional manner to control the expression of a novel synaptic organizer molecule, OIG-1.

doi: 10.1038/nature14545


Cell-intrinsic adaptation of lipid composition to local crowding drives social behaviour p.88

Little is known about how individual cells within a group of cells exposed to the same external signals can produce a specific individual response to their local microenvironment; a quantitative analysis of cell crowding reveals that single cells can autonomously sense local crowding though their ability to spread and activate focal adhesion kinase (FAK), which ultimately results in changes in cellular lipid composition.

doi: 10.1038/nature14429


Mechanical induction of the tumorigenic β-catenin pathway by tumour growth pressure p.92

Magnetically induced mechanical strain mimicking the pressure exerted by a growing tumour in the mouse colon is shown to activate the tumorigenic β-catenin pathway in healthy epithelia, suggesting an alternative pathway, mechanotransductive in nature, in the propagation of tumorigenesis and growth from tumour to healthy tissue.

doi: 10.1038/nature14329


MYC regulates the core pre-mRNA splicing machinery as an essential step in lymphomagenesis p.96

The critical effectors of MYC overexpression during lymphomagenesis in transgenic mice are defined.

doi: 10.1038/nature14351


Cytosolic extensions directly regulate a rhomboid protease by modulating substrate gating p.101

Calcium potently stimulates proteolysis by endogenous rhomboid-4, an intramembrane protease that contains a cytoplasmic calcium-binding EF-hand domain.

doi: 10.1038/nature14357


Structures of actin-like ParM filaments show architecture of plasmid-segregating spindles p.106

Structures of actin-like ParM filaments at near-atomic resolution and their arrangements into doublets reveal how subunits and filaments come together to segregate low-copy-number plasmid R1 in Escherichia coli, producing the simplest known mitotic machinery.

doi: 10.1038/nature14356


Structures of human phosphofructokinase-1 and atomic basis of cancer-associated mutations p.111

The first structures of the mammalian phosphofructokinase-1 tetramer are reported, for the human platelet isoform, in complex with ATP–Mg2+ and ADP.

doi: 10.1038/nature14405

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