目次

Editorials

米国トランプ大統領が、政策を「緩和」したからといって、過激さを見失ってはならない。

Demand decisions based on evidence, not ideology p.5

Psychology can moderate our response to unsavoury actions such as the US ban on immigrants, but we should not let our appetite for dissent diminish.

doi: 10.1038/542005a

民間が運用する地球観測衛星には期待できるが、観測データへのアクセスを制限すべきではない。

Private weather data should not replace basic research p.5

Earth-monitoring research missions should go on, despite commercial ventures

doi: 10.1038/542005b

政策立案者は、世界保健機関(WHO)の今後の方針に関して現実的な視点を持つことも必要だ。

The time is ripe to reform the World Health Organization p.6

As the public-health agency chooses a new leader, the media and politicians must be more realistic about what it can do.

doi: 10.1038/542006a

News

米国トランプ政権の移民政策が、科学界にも衝撃を。

Meet the scientists affected by Trump’s immigration ban p.13

Order barring citizens of seven countries from entering the United States has left many confused and afraid.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21389

遺伝子ドライブによる害虫対策の実地での効果は、進化によって弱められる可能性が。

Gene drives thwarted by emergence of resistant organisms p.15

Until this obstacle is overcome, the technology is unlikely to succeed in the wild.

doi: 10.1038/542015a

人工知能(AI)が合成した画像を用いて、画像認識プログラムに学習させる研究が。

Astronomers explore uses for AI-generated images p.16

Neural networks produce pictures to train image-recognition programs and scientific software.

doi: 10.1038/542016a

金属水素の作製に成功したという主張に対し、疑問の声も。

Physicists doubt bold report of metallic hydrogen p.17

Many researchers are sceptical of a paper claiming to have compressed hydrogen to a metallic state.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21379

地球観測衛星の商業化が着々と前進へ。

Race to provide commercial weather data heats up p.18

A movement to privatize Earth-observing satellites is gaining ground.

doi: 10.1038/542018a

ビル&メリンダ・ゲイツ財団が、米国ワシントン大学保健指標・評価研究所(IHME)に再び巨額な助成を。

World’s foremost institute on death and disease metrics gets massive cash boost p.19

Centre evaluates how public-health spending can improve mortality rates and disease burden, but many countries still do not record how people die.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21373

News Features

宇宙探査:恒星への最初の旅

What it would take to reach the stars p.20

地球から最も近い太陽系外惑星プロキシマ・ケンタウリbを探査するという大胆な計画が形になりつつある。

doi: 10.1038/542020a

技術:熱を使って冷却する

How heat from the Sun can keep us all cool p.23

エアコンの需要が高まる中で、暑さの元凶である「太陽光」を使った冷却法の研究が行われている。

doi: 10.1038/542023a

News & Views

がん:腫瘍における二重の欠失

Cancer: Double trouble for tumours p.34

がん細胞が腫瘍抑制遺伝子を欠失している場合、近傍の遺伝子も欠失している。こうした近傍の遺伝子の1つに重要な代謝的役割があることが分かり、多くの腫瘍に適している可能性がある治療機会が明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature21117

撮像技術:ナノ粒子の原子の位置特定

Imaging techniques: Nanoparticle atoms pinpointed p.35

電子顕微鏡法と画像シミュレーションを組み合わせて、金属合金ナノ粒子内の原子の位置が決定され、粒子の構造と磁気特性の関連が明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/542035a

医療:がん診断の新たな扉

Medicine: The final frontier in cancer diagnosis p.36

今回、画像解析のみを用いて皮膚がんを分類するよう学習させたコンピューターが、皮膚がん専門医と同程度の正確さでがんを識別できた。これは、医療診断の未来にどれほどの影響をもたらすのだろうか。

doi: 10.1038/nature21492

生態学:コンゴ盆地で見つかった広大な泥炭地

Ecology: Vast peatlands found in the Congo Basin p.38

世界最大の可能性がある連続的な熱帯泥炭複合体が見つかった。これは、全球の炭素貯蔵や、アフリカ中部における土地管理と科学的投資に大きな影響を与える。

doi: 10.1038/542038b

構造生物学:かごから押し出される増殖因子

Structural biology: Growth factor rattled out of its cage p.40

増殖因子のTGF-β1はかご状タンパク質の中にあり、インテグリンタンパク質と結合することで力が加わり放出されると考えられている。今回、インテグリンのαVβ6と複合体を形成したTGF-β1の構造から、こうした放出過程が明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature21119

地球科学:台地に山を作る

Earth science: Making a mountain out of a plateau p.41

2015年に提案された仮説では、河川網の再編成によって山岳地帯の比較的平坦な地表が形成されたことが示唆された。今回新たな解析によってこの考えが反証され、地球科学における長年の課題に関する議論に再び火がついた。

doi: 10.1038/542041a

Articles

神経科学:IL-17は線虫の感覚応答における神経モジュレーターである

IL-17 is a neuromodulator of Caenorhabditis elegans sensory responses p.43

Interleukin-17 functions as a neuromodulator in the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, acting directly on RMG hub interneurons to alter their response properties and contribution to behaviour.

doi: 10.1038/nature20818

発生生物学:リンパ管新生における脂肪酸β酸化の役割

The role of fatty acid β-oxidation in lymphangiogenesis p.49

The lymphangiogenic factor PROX1 transcriptionally upregulates CPT1A, a rate-controlling enzyme in fatty acid β-oxidation, and this co-regulates lymphatic endothelial cell differentiation by epigenetic control of lymphatic gene expression, demonstrating a role for metabolism in developmental biology.

doi: 10.1038/nature21028

構造生物学:TGF-βの活性化では力が高分子構造と相互作用する

Force interacts with macromolecular structure in activation of TGF-β p.55

Integrin αVβ6 binds the transforming growth factor-β1 precursor (pro-TGF-β1) in an orientation that is biologically relevant for force-dependent release of TGF-β from its latent form.

doi: 10.1038/nature21035

構造生物学:真核生物の環状ヌクレオチド依存性チャネルの構造

Structure of a eukaryotic cyclic-nucleotide-gated channel p.60

The first high-resolution (3.5 Å) structure of a full-length cyclic-nucleotide-gated channel, revealing an unconventional, voltage-insensitive voltage-sensor domain and a unique coupling mechanism between cyclic-nucleotide-binding and pore-opening.

doi: 10.1038/nature20819

Letters

量子物理学:光格子時計におけるスピン–軌道結合フェルミオン

Spin–orbit-coupled fermions in an optical lattice clock p.66

Spin–orbit coupling is implemented in an optical lattice clock using a narrow optical transition in fermionic 87Sr atoms, thus mitigating the heating problems of previous experiments with alkali atoms and offering new prospects for future investigations.

doi: 10.1038/nature20811

物理学:透明媒体における超高速で非熱的な光磁気記録

Ultrafast nonthermal photo-magnetic recording in a transparent medium p.71

Ultrafast photo-magnetic recording in transparent films of the dielectric cobalt-substituted garnet has very low heat load and is much faster than existing alternatives.

doi: 10.1038/nature20807

画像化技術:単一原子レベルでの化学的秩序/無秩序と材料特性の解明

Deciphering chemical order/disorder and material properties at the single-atom level p.75

The three-dimensional coordinates of more than 23,000 atoms in an iron-platinum nanoparticle are determined with 22 picometre precision to correlate chemical order/disorder and crystal defects with magnetic properties.

doi: 10.1038/nature21042

化学:Z-選択的オレフィンメタセシス反応のためのモリブデンクロリド触媒

Molybdenum chloride catalysts for Z-selective olefin metathesis reactions p.80

Substitution of a ligand in molybdenum-based complexes enables typically inert hexafluorobutene to participate in Z-selective olefin cross-metathesis reactions.

doi: 10.1038/nature21043

地球科学:コンゴ盆地中央部の泥炭地複合体の年代、広さ、および炭素貯蔵

Age, extent and carbon storage of the central Congo Basin peatland complex p.86

Field measurements combined with remotely sensed data reveal the Cuvette Centrale in the central Congo Basin to contain the most extensive peatland complex in the tropics, increasing the best estimate of global tropical peatland carbon stocks by approximately one-third.

doi: 10.1038/nature21048

生態学:温帯域の樹木限界付近では、温度が生態系特性を全球規模で変化させる

Elevation alters ecosystem properties across temperate treelines globally p.91

Examination of the ecosystem properties of treeline ecotones in seven temperate regions of the world shows that the reduction in temperature with increasing elevation does not affect tree leaf nutrient concentrations, but does reduce ground-layer community-weighted plant nitrogen levels, leading to a strong stoichiometric convergence of ground-layer plant community nitrogen to phosphorus ratios across all regions.

doi: 10.1038/nature21027

神経科学:能動的恐怖反応と受動的恐怖反応の選択に関わる競合的抑制性回路

A competitive inhibitory circuit for selection of active and passive fear responses p.96

Competitive circuits in the amygdala of mice drive either freezing or flight behaviour in response to threat, and involve distinct neuronal subtypes.

doi: 10.1038/nature21047

比較ゲノミクス:四日熱マラリア原虫と卵形マラリア原虫のゲノムからマラリア寄生虫の進化についての手掛かりが得られる

Plasmodium malariae and P. ovale genomes provide insights into malaria parasite evolution OPEN p.101

Elucidation of the evolutionary history and interrelatedness of Plasmodium species that infect humans has been hampered by a lack of genetic information for three human-infective species: P. malariae and two P. ovale species (P. o. curtisi and P. o. wallikeri). These species are prevalent across most regions in which malaria is endemic and are often undetectable by light microscopy, rendering their study in human populations difficult. The exact evolutionary relationship of these species to the other human-infective species has been contested. Using a new reference genome for P. malariae and a manually curated draft P. o. curtisi genome, we are now able to accurately place these species within the Plasmodium phylogeny. Sequencing of a P. malariae relative that infects chimpanzees reveals similar signatures of selection in the P. malariae lineage to another Plasmodium lineage shown to be capable of colonization of both human and chimpanzee hosts. Molecular dating suggests that these host adaptations occurred over similar evolutionary timescales. In addition to the core genome that is conserved between species, differences in gene content can be linked to their specific biology. The genome suggests that P. malariae expresses a family of heterodimeric proteins on its surface that have structural similarities to a protein crucial for invasion of red blood cells. The data presented here provide insight into the evolution of the Plasmodium genus as a whole.

doi: 10.1038/nature21038

植物科学:精子特異的なホスホリパーゼであるMATRILINEALはトウモロコシの半数体誘導を引き起こす

MATRILINEAL, a sperm-specific phospholipase, triggers maize haploid induction p.105

A frame-shift mutation in MATRILINEAL, a pollen-specific phospholipase, triggers haploid induction in maize, which may be useful in developing improved haploid induction systems for crop breeding.

doi: 10.1038/nature20827

免疫学:病的に増殖した末梢ヘルパーT細胞サブセットは関節リウマチにおいてB細胞の応答を促進する

Pathologically expanded peripheral T helper cell subset drives B cells in rheumatoid arthritis p.110

The authors identify in patients with rheumatoid arthritis a pathogenic subset of CD4+ T cells that augments B cell responses within inflamed tissues.

doi: 10.1038/nature20810

健康科学:深層ニューラルネットワークによる皮膚科専門医レベルの皮膚がん分類

Dermatologist-level classification of skin cancer with deep neural networks p.115

An artificial intelligence trained to classify images of skin lesions as benign lesions or malignant skin cancers achieves the accuracy of board-certified dermatologists.

doi: 10.1038/nature21056

がん:リンゴ酸酵素2のゲノム欠失は膵臓がんに付随的致死性をもたらす

Genomic deletion of malic enzyme 2 confers collateral lethality in pancreatic cancer p.119

Depletion of malic enzyme 3 in pancreatic cancer cells that have a deletion of the gene for malic enzyme 2 selectively kills the cells, suggesting that the enzyme might represent a therapeutic target for this subset of cancers.

doi: 10.1038/nature21052

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