Volume 560 Number 7718



The spectre of smallpox lingers p.281

The last known person to die from the virus was infected 40 years ago. Yet the disease remains a worry, and precautions should continue.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05936-x



War zone complicates roll-out of Ebola vaccine in latest outbreak p.289

Health workers must figure out how to dispense vaccines amid fighting in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05921-4

Web of ScienceやScopusが、Unpaywallのデータを統合へ。

How Unpaywall is transforming open science p.290

Unpaywall has become indispensable to many academics, and tie-ins with established scientific search engines could broaden its reach.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05968-3


Gene-silencing technology gets first drug approval after 20-year wait p.291

The US Food and Drug Administration’s decision breathes new life into RNA-interference therapies.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05867-7


Industry trumps peer-reviewed science at US environment agency p.292

Critics outraged over changes to chemical-safety review guidelines.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05946-9


LHC physicists embrace brute-force approach to particle hunt p.293

The world’s most powerful particle collider has yet to turn up new physics — now some physicists are turning to a different strategy.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05972-7

News Features


How digital drug users could help to halt the US opioid epidemic p.295


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05939-8

News & Views


Organic chemistry: Enzymes team up with light-activated catalysts p.310


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05933-0


Vision: Birds perceive colours in categories p.311


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05811-9


Genomics: Profile of an unknown airway cell p.313


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05813-7


Organic chemistry: Reaction combination opens up 3D molecular diversity for drug discovery p.314


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05874-8


Particle physics: Special relativity validated by neutrinos p.316


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05931-2


Genome editing: Yeast chromosome numbers minimized using genome editing p.317


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05309-4



A revised airway epithelial hierarchy includes CFTR-expressing ionocytes p.319

Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis identifies cell types and lineages in airway epithelium, including the pulmonary ionocyte, a new cell type predominantly expressing the cystic fibrosis gene CFTR.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0393-7


Genetic and transcriptional evolution alters cancer cell line drug response p.325

The extent, origins and consequences of genetic variation within human cell lines are studied, providing a framework for researchers to measure such variation in efforts to support maximally reproducible cancer research.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0409-3


Creating a functional single-chromosome yeast p.331

Successive fusion of yeast chromosomes is used to produce a single-chromosome strain that is viable, albeit with slightly reduced fitness.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0382-x



Ferroelectric switching of a two-dimensional metal p.336

Two- and three-layer WTe2 exhibits spontaneous out-of-plane electric polarization that can be switched electrically at room temperature and is sufficiently robust for use in applications with other two-dimensional materials.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0336-3


Room-temperature electrical control of exciton flux in a van der Waals heterostructure p.340

Heterobilayer excitonic devices consisting of two different van der Waals materials, in which excitons are shared between the layers, exhibit electrically controlled switching actions at room temperature.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0357-y


Cryo-STEM mapping of solid–liquid interfaces and dendrites in lithium-metal batteries p.345

Direct observation of the anode–electrolyte interface in a lithium-metal battery, without removing the liquid electrolyte, reveals two types of dendrites, one of which may contribute disproportionately to capacity fade.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0397-3


Building C(sp3)-rich complexity by combining cycloaddition and C–C cross-coupling reactions p.350

Combining cycloaddition and carbon–carbon cross-coupling offers a way of simplifying the enantioselective preparation of chemical building blocks, natural products and medicines such as the antipsychotic asenapine.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0391-9


Cooperative asymmetric reactions combining photocatalysis and enzymatic catalysis p.355

A cooperative chemoenzymatic reaction combines photocatalytic alkene isomerization with enzymatic reduction to generate enantioenriched products in a stereoconvergent manner.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0413-7


Marine heatwaves under global warming p.360

Satellite observations and Earth system model simulations reveal that marine heatwaves have increased in recent decades and will increase further in terms of frequency, intensity, duration and spatial extent.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0383-9


Categorical perception of colour signals in a songbird p.365

Female zebra finches exhibited categorical perception of colour signals, as they categorized colour stimuli that varied along a continuous scale and showed increased discrimination between colours from opposite sides of the category boundary compared to equally different colours from within a category.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0377-7


Ecosystem warming extends vegetation activity but heightens vulnerability to cold temperatures p.368

Experimental whole-ecosystem warming treatments of a PiceaSphagnum peat bog reveal the likely phenological consequences of future temperature increases that exceed those of historical climate regimes.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0399-1


Accumulation of 8,9-unsaturated sterols drives oligodendrocyte formation and remyelination p.372

Many small molecules that stimulate oligodendrocyte formation act not through their canonical pathways but by inhibiting enzymes within the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway and thereby inducing the accumulation of 8,9-unsaturated sterols.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0360-3


A single-cell atlas of the airway epithelium reveals the CFTR-rich pulmonary ionocyte p.377

Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis is used to identify cell types in the tracheal epithelium, including previously unidentified ionocytes, which express high levels of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, CFTR.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0394-6


Exosomal PD-L1 contributes to immunosuppression and is associated with anti-PD-1 response p.382

Melanoma cells release programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) on the surface of circulating exosomes, suggesting a mechanism by which tumours could evade the immunesystem, and the potential application of exosomal PD-L1 to monitor patient response to checkpoint therapies.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0392-8


A multiprotein supercomplex controlling oncogenic signalling in lymphoma p.387

A pro-survival multiprotein signalling supercomplex consisting of the B-cell receptor, MyD88, TLR9 and mTOR is discovered that coordinates NF-κB activation in diffuse large B cell lymphoma, and provides mechanistic insight into the efficacy of drug combinations.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0290-0


Karyotype engineering by chromosome fusion leads to reproductive isolation in yeast p.392

Yeast chromosomes have been fused to produce viable strains with only two chromosomes that are reproductively isolated from the sixteen-chromosome wild type, but otherwise show high fitness in mitosis and meiosis.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0374-x


Gamete fusion triggers bipartite transcription factor assembly to block re-fertilization p.397

During sexual reproduction in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the rapid reconstitution of a bipartite Mi–Pi transcription complex after fusion blocks re-fertilization and induces meiosis, which ensures that the genome is maintained.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0407-5

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