Volume 553 Number 7687



Mystery funders of Arecibo radio telescope can celebrate an early success p.127

Dish saved from demolition gets best look yet at fast radio bursts.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00100-x


Protect the high seas from harm p.127

Discussions on a United Nations treaty to safeguard the open ocean offer an opportunity for scientists.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00102-9


Chemists go green to make better blue jeans p.128

An environmentally friendly way to dye denim could usher in a long-overdue new fashion.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00103-8



Scientific ballooning takes off p.135

Commercial providers open the market for new types of research flight.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00017-5


Silicon gains ground in quantum-computing race p.136

The manufacturing techniques behind classical computing are making their way into quantum devices.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00213-3


Germany vs Elsevier: universities win temporary journal access after refusing to pay fees p.137

Scientists in Germany can still read journals even though institutions there have not renewed their subscriptions.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00093-7


Tooth scratches reveal new clues to pterosaur diets p.138

Analysis puts paid to theory that most prehistoric flying reptiles ate fish.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00080-y


Climate scientists unlock secrets of ‘blue carbon’ p.139

Survey results could bolster efforts to monitor and protect marine ecosystems around the globe.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00018-4


Indonesian scientists embrace preprint server p.139

The site’s creators want to open up the country's science to a wider audience.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08838-6

News Features


Step aside CERN: There’s a cheaper way to break open physics p.142

ノースウェスタン大学(米国)のGerald Gabrielseたちは、低エネルギーの原子物理学的手法を活用し、新しい粒子の証拠を探している。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00106-5


How to see a memory p.146


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00107-4

News & Views


Planetary science: Cometary spin-down p.158


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00008-6


Neuroscience: Neuronal plasticity in nematode worms p.159


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-09031-5


Organometallic chemistry: Dogma-breaking catalysis p.160


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-09006-6


Biotechnology: An ode to gene edits that prevent deafness p.162


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08645-z


Materials science: Rule-breaking perovskites p.163


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00012-w



Neurexin controls plasticity of a mature, sexually dimorphic neuron p.165

The DVB neuron in Caenorhabditis elegans shows male-specific morphological plasticity that is controlled by neurexin and influences mating behaviour.

doi: 10.1038/nature25192


Alcohol and endogenous aldehydes damage chromosomes and mutate stem cells p.171

Endogenous and alcohol-derived acetaldehyde causes a specific pattern of DNA damage in haemopoietic stem cells; the effects are mitigated by detoxification, specific DNA repair mechanisms and a p53 response.

doi: 10.1038/nature25154


天文学:赤方偏移6.8の位置にある2つの銀河に観測される[C II]輝線ガスの回転

Rotation in [C ii]-emitting gas in two galaxies at a redshift of 6.8 p.178

The earliest galaxies are thought to have emerged during the first billion years of cosmic history, initiating the ionization of the neutral hydrogen that pervaded the Universe at this time. Studying this ‘epoch of reionization’ involves looking for the spectral signatures of ancient galaxies that are, owing to the expansion of the Universe, now very distant from Earth and therefore exhibit large redshifts. However, finding these spectral fingerprints is challenging. One spectral characteristic of ancient and distant galaxies is strong hydrogen-emission lines (known as Lyman-α lines), but the neutral intergalactic medium that was present early in the epoch of reionization scatters such Lyman-α photons. Another potential spectral identifier is the line at wavelength 157.4 micrometres of the singly ionized state of carbon (the [C ii] λ = 157.74 μm line), which signifies cooling gas and is expected to have been bright in the early Universe. However, so far Lyman-α-emitting galaxies from the epoch of reionization have demonstrated much fainter [C ii] luminosities than would be expected from local scaling relations, and searches for the [C ii] line in sources without Lyman-α emission but with photometric redshifts greater than 6 (corresponding to the first billion years of the Universe) have been unsuccessful. Here we identify [C ii] λ = 157.74 μm emission from two sources that we selected as high-redshift candidates on the basis of near-infrared photometry; we confirm that these sources are two galaxies at redshifts of z = 6.8540 ± 0.0003 and z = 6.8076 ± 0.0002. Notably, the luminosity of the [C ii] line from these galaxies is higher than that found previously in star-forming galaxies with redshifts greater than 6.5. The luminous and extended [C ii] lines reveal clear velocity gradients that, if interpreted as rotation, would indicate that these galaxies have similar dynamic properties to the turbulent yet rotation-dominated disks that have been observed in Hα-emitting galaxies two billion years later, at ‘cosmic noon’.

doi: 10.1038/nature24631

宇宙物理学:高速電波バースト源FRB 121102に伴う極端な磁気イオン環境

An extreme magneto-ionic environment associated with the fast radio burst source FRB 121102 p.182

Polarimetric observations of the repeating fast radio burst source FRB 121102 suggest that the bursts may originate from a neutron star in the extreme magneto-ionic environment of an accreting massive black hole or supernova remnant.

doi: 10.1038/nature25149


A rapid decrease in the rotation rate of comet 41P/Tuttle–Giacobini–Kresák p.186

The rotation rate of comet 41P/Tuttle–Giacobini–Kresák decreased rapidly between March and May 2017, owing to gas emission from the comet aligning to produce an anomalously strong torque.

doi: 10.1038/nature25150


Bright triplet excitons in caesium lead halide perovskites p.189

The lowest-energy exciton state in caesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals is shown to be a bright triplet state, contrary to expectations that lowest-energy excitons should always be dark.

doi: 10.1038/nature25147


Fire frequency drives decadal changes in soil carbon and nitrogen and ecosystem productivity p.194

A meta-analysis and field data show that frequent fires in savannas and broadleaf forests decrease soil carbon and nitrogen over many decades; modelling shows that nitrogen loss drives carbon loss by reducing net primary productivity.

doi: 10.1038/nature24668


Successful conservation of global waterbird populations depends on effective governance p.199

Statistical modelling of global survey datasets of waterbirds as an indicator taxon for biodiversity changes in wetland ecosystems demonstrates that effective governance is the strongest predictor of species abundance increases and conservation benefits.

doi: 10.1038/nature25139


Terminal Pleistocene Alaskan genome reveals first founding population of Native Americans p.203

An Ancient Beringian population from Late Pleistocene Alaska and the ancestors of other Native American groups descended from a single founding population that diversified around twenty thousand years ago.

doi: 10.1038/nature25173


Precision editing of the gut microbiota ameliorates colitis p.208

Tungstate inhibits molybdenum-cofactor-dependent microbial respiratory pathways and shows potential as a selective treatment for microbial imbalances that occur during inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract.

doi: 10.1038/nature25172


Clonal analysis of lineage fate in native haematopoiesis p.212

Transposon tagging to clonally trace progenitors and stem cells provides evidence for a substantially revised roadmap for unperturbed haematopoiesis, and highlights unique properties of multipotent progenitors and haematopoietic stem cells in situ.

doi: 10.1038/nature25168

生物工学:ゲノム編集複合体のin vivo送達による常染色体優性遺伝性難聴の治療

Treatment of autosomal dominant hearing loss by in vivo delivery of genome editing agents p.217

CRISPR–Cas9 genome editing is used to correct a dominant-negative mutation in a mouse model of inherited deafness, resulting in improvements in cochlear function and hearing.

doi: 10.1038/nature25164


A metabolic function of FGFR3-TACC3 gene fusions in cancer p.222

Chromosomal translocations that generate in-frame oncogenic gene fusions are notable examples of the success of targeted cancer therapies1–3. We have previously described gene fusions of FGFR3- TACC3 (F3–T3) in 3% of human glioblastoma cases4. Subsequent studies have reported similar frequencies of F3–T3 in many other cancers, indicating that F3–T3 is a commonly occuring fusion across all tumour types5,6. F3–T3 fusions are potent oncogenes that confer sensitivity to FGFR inhibitors, but the downstream oncogenicsignalling pathways remain unknown2,4–6. Here we show that human tumours with F3–T3 fusions cluster within transcriptional subgroups that are characterized by the activation of mitochondrial functions. F3–T3 activates oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial biogenesis and induces sensitivity to inhibitors of oxidative metabolism. Phosphorylation of the phosphopeptide PIN4 is an intermediate step in the signalling pathway of the activation of mitochondrial metabolism. The F3–T3–PIN4 axis triggers the biogenesis of peroxisomes and the synthesis of new proteins. The anabolic response converges on the PGC1α coactivator through the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species, which enables mitochondrial respiration and tumour growth. These data illustrate the oncogenic circuit engaged by F3–T3 and show that F3–T3- positivetumours rely on mitochondrial respiration, highlighting this pathway as a therapeutic opportunity for the treatment of tumours with F3–T3 fusions. We also provide insights into the genetic alterations that initiate the chain of metabolic responses that drive mitochondrial metabolism in cancer.

doi: 10.1038/nature25171


Selective silencing of euchromatic L1s revealed by genome-wide screens for L1 regulators p.228

The retrotransposition of L1 is controlled by functionally diverse genes at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional levels, and its silencing can lead to the downregulation of host gene expression.

doi: 10.1038/nature25179


Opening of the human epithelial calcium channel TRPV6 p.233

The cryo-electron microscopy structure of the calcium channel TRPV6 in its open and closed states demonstrates a novel gating mechanism involving an alanine hinge.

doi: 10.1038/nature25182

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