Secret service p.501

Government labs should be subject to the same transparent oversight as academic facilities.

doi: 10.1038/523501b

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Tropical protection p.501

After years of talk, the palm-oil industry is looking into adopting environmental standards. Such rules must be strong, and need to be implemented.

doi: 10.1038/523501a

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Realistic risks p.502

The communication of risk in disease outbreaks is too often neglected; that must change.

doi: 10.1038/523502a

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Antibody drugs for Alzheimer’s show glimmers of promise p.509

After a string of failed trials, drugs that target protein build-up in the brain appear to slow disease progress.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18031

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NASA launches mission to Greenland p.510

Ship and planes will probe water–ice interface in fjords.

doi: 10.1038/523510a

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NASA spies Earth-sized exoplanet orbiting Sun-like star p.511

Potentially rocky world spotted by Kepler spacecraft offers glimpse at Earth's future.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18048

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Neanderthals had outsize effect on human biology p.512

From skin disorders to the immune system, sex with archaic species changed Homo sapiens.

doi: 10.1038/523512a

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Budget showdown leaves US science agencies in limbo p.513

Lawmakers face looming deadline to reach a deal — or risk government shutdown.

doi: 10.1038/523513a

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‘Half-pipe’ telescope will probe dark energy in teen Universe p.514

Canadian observatory aims to chart cosmic expansion rate between 10 billion and 8 billion years ago.

doi: 10.1038/523514a

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News Features


Hospital checklists are meant to save lives — so why do they often fail? p.516


doi: 10.1038/523516a

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The boom in mini stomachs, brains, breasts, kidneys and more p.520


doi: 10.1038/523520a

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News & Views


Sustainability: Bypassing the methane cycle p.534


doi: 10.1038/nature14633

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Inorganic chemistry: Movies of a growth mechanism p.535


doi: 10.1038/523535a

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Materials science: Composite for energy storage takes the heat p.536


doi: 10.1038/523536a

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Structural biology: Arresting developments in receptor signalling p.538


doi: 10.1038/nature14637

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Genetics of disease: Associations with depression p.539


doi: 10.1038/nature14635

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Ophthalmology: Cataracts dissolved p.540


doi: 10.1038/nature14629

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Strong-field physics: Harmonic radiation from crystals p.541


doi: 10.1038/523541a

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Timing and climate forcing of volcanic eruptions for the past 2,500 years p.543

Ice-core and tree-ring data show that large volcanic eruptions in the tropics and high latitudes were primary drivers of temperature variability in the Northern Hemisphere during the past 2,500 years, firmly implicating such eruptions as catalysts in major sixth-century pandemics, famines, and socioeconomic disruptions.

doi: 10.1038/nature14565

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Metabolic co-dependence gives rise to collective oscillations within biofilms p.550

The emergence of long-range metabolic co-dependence within a biofilm drives oscillations in growth that resolve a social conflict between cooperation and competition, thereby increasing community-level fitness against chemical attack.

doi: 10.1038/nature14660

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Biogenesis and structure of a type VI secretion membrane core complex p.555

The assembly, architecture and role of the bacterial type VI secretion system (T6SS) membrane core complex is presented.

doi: 10.1038/nature14667

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Crystal structure of rhodopsin bound to arrestin by femtosecond X-ray laser p.561

G protein-coupled receptors are a large family of signalling proteins that mediate cellular responses primarily via G proteins or arrestins, and they are targets of one-third of the current clinically used drugs; here, an active form of human rhodopsin bound to a pre-activated form of the mouse visual arrestin-1 is determined, revealing unique structural features that may constitute essential elements for arrestin-biased signalling.

doi: 10.1038/nature14656

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Magnetospherically driven optical and radio aurorae at the end of the stellar main sequence p.568

Radio and optical spectroscopic observations of a brown dwarf reveal auroral emissions powered by magnetospheric currents, showing that aurorae may be a signature of magnetospheres much larger than those observed in our Solar System.

doi: 10.1038/nature14619

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Real-time observation of interfering crystal electrons in high-harmonic generation p.572

The generation of high harmonics in the solid phase is studied with time-resolved measurements and a quantum many-body theory; the underlying motion of electrons is found to differ from that observed during high-harmonic generation in atomic gases, and involves quantum interference between electrons from multiple valence bands.

doi: 10.1038/nature14652

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Flexible high-temperature dielectric materials from polymer nanocomposites p.576

The addition of boron nitride nanosheets to polymer nanocomposites creates dielectric materials that operate at much higher working temperatures than previous polymer dielectrics, as well as being flexible, lightweight, photopatternable, scalable and robust, which now makes them more attractive for electronic device applications than ceramic dielectrics.

doi: 10.1038/nature14647

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Onset of Antarctic Circumpolar Current 30 million years ago as Tasmanian Gateway aligned with westerlies p.580

Neodymium isotopes from fossil fish teeth and tectonic reconstructions show that the deep Tasmanian Gateway opened up about 33 million years ago and that the Antarctic Circumpolar Current arose 30 million years ago, when the gateway probably moved into the latitudes of the strong westerly winds.

doi: 10.1038/nature14598

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A Middle Triassic stem-turtle and the evolution of the turtle body plan p.584

A new Middle Triassic stem-turtle from Germany sheds new light on the evolutionary transition of turtles and their long-contentious relationships to other amniotes.

doi: 10.1038/nature14472

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Sparse whole-genome sequencing identifies two loci for major depressive disorder p.588

Genomic analysis of 5,303 Chinese women with recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) enables the identification and replication of two genome-wide significant loci contributing to risk of MDD on chromosome 10: one near the SIRT1 gene; the other in an intron of the LHPP gene.

doi: 10.1038/nature14659

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Impermanence of dendritic spines in live adult CA1 hippocampus p.592

A new microendoscopic method reveals that hippocampal dendritic spines in the CA1 region undergo a complete turnover in less than six weeks in adult mice; this contrasts with the much greater stability of synapses in the neocortex and provides a physical basis for the fact that episodic memories are only retained by the mouse hippocampus for a few weeks.

doi: 10.1038/nature14467

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Parent stem cells can serve as niches for their daughter cells p.597

Little is known about how the relative proportions of stem cells and differentiated cells are regulated; basal stem/progenitor cells of the mouse airway epithelium self renew and differentiate into secretory and ciliated cells, and basal stem cells continuously send daughter cells a forward niche signal necessary for daughter cell fate maintenance.

doi: 10.1038/nature14553

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Expression of barley SUSIBA2 transcription factor yields high-starch low-methane rice p.602

Expression of a barley transcription factor SUSIBA2 in rice generates a plant with high-starch content and low-methane emissions by conferring a shift in the carbon flux that favours the allocation of photosynthates to aboveground biomass rather than to the roots.

doi: 10.1038/nature14673

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Lanosterol reverses protein aggregation in cataracts p.607

Exploring the genetic basis of congenital cataracts in two families identifies a molecule, lanosterol, which prevents intracellular protein aggregation of various cataract-causing mutant crystallins, and which can reduce cataract severity and increase lens transparency in vivo in dogs.

doi: 10.1038/nature14650

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T-cell exhaustion, co-stimulation and clinical outcome in autoimmunity and infection p.612

CD8 T-cell exhaustion, although a negative prognostic indicator during persistent infections, is shown to be associated with a good outcome in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.

doi: 10.1038/nature14468

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Mitochondrial reticulum for cellular energy distribution in muscle p.617

Mitochondria are shown to form a conductive pathway throughout the cell in the form of a proton motive force, and throughout this network, mitochondrial protein localization seems to be varied, allowing optimized generation and utilization of the mitochondrial membrane potential; the rapid energy distribution network, which depends on conduction rather than diffusion, could explain how the muscle can rapidly respond to energy demands.

doi: 10.1038/nature14614

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Molecular basis for 5-carboxycytosine recognition by RNA polymerase II elongation complex p.621

Structural and biochemical studies of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) assembled on DNA containing 5-carboxycytosine reveals that Pol II can sense the oxidized methylation state of DNA and transiently slows down during transcription.

doi: 10.1038/nature14482

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