目次

Editorials

政府の研究機関も、大学などの研究機関と同様に、透明性の高い監視の対象にすべきだ。

Secret service p.501

Government labs should be subject to the same transparent oversight as academic facilities.

doi: 10.1038/523501b

パーム油業界では、環境への影響を配慮した、持続可能な生産を実現するためのルール作りが行われているが、こうしたルールは実行できなければ意味はない。

Tropical protection p.501

After years of talk, the palm-oil industry is looking into adopting environmental standards. Such rules must be strong, and need to be implemented.

doi: 10.1038/523501a

感染症の流行に効果的に対応するためには、監督官庁も報道機関も社会も、正しいリスク伝達のあり方にもっと関心を払うべきだ。

Realistic risks p.502

The communication of risk in disease outbreaks is too often neglected; that must change.

doi: 10.1038/523502a

News

アルツハイマー病に、ようやく期待できる抗体薬が。

Antibody drugs for Alzheimer’s show glimmers of promise p.509

After a string of failed trials, drugs that target protein build-up in the brain appear to slow disease progress.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18031

NASAが、グリーンランドのフィヨルドを6年かけて空と海から探査へ。

NASA launches mission to Greenland p.510

Ship and planes will probe water–ice interface in fjords.

doi: 10.1038/523510a

ケプラー宇宙望遠鏡が、これまでで最も地球に似ている惑星を発見。

NASA spies Earth-sized exoplanet orbiting Sun-like star p.511

Potentially rocky world spotted by Kepler spacecraft offers glimpse at Earth's future.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18048

ネアンデルタール人の遺伝子が、疾患や免疫系など、現生人類の生物学的性質に非常に大きな影響を。

Neanderthals had outsize effect on human biology p.512

From skin disorders to the immune system, sex with archaic species changed Homo sapiens.

doi: 10.1038/523512a

米国の2016年度予算折衝の山場を控え、先行き不透明で動きのとれない科学機関も。

Budget showdown leaves US science agencies in limbo p.513

Lawmakers face looming deadline to reach a deal — or risk government shutdown.

doi: 10.1038/523513a

カナダがハーフパイプ形の電波望遠鏡アレイで、100~80億年前の宇宙の膨張速度の測定を。

‘Half-pipe’ telescope will probe dark energy in teen Universe p.514

Canadian observatory aims to chart cosmic expansion rate between 10 billion and 8 billion years ago.

doi: 10.1038/523514a

News Features

科学的根拠に基づく医療:チェックリストをめぐるトラブル

Hospital checklists are meant to save lives — so why do they often fail? p.516

医療の現場で手術前などに使われているチェックリストは、必ずしも救命率の向上に結び付いておらず、その問題点を検証する。

doi: 10.1038/523516a

幹細胞治療:オルガノイドの躍進

The boom in mini stomachs, brains, breasts, kidneys and more p.520

臓器オルガノイドが次々と作製され、ヒトの発生に関するさまざまな発見をもたらしている。

doi: 10.1038/523520a

News & Views

持続可能性:メタンサイクルを迂回する

Sustainability: Bypassing the methane cycle p.534

穀粒中のデンプン量が増えた遺伝子改変イネは、メタンを産生する土壌微生物が使える栄養素の産生量も少ない。この二重の利点は、緊急に必要とされる、世界的に持続可能な食糧生産の達成に役立ちそうだ。

doi: 10.1038/nature14633

無機化学:成長機構を動画で見る

Inorganic chemistry: Movies of a growth mechanism p.535

金属有機構造体と呼ばれる多孔質固体の結晶が形成され成長する様子が、顕微鏡法を使ってリアルタイムで調べられた。この知見はこの種の有用な化合物を作る方法の設計に役立つと考えられる。

doi: 10.1038/523535a

材料科学:放熱性の高いエネルギー蓄積用複合材料

Materials science: Composite for energy storage takes the heat p.536

ポリマーを使った、「常識外れ」の材料が見つかった。この材料は、誘電体コンデンサーと呼ばれるエネルギー蓄積デバイスに使うのに適した性質を複数備えていて、高温で動作可能である。

doi: 10.1038/523536a

構造生物学:受容体のシグナル伝達進行を止めるアレスチン

Structural biology: Arresting developments in receptor signalling p.538

Gタンパク質共役受容体の1つについて、タンパク質のアレスチンと複合体を作っている状態の結晶構造が初めて報告された。これによって、この種の受容体によって活性化されるシグナル伝達経路が脱感作を介して切り替えられる仕組みについての手掛かりが得られた。

doi: 10.1038/nature14637

病気の遺伝学:うつ病と関連する遺伝子

Genetics of disease: Associations with depression p.539

大うつ病性障害と関連している2つの遺伝子領域が、漢民族の女性集団で行われたゲノム規模の塩基配列解読によって初めて明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature14635

眼科学:白内障でのタンパク質凝集を解きほぐす

Ophthalmology: Cataracts dissolved p.540

遺伝性白内障を発症する2つの家系での研究から、この病気の原因となる変異が、水晶体に含まれる分子のラノステロールを合成する酵素の機能を障害するものであることが分かった。この知見は、白内障の非外科的予防と治療につながるかもしれない。

doi: 10.1038/nature14629

強い場の物理学:結晶からの高調波放射

Strong-field physics: Harmonic radiation from crystals p.541

結晶中の電子は、強い電場をかけるとエネルギーバンドの間をトンネル移動できる。電子の経路はほぼ瞬時に干渉を起こして、極めて短い光パルスが放射されることが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/523541a

Articles

地球化学:過去2500年間の火山噴火のタイミングと気候強制

Timing and climate forcing of volcanic eruptions for the past 2,500 years p.543

Ice-core and tree-ring data show that large volcanic eruptions in the tropics and high latitudes were primary drivers of temperature variability in the Northern Hemisphere during the past 2,500 years, firmly implicating such eruptions as catalysts in major sixth-century pandemics, famines, and socioeconomic disruptions.

doi: 10.1038/nature14565

微生物学:バイオフィルムでは代謝の共依存が集団レベルでの成長速度の振動を引き起こす

Metabolic co-dependence gives rise to collective oscillations within biofilms p.550

The emergence of long-range metabolic co-dependence within a biofilm drives oscillations in growth that resolve a social conflict between cooperation and competition, thereby increasing community-level fitness against chemical attack.

doi: 10.1038/nature14660

構造生物学:VI型分泌系膜コア複合体の生合成と構造

Biogenesis and structure of a type VI secretion membrane core complex p.555

The assembly, architecture and role of the bacterial type VI secretion system (T6SS) membrane core complex is presented.

doi: 10.1038/nature14667

構造生物学:アレスチンに結合したロドプシンのフェムト秒X線レーザーによって得られた結晶構造

Crystal structure of rhodopsin bound to arrestin by femtosecond X-ray laser p.561

G protein-coupled receptors are a large family of signalling proteins that mediate cellular responses primarily via G proteins or arrestins, and they are targets of one-third of the current clinically used drugs; here, an active form of human rhodopsin bound to a pre-activated form of the mouse visual arrestin-1 is determined, revealing unique structural features that may constitute essential elements for arrestin-biased signalling.

doi: 10.1038/nature14656

Letters

宇宙物理学:主系列の末端の星での磁気圏によって駆動される可視光および電波のオーロラ

Magnetospherically driven optical and radio aurorae at the end of the stellar main sequence p.568

Radio and optical spectroscopic observations of a brown dwarf reveal auroral emissions powered by magnetospheric currents, showing that aurorae may be a signature of magnetospheres much larger than those observed in our Solar System.

doi: 10.1038/nature14619

量子物理学:高次高調波生成における干渉する結晶電子のリアルタイム観測

Real-time observation of interfering crystal electrons in high-harmonic generation p.572

The generation of high harmonics in the solid phase is studied with time-resolved measurements and a quantum many-body theory; the underlying motion of electrons is found to differ from that observed during high-harmonic generation in atomic gases, and involves quantum interference between electrons from multiple valence bands.

doi: 10.1038/nature14652

高分子化学:ポリマーナノ複合材料で作られたフレキシブル高温誘電体材料

Flexible high-temperature dielectric materials from polymer nanocomposites p.576

The addition of boron nitride nanosheets to polymer nanocomposites creates dielectric materials that operate at much higher working temperatures than previous polymer dielectrics, as well as being flexible, lightweight, photopatternable, scalable and robust, which now makes them more attractive for electronic device applications than ceramic dielectrics.

doi: 10.1038/nature14647

古海洋学:偏西風の方向を向いたタスマニア海路として3000万年前に始まった南極環流

Onset of Antarctic Circumpolar Current 30 million years ago as Tasmanian Gateway aligned with westerlies p.580

Neodymium isotopes from fossil fish teeth and tectonic reconstructions show that the deep Tasmanian Gateway opened up about 33 million years ago and that the Antarctic Circumpolar Current arose 30 million years ago, when the gateway probably moved into the latitudes of the strong westerly winds.

doi: 10.1038/nature14598

古生物学:中期三畳紀のステム群カメ類の1種とカメのボディープランの進化

A Middle Triassic stem-turtle and the evolution of the turtle body plan p.584

A new Middle Triassic stem-turtle from Germany sheds new light on the evolutionary transition of turtles and their long-contentious relationships to other amniotes.

doi: 10.1038/nature14472

遺伝学:粗い全ゲノム塩基配列解読で明らかになった大うつ病性障害に関与する2つの遺伝子座

Sparse whole-genome sequencing identifies two loci for major depressive disorder p.588

Genomic analysis of 5,303 Chinese women with recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) enables the identification and replication of two genome-wide significant loci contributing to risk of MDD on chromosome 10: one near the SIRT1 gene; the other in an intron of the LHPP gene.

doi: 10.1038/nature14659

神経科学:生きた成体海馬CA1樹状突起棘の一過性

Impermanence of dendritic spines in live adult CA1 hippocampus p.592

A new microendoscopic method reveals that hippocampal dendritic spines in the CA1 region undergo a complete turnover in less than six weeks in adult mice; this contrasts with the much greater stability of synapses in the neocortex and provides a physical basis for the fact that episodic memories are only retained by the mouse hippocampus for a few weeks.

doi: 10.1038/nature14467

幹細胞:親幹細胞は娘細胞のニッチとして働き得る

Parent stem cells can serve as niches for their daughter cells p.597

Little is known about how the relative proportions of stem cells and differentiated cells are regulated; basal stem/progenitor cells of the mouse airway epithelium self renew and differentiate into secretory and ciliated cells, and basal stem cells continuously send daughter cells a forward niche signal necessary for daughter cell fate maintenance.

doi: 10.1038/nature14553

植物育種:オオムギのSUSIBA2転写因子を発現させると高デンプン・低メタン放出のイネができる

Expression of barley SUSIBA2 transcription factor yields high-starch low-methane rice p.602

Expression of a barley transcription factor SUSIBA2 in rice generates a plant with high-starch content and low-methane emissions by conferring a shift in the carbon flux that favours the allocation of photosynthates to aboveground biomass rather than to the roots.

doi: 10.1038/nature14673

視覚障害:ラノステロールは白内障でのタンパク質凝集を解消する

Lanosterol reverses protein aggregation in cataracts p.607

Exploring the genetic basis of congenital cataracts in two families identifies a molecule, lanosterol, which prevents intracellular protein aggregation of various cataract-causing mutant crystallins, and which can reduce cataract severity and increase lens transparency in vivo in dogs.

doi: 10.1038/nature14650

免疫学:自己免疫と感染におけるT細胞疲弊、共刺激および臨床転帰

T-cell exhaustion, co-stimulation and clinical outcome in autoimmunity and infection p.612

CD8 T-cell exhaustion, although a negative prognostic indicator during persistent infections, is shown to be associated with a good outcome in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.

doi: 10.1038/nature14468

生化学:筋肉で細胞のエネルギー分配に働くミトコンドリアの細網構造

Mitochondrial reticulum for cellular energy distribution in muscle p.617

Mitochondria are shown to form a conductive pathway throughout the cell in the form of a proton motive force, and throughout this network, mitochondrial protein localization seems to be varied, allowing optimized generation and utilization of the mitochondrial membrane potential; the rapid energy distribution network, which depends on conduction rather than diffusion, could explain how the muscle can rapidly respond to energy demands.

doi: 10.1038/nature14614

分子生物学:RNAポリメラーゼII伸長複合体による5-カルボキシシトシン認識の分子基盤

Molecular basis for 5-carboxycytosine recognition by RNA polymerase II elongation complex p.621

Structural and biochemical studies of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) assembled on DNA containing 5-carboxycytosine reveals that Pol II can sense the oxidized methylation state of DNA and transiently slows down during transcription.

doi: 10.1038/nature14482

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