目次

Editorials

科学者は農業の現場との連携を強化して、気候変動への対応を図るべきだ。

Prepare farms for the future p.381

Scientists must work closely with farmers to ensure that agriculture can stand up to the ravages of climate change.

doi: 10.1038/523381a

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Peter Medawarの36年前の著書『若き科学者へ』の内容は、現代の若手研究者たちにも十分役に立つ。

Timeless advice p.381

The best guidance on how to get ahead in science stands the test of time.

doi: 10.1038/523381b

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論文発表された実験の再現に苦労するときには、論文の著者にコンタクトをとり、積極的にアドバイスを求めるべきだ。

It’s good to talk p.382

Help for those struggling to reproduce results could be just a phone call away.

doi: 10.1038/523382a

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News

冥王星フライバイに成功したNASAの探査機ニュー・ホライズンズが、数々の鮮明な画像を。

Vibrant Pluto stuns scientists p.389

Mission seeking clues to early Solar System finds a world made anew.

doi: 10.1038/523389a

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米国の「プレシジョン・メディシン・イニシアチブ」では、研究に参加する民族のバランスが重要な課題に。

US tailored-medicine project aims for ethnic balance p.391

Massive study seeks to succeed where others failed, but faces tight deadline and questions about strategy.

doi: 10.1038/523391a

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地球外知的生命体探査に、ロシアの富豪から巨額な資金援助という幸運が。

Search for extraterrestrial intelligence gets a $100-million boost p.392

Russian billionaire Yuri Milner announces most comprehensive hunt for alien life.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18016

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HIVに母子感染した少女が、治療終了後12年間発症せず、寛解の最長記録に。

French teenager healthy 12 years after ceasing HIV treatment p.393

Eighteen-year-old joins small group of patients who can control the virus after discontinuing drugs.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.17951

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核開発をめぐる制裁の解除は、イランの科学には朗報に。

Iranian researchers welcome nuclear deal p.394

Lifted sanctions could boost international scientific collaboration.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.17984

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英国が方針を変更し、有人宇宙飛行に進出へ。

UK shifts its space-science strategy p.394

Research surrounding human spaceflight is booming.

doi: 10.1038/523394a

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News Features

適応研究:気候変動に負けない農場を求めて

Quest for climate-proof farms p.396

安定的な食料生産を脅かす気候変動に適応すべく、科学者と農家が連携して、干ばつや洪水に耐えられる農業を目指した長期プロジェクトを進めている。

doi: 10.1038/523396a

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分子生物学:RNAの精緻な構造

A cellular puzzle: The weird and wonderful architecture of RNA p.398

細胞に含まれる大量のRNA分子は、ねじれ、折りたたまれた複雑な構造をとっており、そうした構造の重要性が明らかになってきている。

doi: 10.1038/523398a

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News & Views

ナノテクノロジー:DNA構造体作製のためのパスファインダー

Nanotechnology: Pathfinder for DNA constructs p.412

DNAを材料としてナノスケールの構造体を作製する効率の良い方法が考案された。この方法では、コンピューターグラフィックスで使われる三次元表面の表現法がテンプレートとして使われていて、これがDNAナノテクノロジー応用の難しさを低減している。

doi: 10.1038/523412a

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寄生虫学:CryptosporidiumでのCRISPR

Parasitology: CRISPR for Cryptosporidium p.413

下痢症の病原体であるCryptosporidiumの研究は、遺伝学的修飾の方法や培養手段が見つからないことで進んでいなかった。この寄生虫でのゲノム編集と増殖の方法が報告され、こうした状況が変化しそうだ。

doi: 10.1038/nature14636

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遺伝学:多様性を促進させるフィードフォワードループ

Genetics: Feedforward loop for diversity p.414

相同染色体上の相対立する遺伝子座中の塩基配列に相違がある状態をヘテロ接合性というが、このレベルが高いゲノムでは、遺伝的変異が高率で生じることが、DNA塩基配列解析から示唆された。

doi: 10.1038/nature14634

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計算イメージング:3D顕微鏡のための機械学習

Computational imaging: Machine learning for 3D microscopy p.416

人工ニューラルネットワークと顕微鏡法を併用して生物細胞の三次元構造が視覚化された。この方法は、光の多重散乱のような画像化に伴う難問の解決につながる可能性がある。

doi: 10.1038/523416a

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有機化学:自然極性の反転

Organic chemistry: Natural polarity inverted p.417

極性変換は、ドイツ語では「umpolung」と呼ばれ、化学基に自然に生じた静電分極が反転することを指している。今回この現象を使って、含窒素分子の鏡像異性体が1つ作られた。

doi: 10.1038/523417a

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Articles

計算論的神経科学:内側嗅内皮質のスピード細胞

Speed cells in the medial entorhinal cortex p.419

On the basis of neural firing rates a specific class of neuron is identified in the medial entorhinal cortex that linearly encodes information on running speed in a context-independent manner and that is distinct from other functionally specific entorhinal neurons.

doi: 10.1038/nature14622

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構造生物学:ポリペプチドのプロセシングと分泌を行う輸送体の結晶構造

Crystal structures of a polypeptide processing and secretion transporter p.425

Gram-positive bacteria use peptidase-containing ATP-binding cassette transporters (PCATs) to export quorum-sensing and antimicrobial polypeptides; here, the X-ray crystal structures of PCAT1 from Clostridium thermocellum in the absence and presence of ATP are reported.

doi: 10.1038/nature14623

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中枢神経系疾患:神経変性の早期ドライバーであるシス型リン酸化タウに対する抗体は脳損傷やタウオパチーを阻止する

Antibody against early driver of neurodegeneration cis P-tau blocks brain injury and tauopathy p.431

Here the cis form of tau protein, which disrupts axonal microtubules and transport, spreads to other neurons, and leads to apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, is found to be produced by neurons immediately after traumatic brain injury (TBI); treating TBI mice with cis antibody blocks early production of cis tau, prevents tauopathy and spread and restores brain structural and functional outcomes, and may be further developed to treat TBI and to prevent neurodegeneration after injury.

doi: 10.1038/nature14658

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Letters

太陽物理学:太陽のコロナホールにおけるX線ジェットを駆動する小規模なフィラメントの爆発

Small-scale filament eruptions as the driver of X-ray jets in solar coronal holes p.437

A study of the formation of X-ray jets in solar coronal holes suggests that this process does not follow the popular ‘emerging-flux’ model, but instead results from a minifilament eruption akin to the larger-scale filament eruptions that drive larger solar flares and mass ejections.

doi: 10.1038/nature14556

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DNAナノテクノロジー:ナノスケールの多面体メッシュのDNAレンダリング

DNA rendering of polyhedral meshes at the nanoscale p.441

A general method of folding arbitrary polygonal digital meshes in DNA uses a routeing algorithm based on graph theory and a relaxation simulation that traces scaffold strands through the target structures to produce complex structures with an open conformation that are stable under biological assay conditions.

doi: 10.1038/nature14586

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有機化学:触媒を用いたイミンの不斉極性転換反応

Catalytic asymmetric umpolung reactions of imines p.445

Imines conventionally act as electrophiles towards carbon nucleophiles in the synthesis of amines, but the range of amines could be much extended if the carbon atom of the imine could be rendered electron-rich to allow it to act as a nucleophile toward a carbon electrophile; such a reaction can be promoted by new phase-transfer catalysts, leading to highly efficient asymmetric reactions of imines with enals.

doi: 10.1038/nature14617

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環境化学:鉄の地球化学的データの統計解析が示す後期原生代の限定的な酸素化

Statistical analysis of iron geochemical data suggests limited late Proterozoic oxygenation p.451

Iron-based proxies are used to track the redox chemistry of ancient oceans, but do not reveal the sharp oxygenation event in the late Proterozoic eon that is expected from previous evaluations of proxy records.

doi: 10.1038/nature14589

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集団遺伝学:ケネウィックマンの系統と類縁関係

The ancestry and affiliations of Kennewick Man OPEN p.455

Kennewick Man, a 8,500-year-old male human skeleton discovered in Washington state, USA, has been the subject of scientific and legal controversy; here a DNA analysis shows that Kennewick Man is closer to modern Native Americans than to any other extant population worldwide.

doi: 10.1038/nature14625

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集団遺伝学:さまざまなヒト集団での身長と認知機能に対するドミナンスの方向性

Directional dominance on stature and cognition in diverse human populations p.459

Homozygosity has long been associated with rare, often devastating, Mendelian disorders, and Darwin was one of the first to recognize that inbreeding reduces evolutionary fitness. However, the effect of the more distant parental relatedness that is common in modern human populations is less well understood. Genomic data now allow us to investigate the effects of homozygosity on traits of public health importance by observing contiguous homozygous segments (runs of homozygosity), which are inferred to be homozygous along their complete length. Given the low levels of genome-wide homozygosity prevalent in most human populations, information is required on very large numbers of people to provide sufficient power. Here we use runs of homozygosity to study 16 health-related quantitative traits in 354,224 individuals from 102 cohorts, and find statistically significant associations between summed runs of homozygosity and four complex traits: height, forced expiratory lung volume in one second, general cognitive ability and educational attainment (P < 1 × 10−300, 2.1 × 10−6, 2.5 × 10−10 and 1.8 × 10−10, respectively). In each case, increased homozygosity was associated with decreased trait value, equivalent to the offspring of first cousins being 1.2 cm shorter and having 10 months’ less education. Similar effect sizes were found across four continental groups and populations with different degrees of genome-wide homozygosity, providing evidence that homozygosity, rather than confounding, directly contributes to phenotypic variance. Contrary to earlier reports in substantially smaller samples, no evidence was seen of an influence of genome-wide homozygosity on blood pressure and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, or ten other cardio-metabolic traits. Since directional dominance is predicted for traits under directional evolutionary selection, this study provides evidence that increased stature and cognitive function have been positively selected in human evolution, whereas many important risk factors for late-onset complex diseases may not have been.

doi: 10.1038/nature14618

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遺伝学:親子の塩基配列解読からヘテロ接合では変異率が高くなることが明らかになった

Parent–progeny sequencing indicates higher mutation rates in heterozygotes p.463

Mutation rates vary within genomes; here, by calling mutation events directly using a parent–offspring sequencing strategy in Arabidopsis, replicated in the rice and honey bee genomes, mutation rates are found to be higher in heterozygotes and in proximity to crossover events.

doi: 10.1038/nature14649

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幹細胞:エポキシエイコサトリエン酸は胚性造血と成体での骨髄生着を増進する

Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids enhance embryonic haematopoiesis and adult marrow engraftment p.468

An in vivo imaging-based competitive transplant screen in zebrafish identifies epoxyeicosatrienoic acids as enhancers of haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) engraftment; these derivatives of arachidonic acid also promote zebrafish developmental HSPC specification through a PI(3)K-dependent AP-1 and runx1 transcriptional program and their pro-engraftment effect is conserved in mammals (indicating clinical potential).

doi: 10.1038/nature14569

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植物科学:酸化還元リズムは概日時計による免疫応答のゲーティングを増強する

Redox rhythm reinforces the circadian clock to gate immune response p.472

The master immune regulator NPR1 of Arabidopsis is a sensor of the plant’s redox state and regulates transcription of core circadian clock genes even in the absence of pathogen challenge.

doi: 10.1038/nature14449

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寄生虫学:下痢症を引き起こす病原体であるCryptosporidium parvumの遺伝学的改変

Genetic modification of the diarrhoeal pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum p.477

Cryptosporidium is an important cause of diarrhoeal disease in young children but until now it has been difficult to study; here, the parasite is genetically modified, paving the way for in-depth investigation and the development of effective treatments.

doi: 10.1038/nature14651

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生物工学:改変されたPAM特異性を持つ遺伝子工学的CRISPR-Cas9ヌクレアーゼ

Engineered CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases with altered PAM specificities p.481

CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases are widely used for genome editing, but the range of sequences that Cas9 can recognize is constrained by the need for a specific protospacer adjacent motif (PAM); here the commonly used Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) is modified to recognize alternative PAM sequences, enabling robust editing of endogenous gene sites in zebrafish and human cells not currently targetable by wild-type SpCas9.

doi: 10.1038/nature14592

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エピゲノミクス:単一細胞のクロマチンの接近可能性から、調節の変動の原理が明らかになる

Single-cell chromatin accessibility reveals principles of regulatory variation p.486

A single-cell method for probing genome-wide chromatin accessibility has been developed; the results provide insight into the relationship between cell-to-cell variation associated with specific trans-factors and cis-elements, as well insights into the relationship between chromatin accessibility and three-dimensional genome organization.

doi: 10.1038/nature14590

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