Volume 524 Number 7563


「遺伝子ドライブ(gene drive)」技術は環境に予想外の大きな影響を与える可能性があり、規制の議論を早急に始めるべきだ。

Driving test p.5

‘Gene drive’ techniques have the potential to alter whole populations. Regulators must catch up.

doi: 10.1038/524005b


Trial and triumph p.5

The success of an Ebola vaccine trial shows that clinical trials can be done under the difficult field conditions of an epidemic — if there is enough political and regulatory will.

doi: 10.1038/524005a



How Ebola-vaccine success could reshape clinical-trial policy p.13

Rapid result has implications for outbreak preparedness as well as West Africa’s epidemic.

doi: 10.1038/524013a


Trailblazing cancer–physics project accused of losing ambition p.14

Physical oncologists complain that US National Cancer Institute programme has lost sight of its mission.

doi: 10.1038/524014a


Caution urged over editing DNA in wildlife (intentionally or not) p.16

Rapid alteration of gene pools could fight disease – and harm ecosystems.

doi: 10.1038/524016a


Crumb of mouse brain reconstructed in full detail p.17

Digital map is step towards reconstructing a whole human brain.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18105


Physicists announce graphene’s latest cousin: stanene p.18

First observation of 2D tin can't confirm whether material can conduct electricity without heat loss.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18113


Crucial ocean-acidification models come up short p.18

Poorly designed studies leave future uncertain for sea dwellers.

doi: 10.1038/524018a

News Features


The slow-chemistry movement p.20


doi: 10.1038/524020a


How to beat the next Ebola p.22


doi: 10.1038/524022a

News & Views


Network science: Destruction perfected p.38


doi: 10.1038/524038a


Diabetes: A smart insulin patch p.39


doi: 10.1038/524039a


Molecular biology: Salvaging the genome p.40


doi: 10.1038/nature14638


Materials chemistry: A magnetic facelift for non-magnetic metals p.42


doi: 10.1038/524042a


Microbiology: Cyanate fuels the nitrogen cycle p.43


doi: 10.1038/nature14639


Climate science: Uncertain future for vegetation cover p.44


doi: 10.1038/524044a


Synthetic biology: Ribosomal ties that bind p.45


doi: 10.1038/nature14642



Comprehensive genomic profiles of small cell lung cancer p.47

Genomic sequencing of 110 human small cell lung cancers identifies genomic signatures including nearly ubiquitous bi-allelic inactivation of TP53 and RB1, a role for NOTCH family genes, and somatic rearrangements that create an oncogenic version of TP73.

doi: 10.1038/nature14664


RNA degradation paths in a 12-subunit nuclear exosome complex p.54

Solving the crystal structure of an exosome complex from yeast, bound to different RNA substrates, offers insights into how the exosome can be utilized for precise processing of some 3′ ends, such as that of the 5.8S rRNA, while other RNAs are degraded to completion.

doi: 10.1038/nature14865


HipBA–promoter structures reveal the basis of heritable multidrug tolerance p.59

The molecular basis of multidrug tolerance in chronic urinary tract infections is mediated by mutations in the N-subdomain-1 of the Escherichia coli HipA protein kinase.

doi: 10.1038/nature14662



Influence maximization in complex networks through optimal percolation p.65

A rigorous method to determine the most influential superspreaders in complex networks is presented—involving the mapping of the problem onto optimal percolation along with a scalable algorithm for big-data social networks—showing, unexpectedly, that many weak nodes can be powerful influencers.

doi: 10.1038/nature14604


Beating the Stoner criterion using molecular interfaces p.69

By harnessing the charge transfer that takes place at the interface between a metal and a layer of molecules, the usually non-magnetic materials copper and manganese are made magnetic at room temperature.

doi: 10.1038/nature14621


A zeolite family with expanding structural complexity and embedded isoreticular structures p.74

The complex structure of zeolite ZSM-25 is determined and a family of related structures are identified by using electron diffraction to uncover the structural ‘coding’ within them; this enabled the synthesis of two more-complex zeolites in the family.

doi: 10.1038/nature14575


Conversion of amides to esters by the nickel-catalysed activation of amide C–N bonds p.79

Although enzymes are able to cleave amide bonds in nature, it is difficult to selectively break the carbon–nitrogen bond of an amide using synthetic chemistry; now the activation and cleavage of these bonds using nickel catalysts is used to convert amides to esters.

doi: 10.1038/nature14615


Erosion of organic carbon in the Arctic as a geological carbon dioxide sink p.84

Measurements of sediments eroded by the Mackenzie River reveal the widespread export of permafrost-derived biospheric carbon that is several thousand years old, and demonstrate its burial in the Arctic Ocean, suggesting that high-latitude rivers can act as important carbon dioxide sinks.

doi: 10.1038/nature14653


Viral-genetic tracing of the input–output organization of a central noradrenaline circuit p.88

To better understand the relationship between input and output connectivity for neurons of interest in specific brain regions, a viral-genetic tracing approach is used to identify input based on a combination of neurons’ projection and cell type, as illustrated in a study of locus coeruleus noradrenaline neurons.

doi: 10.1038/nature14600


Genetic diversity and evolutionary dynamics of Ebola virus in Sierra Leone OPEN p.93

The genome sequences of 175 Ebola virus from five districts in Sierra Leone, collected during September–November 2014, show that the rate of virus evolution seems to be similar to that observed during previous outbreaks and that the genetic diversity of the virus has increased substantially, with the emergence of several novel lineages.

doi: 10.1038/nature14490


Temporal and spatial analysis of the 2014–2015 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa OPEN p.97

Analysis of 179 new Ebola virus sequences from patient samples collected in Guinea between March 2014 and January 2015 shows how different lineages evolved and spread in West Africa.

doi: 10.1038/nature14594


Distinct lineages of Ebola virus in Guinea during the 2014 West African epidemic OPEN p.102

An analysis of 85 Ebola virus sequences collected in Guinea from July to November 2014 provides insight into the evolution of the Ebola virus responsible for the epidemic in West Africa; the results show sustained transmission of three co-circulating lineages, each defined by multiple mutations.

doi: 10.1038/nature14612


Cyanate as an energy source for nitrifiers p.105

The ammonia-oxidizing archaeon Nitrososphaera gargensis can utilize cyanate as the only source of energy for growth due to the presence of a cyanase enzyme, and cyanase-encoding nitrite-oxidizing bacteria can work together with cyanase-negative ammonia oxidizers to collectively grow on cyanate via reciprocal feeding; cyanases are widespread in the environment according to metagenomic data sets, pointing to the potential importance of cyanate in the nitrogen cycle.

doi: 10.1038/nature14856


A hemi-fission intermediate links two mechanistically distinct stages of membrane fission p.109

The GTPase dynamin provides the driving force for fission of membrane-bound vesicular structures; here, it is shown that dynamin-driven membrane fission proceeds in two mechanistically distinct stages that are separated by a metastable hemi-fission intermediate that requires GTP hydrolysis for progression to full fission.

doi: 10.1038/nature14509


CDA directs metabolism of epigenetic nucleosides revealing a therapeutic window in cancer p.114

Enzymes of the nucleotide salvage pathway are shown to have substrate selectivity that protects newly synthesized DNA from random incorporation of epigenetically modified forms of cytosine; a subset of cancer cell lines that overexpress cytidine deaminase (CDA) are sensitive to treatment with 5hmdC or 5fdC (oxidized forms of 5-methyl-cytosine), which leads to DNA damage and cell death, indicating the chemotherapeutic potential of these nucleoside variants for CDA-overexpressing cancers.

doi: 10.1038/nature14948


Protein synthesis by ribosomes with tethered subunits p.119

A ribosome with tethered subunits, ‘Ribo-T’, is engineered by making a hybrid RNA composed of ribosomal RNA of large and small subunits; Ribo-T can support cell growth in vivo in the absence of wild-type ribosomes, and is used to establish a fully orthogonal ribosome–mRNA system.

doi: 10.1038/nature14862

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